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Rubus fruticosus R.occidentalis R.rosifolius R.niveus
E.latifoliaElaeagnus umbellate E.angustifolia E.pungens
Myrica nagi ...
Constraint and prospects of
temperate fruit production in India
Introduction
• India produces all deciduous fruits including pome fruits (apple
and pear) and stone fruits (peach, plum, a...
Climate
1. Temperature
2. Light
3. Rain fall
4. Frost
5. Relative Humidity
6. Wind
Temperature
• Temperate deciduous trees respond to seasonal
changes. During autumn tree stop growing , their leaf
falls an...
Chilling Requirement of different fruit crops
Crop Chilling Hour
Apple 1000-1600
Pear 1200-1500
Peach 400-1000
European Pl...
The climatological data of various places of subtropical climate (1951-1980)
Station Altitude
(m)
Mean Winter
Temperature ...
• The extreme minimum temperature during the winter
causes winter freeze injury in apple fruits, which results
poor apple ...
Changing climate scenario - Inference
Winter
 Lack of sufficient chilling hours (less than 1200 hours)
 Insufficient wi...
Frost Damage
Flower buds are usually the most sensitive part of the tree to frost damage.
Buds may be damaged by frost onc...
Winter Flower Bud Injury in Peach
Uninjured Pistil injured
Pistil & stamens
injured
Hail
• Damage
– Wounds in bark,
– leaves, fruit
Defoliation
– Entry wounds for
pathogens
• Control
– Site selection
– Hail...
Prevention/protection from hailstorm
Case Study-1
Reference:
Sen V, Rana RS, Chauhan RC and Aditya. 2015. Impact of climate variability on apple
production and...
Light
• Although light is required for anthocyanin production, to what degree
light stimulates apple coloration is highly ...
Case Study-2
Yield of ‘Ginger Gold’ apple trees grown under four shade treatments from
2002 to 2005. Shade treatments incl...
Agronomic Constraints
1. Choice of Variety
2. Fruit Drop
3. Pollination
4. Planting Method
5. High Density Planting
6. Tra...
• Most of the temperate fruit variety which are
cultivated in India are introduced from different part
of world.
• Very fe...
• Selection of cultivars of the temperate fruits to be grown
under subtropical climate is one of the key requirements
for ...
•
Anna (300), Dorsett Golden (250), Tropic Sweet (300),
Tropic Beauty, Winter Banana,
Low chilling Apple
•There are few va...
Pear (Pyrus communis & P. pyrifolia)
• Patharnakh, Gola, Leconte, Keiffer, Smith, Baghugosha, China
Pear, Pineapple, Baldw...
Low Chilling peaches
Chilling Hours
(Hrs)
Cultivars
Less than 100 Okinawa (50), Red Ceylon (50),
100-150 UF Sun (100), Flo...
Chilling
Hours (Hrs)
Cultivars
>350-400 Gulfcrimson (400), Gulfprince (400), Sun Ripe (400), Florda
Home (400), La Festiva...
Early Grande – 100 CU
Flordaprince – 150 CU
Red Ceylon – 50 CU UF Sun – 100 CU Tropic Beauty - 150 CU
Babcock – 350-400 CU...
Gulfbeauty
Low Chilling plum and prune
Gulfblaze
Gulfrose Gulfruby
Crops Cultivar (*Chilling hour required)
Apple Dorsett Golden (250), Anna (300), Tropic Mac (300), Tropic Sweet (300), 88-...
Continue…
Crops Cultivar (*Chilling hour required)
Sweet Cherry Stella (200-250), Cristobalina, Temprona del Sot, Precoce ...
Pollination
• Flowers produce a low amount of nectar, with a very low rate of sugar
(10-15%). This makes the flowers of lo...
Inadequate pollination
Pollinizer varieties
Lack of synchronization
Golden Delicious - Alternate bearing, Late maturity
R...
POLLINATION MANAGEMENT
•2nd Generation
Pollinizing Cvs. : Golden Spur, Spartan,
Gloster, Summer Queen
3rdGeneration
Crab a...
