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SCIENCE 2.0 Scientific research in the time of social media

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Slide presentate al convegno "Scienza aperta per una ricerca migliore" 5-7 marzo 2015.
A questo link è possibile trovare approfondimenti e il video di illustrazione delle slide http://www.tecnoetica.it/2015/04/16/scienza-aperta-opportunita-e-controversie-della-scienza-20-slide-video/

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SCIENCE 2.0 Scientific research in the time of social media

  1. 1. SCIENCE 2.0 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE TIME OF SOCIAL MEDIA Davide Bennato Università di Catania dbennato@unict.it @tecnoetica
  2. 2. SCIENCE IS A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM EXTERNAL INTERNAL
  3. 3. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO Pubblico Istituzioni, politici, legislatori Gruppi: scientifici, industriali, sociali PR Lobbying (Mass) MediaPR Attenzione Risonanza OpinionePubblica
  4. 4. SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION IN SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITIES
  5. 5. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  6. 6. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  7. 7. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  8. 8. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA
  9. 9. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  10. 10. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  11. 11. NEW SOCIAL ACTORS
  12. 12. HACKERS
  13. 13. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • The hacker ethics comes from the academic ethos • Etica dello scienziato (Merton 1942)  Comunitarismo  La conoscenza è patrimonio della comunità  Universalismo  La conoscenza scientifica non dipende da chi la enuncia  Disinteresse  La ricerca è amore del sapere e riconoscimento del pari  Originalità  La ricerca deve portare a risultati nuovi  Scetticismo organizzato  L’atteggiamento dello scienziato deve essere critico • Etica hacker (varie fonti)  Comunitarismo  L’informazione è patrimonio della collettività  Universalismo  L’informazione non dipende da chi l’ha rivelata  Disinteresse  L’informazione è libertà e lo scopo è essere riconosciuti dai pari  Originalità  Gli hack sempre più raffinati  Scetticismo organizzato  Dubitare sempre dell’autorità
  14. 14. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  15. 15. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • My Open Source Cure by Salvatore Iaconesi  The brain cancer diagnosis (glioma)  The creation of a crowdsourcing way to find a cure  Hacking, open access, community building http://opensourcecureforcancer.com/
  16. 16. CITIZEN SCIENCE
  17. 17. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  18. 18. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • Zooniverse: the citizen science archive  The origin: Galaxy Zoo (2007) https://www.zooniverse.org/
  19. 19. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO NASA Clickworkers http://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov/clickworkers/
  20. 20. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO http://www.google.com/recaptcha
  21. 21. CASE STUDIES
  22. 22. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • Antony Garrett Lisi  Two B.S. degrees with highest honors in physics and mathematics (UCLA), Ph.D. in physics (UCSB)  Independent non-academic researcher • An Exceptionally Simple Theory of everything  A theory attempts to describe all fundamental interactions observed in nature, as a possible theory of everything, unifying Albert Einstein's general relativity with the standard model of particle physics. The theory, called E8 Theory, also predicts the existence of many new particles.  The theory is incomplete and not widely accepted by the physics community  Discussions of Lisi's theory developed rapidly over most major physics blogs  His theory was posted on arXiv  No academic journal published the paper
  23. 23. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  24. 24. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • John Cannarella and Joshua A. Spechler  John Cannarella, PhD student (Princeton)  Joshua A. Spechler, PhD student (Princeton) • Epidemiological modeling of online social network dynamics  Facebook and MySpace follow the same growth and decline patterns of infectious disease outbreaks  The paper said Facebook reached its peak of popularity in 2012 and has already begun its decline  The paper uses Google search query data to determine popularity, and the SIR model to predict the death of Facebook  The research was posted on arXiv  A Facebook spokesman called the paper “nonsense.” Some experts also cast serious doubts
  25. 25. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO
  26. 26. CONCLUSION