Recent Advances in Pollination
• Honeybees are known to be the most important pollinating insects in
fruit orchards (1-2 c...
• Pollinizer branches with
blooming flowers are collected
and put into a bottle with water.
The bottles are hanged on the
...
Flowering in apple Hand pollination
Bouquet placement Top working
Supplementary Pollination
Case Study-3
Effect of natural pollination system, wind plus insects versus only wind, on
fruit set and fruit characters o...
Crop Pollinizer variety
Apple Golden Delicious, Red gold, Granny Smith, Tydeman Early Worcester, Summer
Queen, Winter Bana...
Planting methods
o o o o o o o o o
o x o o x o o x o
o o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o o o
o x o o x o o x o
o o o o o o o o...
Planting of pollinizer variety
20% pollinizer
All the plant in every 5th row
are pollinizer
33% Pollinizers
(Every third r...
Meadow Orcharding
• The meadow orcharding is the most extreme version
of High Density Planting. It is also called as Ultra...
Plant Architecture For Meadow Orcharding
• Prevent upright growth and develop horizontal laterals.
• Space small laterals ...
S.No Parameters Traditional HDP
1 Plant population Less (150-200 plants/ha) More
(500-100000plants/ha)
2 Production Low (1...
High density orcharding
HDP in Apple
Case Study-4
Effect of planting densities and varieties on nut yield in almond
Factor Nut number/tree Nut yield (kg/tree)
...
Canopy Management
Canopy management of the fruit trees deals
with the development and maintenance of the
structure in rela...
LIGHT PENETRATION AND DISTRIBUTION
WITH IN CANOPY
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
%LightPenetration
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
C...
Central Leader
Branching begins on Leader at 75-100
cm above soil surface
 One main upright trunk referred to as
Leader
...
Open centre system
Branching begins at 45 cm
above ground level
3-5 branches selected
at the base
 Most common Training
S...
Modified Leader System
 Also called as Delayed Open
Centre System
 Combination of Central Leader
System and Open Centre ...
Tatura trellis system
5 wires at 60 cm
spacing at each pole
Poles inserted at 60°
angle to the soil
1.5 m spacing between
...
Training in Apple
Single-wire trellis for single curtain
training
Fig.- Two-cane Kniffen system
Four-cane Kniffen system Head-trained vine
T...
Vertically shoot Positioned Trellis
Telephone SystemSmart-Dyson Ballerina
Vertically shoot Positioned Trellis
Grape Harvester
Fruit crops Bearing habit
Apple Bears on spurs and terminally on two or more year old wood
Almond Laterally on last season...
Rootstock
Adaptability of Pear rootstock to different conditions
 Pyrus amygdaliformis and P. elaeagrifolia rootstocks perform well...
Parameter Peach Rootstock
Resistance to crown gall Nemaguard,Rutger’s Red Leaf,
Rubira
Resistance to bacterial gummosis Be...
Root stock characteristics Plum Rootstock
Cold hardy St Julian A, Mariana 2624, Mariana GF 8/1
Tolerant to drought Myrobal...
Choices for rootstocks used for apricot
Rootstock Common name/variety Characteristics
P. armeniaca apricot seedlings and
c...
Rootstock Trunk cross-
sectional
area[cm2 ]
Cumulative yield 2008-2011 Mean fruit
weight 2008-
2011 [g][kg/tree] [kg/cm2
T...
REPLANT PROBLEM
• Replantation pertains to the plantation of new plants in the fields
vacated by removal of old and declin...
• Imbalanced soil nutrients (particularly N, P, K) can cause
physiological stress that leads to replant problem.
• The hig...
Management of Replant Problem
Different management practices are recommended
Including :
 Site and crop selection
 Soil ...
Technology for Rain Water harvesting and Drought management for stone fruit
Cultivation in Rainfed Areas
Half Moon System
...
MULCHING Crescent Bond Open Catchment V- Ditch
TERRACING TERRACING WITH STONE TARRACING WITH PEBBLES
Intercropping in Almond
Mechanized Cherry Harvesting
Mechanized Kiwi Cultivation
Socio- Economic Constraints
1. Small and scattered land holdings
2. Lack of man power to supervise the field
activity
3. L...
Post Harvest constraint
1. Poor shelf life of fruits
2. Lack of storage Unit
3. Lack of processing industry for value addi...
Conclusion
• Orchard should be scientifically managed and all the
recommended package of practices should be followed from...
Thank You
Constraint of temperate fruit production in India
Constraint of temperate fruit production in India
Constraint of temperate fruit production in India
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Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 1 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 2 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 3 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 4 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 5 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 6 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 7 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 8 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 9 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 10 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 11 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 12 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 13 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 14 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 15 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 16 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 17 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 18 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 19 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 20 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 21 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 22 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 23 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 24 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 25 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 26 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 27 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 28 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 29 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 30 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 31 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 32 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 33 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 34 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 35 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 36 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 37 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 38 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 39 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 40 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 41 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 42 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 43 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 44 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 45 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 46 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 47 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 48 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 49 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 50 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 51 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 52 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 53 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 54 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 55 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 56 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 57 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 58 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 59 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 60 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 61 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 62 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 63 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 64 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 65 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 66 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 67 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 68 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 69 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 70 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 71 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 72 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 73 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 74 Constraint of temperate fruit production in India Slide 75
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Constraint of temperate fruit production in India

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Climate, low chill variety, Fruit Drop, HDP, training and Pruning, Orchard Floor management, Replant Problem, Farm mechanization
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Constraint of temperate fruit production in India

  1. 1. Rubus fruticosus R.occidentalis R.rosifolius R.niveus E.latifoliaElaeagnus umbellate E.angustifolia E.pungens Myrica nagi M.rubra M.cerifera Vaccinium corymbosum V.oxycococcos WELCOME
  2. 2. Constraint and prospects of temperate fruit production in India
  3. 3. Introduction • India produces all deciduous fruits including pome fruits (apple and pear) and stone fruits (peach, plum, apricot and cherry) in considerable quantity. • These are mainly grown in the North-Western Indian States of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), Himachal Pradesh (H.P.) and in Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) hills. The North-Eastern Hills region, comprising of the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur and Sikkim also grows some of the deciduous fruits on a limited scale. • The temperate fruit growing areas in India do not fall in the temperate zone of the world but the prevailing temperate climate of the region is primarily due to snow covered Himalayan region and high altitude which helps to meet the chilling requirement during winter season. • Due to introduction and adaptation of low chilling cultivars of crops like peach, plum and pear, they are also now being grown commercially in certain areas of the north Indian plains.
  4. 4. Climate 1. Temperature 2. Light 3. Rain fall 4. Frost 5. Relative Humidity 6. Wind
  5. 5. Temperature • Temperate deciduous trees respond to seasonal changes. During autumn tree stop growing , their leaf falls and they require a winter hardiness. The state of Dormancy is broken by winter chilling. • The winter chilling requirement is relatively short for tree native to low latitude with warm winter and also for those native to high latitude with cold winter. • Native of mild temperate regions with cold but at time fluctuating winter temperature has longest chilling requirements, as very low temperature do not meet chilling requirement until late winter and early spring, when temperature are favorable for chilling requirements.