  27. 27. Open access, open science, social media, peer review... The scientific community is able to manage the digital optimism?
  28. 28. THANK YOU
  29. 29. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • Davide Bennato insegna Sociologia dei processi culturali e comunicativi e Sociologia dei media digitali presso il Dipartimento di Scienze Umanistiche dell’Università di Catania. • È stato docente per diverse università italiane: Roma “La Sapienza”, LUISS, Università di Siena, Università del Molise. • È socio fondatore ed ex vicepresidente (2005-08) di STS-Italia Società Italiana di Studi su Scienza e Tecnologia e membro dl consiglio di Amministrazione di Bench s.r.l., spin-off dell’Università di Catania specializzato in ricerche sociologiche e studi di mercato, dove si occupa di social media analytics. • I suoi interessi di ricerca sono relativi all’analisi dei comportamenti collettivi nei social media, all’etica dei Big data, al rapporto fra tecnologia e valori, ai modelli di comunicazione scientifica e tecnologica in rete. • Su questi temi ha svolto attività di ricerca presso la Fondazione Luigi Einaudi di Roma (2004-2007). • È autore dei volumi Le metafore del computer. La costruzione sociale dell’informatica (Meltemi, 2002), Sociologia dei media digitali (Laterza, 2011), Il computer come macroscopio (Franco Angeli, 2015). • Fra i suoi contributi più recenti: (2010) voce La circolazione delle tecnologie, in XXI Secolo Enciclopedia Treccani, (2012) Etica dei social network. Valori e comportamenti sociali in Facebook, (2014)The Open Laboratory: Limits and Possibilities of Using Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube as a Research Data Source (con F.Giglietto e L. Rossi), (2014) La dataveglianza di massa. Conseguenze etiche e relazionali delle scelte tecnologiche di Facebook (in “Pubbliche Intimità” a cura di G.Greco), (2014) Etica dei Big data. Le conseguenze sociali della raccolta massiva di informazioni (in “Studi Culturali”) • È redattore del Dizionario di informatica, dell’ICT e dei media digitali dell’Enciclopedia Treccani (2013).
  30. 30. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • Davide Bennato  Sociologia dei media digitali, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 2011 • Milioni di persone si informano e interagiscono fra loro attraverso l’uso di internet. Ognuno a suo modo partecipa alla messa in rete di notizie, ma anche alla trasformazione di questi strumenti di comunicazione e di socializzazione. Blog, wiki, social network sono – soprattutto – strumenti di relazione sociale. Il web partecipativo costringe quindi a un profondo ripensamento dei concetti classici della sociologia della comunicazione. • Davide Bennato propone una analisi approfondita dei diversi strumenti e delle piattaforme note al grande pubblico, da Facebook a Youtube, ed esamina le conseguenze etiche e sociali dell’uso delle nuove tecnologie.  Sito  http://www.sociologiadeimediadigitali.it  Facebook  http://www.facebook.com/sociologiadei mediadigitali  Twitter  http://twitter.com/mediadigitali
  31. 31. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO • Davide Bennato  Il computer come macroscopio, FrancoAngeli, Milano, 2015 • L'esplosione degli strumenti per la gestione dei big data e la diffusione dei media digitali (Facebook, Twitter tra gli altri) si stanno traducendo in una sfida sempre più ardua alle nostre capacità di comprendere la contemporaneità. • Attraverso la metafora del macroscopio - il computer come strumento in grado di visualizzare processi estesi nel tempo e nello spazio - il libro mostra l'approccio che lega insieme le scienze sociali con le metodologie informatiche: la scienza sociale computazionale (computational social science). • Partendo dalla descrizione dei programmi di ricerca (dalla network science alle digital humanities), che hanno contribuito a integrare le scienze sociali con l'analisi computazionale, si arriva a impostare i problemi relativi alle conseguenze etiche • La sovrabbondanza di dati è davvero un aiuto alla ricerca? Fino a che punto è legittimo usare archivi digitali che contengono informazioni sulla vita delle persone? Quali sono i nuovi volti del controllo e della sorveglianza che queste tecnologie portano con sé? Sono solo alcune delle domande sollevate dallo scenario socio-tecnologico attuale e a cui è chiamata a rispondere una nuova generazione di ricercatori. • Sito  http://blog.francoangeli.it/neo/il-blog/
  32. 32. ROMA05/03/2015 DAVIDEBENNATO Socialmedia http://twitter.com/tecnoetica http://www.facebook.com/davide.bennato http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidebennato http://www.youtube.com/tecnoetica http://pinterest.com/davidebennato/ Skype davide.bennato Blog www.tecnoetica.it www.processiculturali.it www.sociologiadeimediadigitali.it

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