  6. 6. Chilling Requirement of different fruit crops Crop Chilling Hour Apple 1000-1600 Pear 1200-1500 Peach 400-1000 European Plum 800-1500 Japanese Plum 700-1000 Cherry 2000-2700 Apricot 900-1500 Almond 800 Walnut 700-1500 Pistachio nut 700-1000 Pecan Nut 400-900 Olive 400-2000
  7. 7. The climatological data of various places of subtropical climate (1951-1980) Station Altitude (m) Mean Winter Temperature (℃) Chilling accumulation (chilling hours ) Agra 169 14.65 415 Allahabad 98 16.15 253 Amritsar 234 11.6 685 Bareilly 173 15.2 361 Chandigarh 347 13.25 523 Dehradun 682 12.6 577 Jaipur 390 15.15 361 Kanpur 126 15.6 307 Delhi 216 14.2 415 Lucknow 128 14.75 361 Hisar 221 13.45 523 Varanasi 85 15.85 253 Ludhiyana 247 12.95 577 Source : IMD
  8. 8. • The extreme minimum temperature during the winter causes winter freeze injury in apple fruits, which results poor apple yield . • Summer temperature and climate conditions also influence the size and quality of apples as the fruits develop during April to June. The high or low temperature during flowering phase reduce apple crop . • Temperature impacts temperate fruit farming throughout the season from immediately after blooming period in the apple orchards to the fruit size at harvest. • However, some of the low altitude zones under temperate fruit cultivation do not fulfil sufficient winter chilling due to rise in temperature. With deficiency in chilling hours, flower buds produce fewer fruit clusters resulting in delay in bloom period.
  9. 9. Changing climate scenario - Inference Winter  Lack of sufficient chilling hours (less than 1200 hours)  Insufficient winter precipitation (snow) Spring Low temperature during bloom – poor fruit set Warm temperature – desiccation of floral parts Hail/Spring - frost kill flowers Summer Very high temperature & prolonged drought–small fruits Heavy and frequent hails – fruit damage, return bloom affected
  10. 10. Frost Damage Flower buds are usually the most sensitive part of the tree to frost damage. Buds may be damaged by frost once they have begun to open or by extremely cold temperatures while they are still dormant.
  11. 11. Winter Flower Bud Injury in Peach Uninjured Pistil injured Pistil & stamens injured
  12. 12. Hail • Damage – Wounds in bark, – leaves, fruit Defoliation – Entry wounds for pathogens • Control – Site selection – Hail nets
  13. 13. Prevention/protection from hailstorm
  14. 14. Case Study-1 Reference: Sen V, Rana RS, Chauhan RC and Aditya. 2015. Impact of climate variability on apple production and diversity in Kullu valley, Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Hort. 72(1):14-20
  15. 15. Light • Although light is required for anthocyanin production, to what degree light stimulates apple coloration is highly dependent on the apple cultivar and the stage of development For example, late harvested 'Mclntosh' apples required longer exposures to light to induce a certain amount of color development than apples harvested earlier. • Some researchers suggest that one of the ways that light increases anthocyanin production is by stimulating greater (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase)PAL activity in the apple. • Shading fruit from the sun, such as within a tree canopy, can reduce anthocyanin formation and color development. For example, one researcher found that fruit colored best if they received more than 70% of full sunlight and did not color well if they received less than 40% of full sunlight. • Blue-violet (BV) and ultraviolet (UV) light, especially UV-B, are the most effective at inducing color development. Increased UV light after rain or at higher elevations has been suggested to explain the greater development of apples color under such conditions. Reference Mark Ritenour and Habib Khemira. 2007. Red color development of apple. Postharvest information network.1-10
  16. 16. Case Study-2 Yield of ‘Ginger Gold’ apple trees grown under four shade treatments from 2002 to 2005. Shade treatments included Full Shade (FS), No Shade (NS), Morning Shade (MS), and Afternoon Shade (AS) Shade Treatment 2002 2003 2004 2005 Fruit (no/cm2 TCSA) FS 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 NS 8.7 4.7 6.1 1.6 MS 2.7 4.9 0.6 3.2 AS 2.9 4.0 0.6 3.1 Fruit Harvested(kg/tree) FS 7.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 NS 66.6 47.2 57.1 30.7 MS 19.5 24.4 4.9 23.7 AS 32.3 35.8 6.6 35.9 Reference: S.S. Miller, C. Hott and T. Tworkoski. 2015. Shade effects on growth, flowering and fruit of apple. Journal of Applied Horticulture, 17(2): 101-105
  17. 17. Agronomic Constraints 1. Choice of Variety 2. Fruit Drop 3. Pollination 4. Planting Method 5. High Density Planting 6. Training and Pruning 7. Rootstock 8. Integrated Water Management 9. Integrated Nutrient Management 10. Orchard Floor management 11. Old and senile orchard 12. Farm mechanization
  18. 18. • Most of the temperate fruit variety which are cultivated in India are introduced from different part of world. • Very few genotype has been developed in India to meet the growing demand. • Although new variety has been developed but it is unable to reach the farmer. The cause may be – poor extension system – Well establishment of orchard with traditional variety – Low income of farmer in the newly planted orchard during gestation period of plant – High labour cost – High capital investment
  19. 19. • Selection of cultivars of the temperate fruits to be grown under subtropical climate is one of the key requirements for their successful cultivation in the subtropical regions. Only those cultivars which have low chilling requirement and ability to tolerate high summer temperature should be selected. • Breeding programs have provided new cultivars selected for their short chilling requirements and tolerance to high temperature. • One of the most successful cultivars is ‘Anna’ apple, developed by A. Stein in Israel. This is now extensively grown in areas with limited chilling. The introduction and the selection of superior types have remained major research activities at various institutes, as a result of which cultivars like Sharbati peach, Titron and Kala Amritsari plum, Pathernakh, LeConte and Baghugosha pears became commercially popular in some parts of the subtropical India.
  20. 20. • Anna (300), Dorsett Golden (250), Tropic Sweet (300), Tropic Beauty, Winter Banana, Low chilling Apple •There are few varieties adapted to mild winter climates (chill hours below 500). Dorsett Golden (250), Anna (300), Tropic Mac (300), Tropic Sweet (300), 88-20 (375), Ein Scheimer (400), 60-39 (400), Tamma, Neomi, Tropic Beauty, Gallia Beauty, Winter Banana, Tame, Vered
  21. 21. Pear (Pyrus communis & P. pyrifolia) • Patharnakh, Gola, Leconte, Keiffer, Smith, Baghugosha, China Pear, Pineapple, Baldwin, Tenn, Flordahome, Ayers Hood, Orient, Carnea, Tsu Li, Ya Li, P.calleryana (rootstock requires 400 chilling hours) Flordahome, Keiffer, Ayers Hood,
  22. 22. Low Chilling peaches Chilling Hours (Hrs) Cultivars Less than 100 Okinawa (50), Red Ceylon (50), 100-150 UF Sun (100), FlordaGrande (100), Flordabelle (110), Flordared (110), Flordawon (110), FlordaPrince (150), FlordaGlo (150), Tropic Beauty (150) >150-200 UF Beauty (200) >200-250 Sunred (210), Flordabest (250), UFO(250) >250-300 UF 2000 (300), UF Blaze (300), Flordadawn (300),Early Amber (310), Flordasun (310), UF Sharp(325), FlordaKing (350), Flordacrest (350), Gulfking(350), Desert Gold (350), Jewel (350) >300-350 Early Amber (310), Flordasun (310), UF Sharp (325), FlordaKing (350), Flordacrest (350), Gulfking(350), Desert Gold (350), Jewel (350)
  23. 23. Chilling Hours (Hrs) Cultivars >350-400 Gulfcrimson (400), Gulfprince (400), Sun Ripe (400), Florda Home (400), La Festival (400), La Pecker (400), Rio Grande (400) >400-450 Tejan (420), Rechan (450), Tex Star (450) >450-500 Whiterobin (500), Bonita (500), Sunfire (500), Ventura (500), May Gold Su (500) >500-550 Gulfcrest (525), Flordaqueen (540), Sungold (540) >550-600 Gulfcrest (525), Flordaqueen (540), Sungold (540) >600-650 Springtime (650), June Gold (650) >650-700 Maygold (660), Junegold (660), Springtime (660), Armgold (660), Suwannee (660), Others Tropic Snow, Parbhat, Pratap, Khurmani, Sharbati, Safeda Early Cream, Saharanpur Prabhat, Shan-i-Punjab, Shaharanpur No. 6, Ranjit Bagh Early, Safeda (LR Brothers), Shaharanpur Hybrid 3, China Flat, Babcock
  24. 24. Early Grande – 100 CU Flordaprince – 150 CU Red Ceylon – 50 CU UF Sun – 100 CU Tropic Beauty - 150 CU Babcock – 350-400 CU Flordaking – 350- CU Sunraycer(250) Sunmist (275) Sunred
  25. 25. Gulfbeauty Low Chilling plum and prune Gulfblaze Gulfrose Gulfruby
  26. 26. Crops Cultivar (*Chilling hour required) Apple Dorsett Golden (250), Anna (300), Tropic Mac (300), Tropic Sweet (300), 88-20 (375), Ein Scheimer (400), 60-39 (400), Tamma, Neomi, Tropic Beauty, Gallia Beauty, Winter Banana, Tame, Vered Pear Patharnakh, Gola, Leconte, Keiffer, Smith, Baghugosha, China Pear, Pineapple, Baldwin, Tenn, Flordahome, Ayers Hood, Orient, Carnea, Tsu Li, Ya Li, P. calleryana (rootstock requires 400 chilling hours) Peach Okinawa (50), Red Ceylon (50), UF Sun (100), FlordaGrande (100), Flordabelle (110), Flordared (110), Flordawon (110), FlordaPrince (150), FlordaGlo (150), Tropic Beauty (150), UF Beauty (200), Sunred (210), Flordabest (250), Flordadawn (300), Early Amber (310), Flordasun (310), UF Sharp (325), FlordaKing (350), Flordacrest (350), Gulfking (350), Desert Gold (350), Flordaqueen (540), Sungold (540), Springtime (650), June Gold (650), Maygold (660) Nectarine Sunbest (225), Sunraycer (250), UF Royal (250), UF Queen (250), Sunmist (275), Sundollar, (350), Suncoat (375), Sunred Plum Satluj Purple, Kala Amritsari, Jamuni Meeruti, Titron, Aloo Bokhara, Alucha Black, Titron Howe, Gulfruby, Gulfbeauty, Gulfblaze, Gulfrose Apricot New Castle, Early Shipley, St. Ambroise, Benazir, NJ-13 Almond California, Papershell, Hybrid 15, Pathick.s Wonder, JKS-55, H-98, Achak (266), Desmayo Largueta (309), Ramillete (326), Marcona (435), Marta (478), Antoneta (514), Ferragnes (558)
  27. 27. Continue… Crops Cultivar (*Chilling hour required) Sweet Cherry Stella (200-250), Cristobalina, Temprona del Sot, Precoce de Bernard, Sunburst, Lapin, (Rootstocks : Gisela-5, Mahaleb) Blue berry Sharpblue (150), Emerald (200), Jewel (200), Windsor (225), Springhigh (225), Chaucer (400), Woodard (400), Brightwell (400), Climax (450), Tifblue (550), Powderblue (550) Strawberry Chandler, Tioga, Torrey, Selva, Belrubi, Fern, Pajaro Olive Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Picual, Coratina, Picholine Persimon Hachiya, Fuiju, Jiro, Hyakuma Refrence: Verma MK, Awasthi OP and Giri RK . 2010. PROSPECTUS OF TEMPERATE FRUIT PRODUCTION IN SUBTROPICAL CLIMATE . National Seminar on “Precision Farming in Horticulture”.
  28. 28. Pollination • Flowers produce a low amount of nectar, with a very low rate of sugar (10-15%). This makes the flowers of low attractiveness to pollinating insects. • Dioecious nature of kiwi make it necessary to plant male variety in the orchard. • Due to the frequent yearly variation of winter chilling the occurrence of non-coincidence of blooming between the target variety and its pollinizers is usual. • Theoretically, a kiwifruit flower needs at least 50 pollen grains per style to produce a fruit with 1400 seeds, provided each stigma receives an equal amount of pollen. (Howpage et al, 1998) • Most cultivars of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) exhibit S-RNAse- based gametophytic Self-incompatibility (SI). In selfed flowers, most pollen tubes are arrested in the upper half of the style, although in a small proportion of the styles, a pollen tube can reach the base of the style and eventually effect fertilization. • Self-sterility in cherry (Prunus avium L.) is one of the most important problems in commercial cherry orchards.
  29. 29. Inadequate pollination Pollinizer varieties Lack of synchronization Golden Delicious - Alternate bearing, Late maturity Red Gold - Heavy crop load, small fruits, faster vegetative growth Proportion < 5 % - 10% in hail prone areas Pollinators - Farmers generally ignorant about honey bee use for pollination - Spraying of pesticides during flowering kills bee fauna
  30. 30. POLLINATION MANAGEMENT •2nd Generation Pollinizing Cvs. : Golden Spur, Spartan, Gloster, Summer Queen 3rdGeneration Crab apples : Manchurian, Golden Hornet, & Others Snow Drift, Red Flesh, Compact Winter Banana, Red Gravenstein • Placement : Bouquet, Top work, Hand pollination etc. • Pollinators : 5-6 bee colonies /ha to increase fruit set
  31. 31. Recent Advances in Pollination • Honeybees are known to be the most important pollinating insects in fruit orchards (1-2 colony per hectare) as they form the great majority of pollinating insects. • The recommended proportion of the pollinizing trees in apple orchards is 33.33 per cent. • Two supplementary pollination management techniques namely, flower bouquet and hand pollination were studied for increasing fruit-set and yield in apple and pear. • Fruit set increases under self and cross pollination, which suggests that walnut plantations should include either homogamous cultivars or both protandrous and protogynous cultivars (Payene) to achieve adequate levels of pollination and fruit set. • In hetero-dichogamy crop like Pecan nut both protandrous (Caddo, Desirable) and protogynous (Stuart, Wichita) variety should be planted. • Twin Tree method of planting is done in chest nut to ensure proper pollination.
  32. 32. • Pollinizer branches with blooming flowers are collected and put into a bottle with water. The bottles are hanged on the target trees at different positions and directions. • Pollination is carried out through wind. In order to use the pollinizer flowers efficiently, the pollinizer branches are tied on a bamboo stick before putting them into bottles. • The pollinizer branches on the bamboo sticks are shaken over tree crown to pollinate flowers. Bouquet method Twin Tree method • When young tree start flowering the few staminate catkins apparently do not produce enough pollen to fertilize the pistillate flower. • To overcome this grafting of pollinizer variety in the same trunk can be done which form a dual trunk; each tree pollinating each others. Buzz Pollination : It is a specialized form of pollination where the pollen is not released unless the anther is vibrated at particular frequency by the wing buzzing of particular insect. It is seen in Kiwi.
  33. 33. Flowering in apple Hand pollination Bouquet placement Top working Supplementary Pollination
  34. 34. Case Study-3 Effect of natural pollination system, wind plus insects versus only wind, on fruit set and fruit characters obtained from ‘Hayward’ vines. Natural Pollination System Fruit Set (%) Fruit Weight (g) Fruit Diameter (cm) Fruit Length (cm) Average no. of seed per fruit First Year Wind* 12 39 4.5 3.8 33 Free (Wind + Insect) 80 106 5.6 6.3 688 Second Year Wind* 37 29 3.7 3.5 Free (Wind + Insect) 83 102 5.6 6.2 *First year flowers were bagged into insect proof bags, while second year flowers were emasculated and depetaled Reference: M V Gonzalez, M Coque and M Herrero. 1998. Influence of pollination systems on fruit set and fruit quality in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Ann. ccppl. Bid., 132:349-355
  35. 35. Crop Pollinizer variety Apple Golden Delicious, Red gold, Granny Smith, Tydeman Early Worcester, Summer Queen, Winter Banana, McIntosh, Gale Gala, Scarlet Gala Crab Apple – Snow Drift, Red Flesh, Manchurian, Golden Hornet, Chestnut Kiwi Male- Matua, Tamouri, Allison Female- Allison, Bruno, Hayward, Monty, Abbott Pear Beurre Hardy, Flemish Beauty Pea pears (Pyrus betulifolia, P. calleryana, P. fauriei, and interspecific hybrids) were evaluated as alternative pollinizers for 'd'Anjou', 'Williams' and 'Golden Russet Bosc'. Cherry Stella, Vista, Vega, Seneca Almond Tuono, Filippo Ceo, Genco, Ferrante, Palantina Filbert 10GE, 101, Favigna Tonda, Carrello Chestnut Catagno della Costa, Morethina, Morte Grossa
  36. 36. Planting methods o o o o o o o o o o x o o x o o x o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o x o o x o o x o o o o o o o o o o 11% pollinizers Every third plant in third row is a pollinizer o o o o o o o o o o x o o x o o x o o o o o o o o o o o x o o x o o x o o o o o o o o o o o x o o x o o x o 15 % pollinizer every alternate plant in every third row is a pollinizer. It is a modification of 11% and is mostly employed in kiwifruit
  37. 37. Planting of pollinizer variety 20% pollinizer All the plant in every 5th row are pollinizer 33% Pollinizers (Every third row is a pollinizer variety)
  38. 38. Meadow Orcharding • The meadow orcharding is the most extreme version of High Density Planting. It is also called as Ultra high density planting, Super high density planting and Bed orchards. • Child et al. (1978) defined a type of super intensive system of orcharding where plants are induced to form flower bud in the first year and harvesting the fruit by mowing the orchard with a combine harvester hence known as meadow orchard. • The meadow orchard originally developed by Hudson (1971), was an ultra high density (about 1,00,000 trees/ha) full cover orchard for apple.
  39. 39. Plant Architecture For Meadow Orcharding • Prevent upright growth and develop horizontal laterals. • Space small laterals along the central leader. • Develop and maintain fruiting spurs along entire branch as it develops. • Develop rigid, strong, self supporting laterals. • Maintain fruiting branches in one position. • Develop fruiting spurs along the sides rather than top of bottom of lateral branches.
  40. 40. S.No Parameters Traditional HDP 1 Plant population Less (150-200 plants/ha) More (500-100000plants/ha) 2 Production Low (15-25 t/ha) High(30-50 t/ha) 3 Management Large tree size difficult to control Small tree size convenient to manage 4 Labour Requirement More Less 5 Harvesting Difficult manual Easy by machine 6 Quality Large canopy , poor sunlight penetration, poor quality Small canopy, better sun light, good quality 7 Establishment Cost less Cost high 8 Machinery Doesn't require expensive machine Requires expensive machine Comparison Between Traditional and HDP Orcharding
  41. 41. High density orcharding
  42. 42. HDP in Apple
  43. 43. Case Study-4 Effect of planting densities and varieties on nut yield in almond Factor Nut number/tree Nut yield (kg/tree) 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Plant density (Per ha) 1,600 plants (2.5 × 2.5 m) 549.91 606.12 1139.47 1.14 1.19 2.50 1,111 plants (3 × 3 m) 725.23 818.98 1336.44 1.38 1.64 2.94 816 plants (3.5 × 3.5 m) 1081.94 1163.91 1648.03 2.10 2.22 3.75 625 plants (4 × 4 m) 1367.04 1417.29 1688.83 2.34 2.32 4.07 Variety Makhdoom 1031.94 1077.97 1412.45 1.74 1.82 3.25 Shalimar 948.18 1 044.10 1406.37 1.69 1.80 3.09 Waris 812.97 882.65 1540.75 1.71 1.90 3.60 Reference : Dinesh Kumar, Nazeer Ahmed and M.K. Verma. 2012. Studies on high density planting in almond in Kashmir valley. Indian J. Hort. 69(3): 328-332
  44. 44. Canopy Management Canopy management of the fruit trees deals with the development and maintenance of the structure in relation to the size and shape, orientation of branches and light interception for the maximum productivity and quality.  Principle : I. To make best use of the land and the solar radiations for increased productivity. II. Avoidance of the build up of micro climate congenial for the disease and pest.  Pre-requisite : I. Understand bearing behavior of the tree species. II. The influence of environmental factors on the productivity of the tree.
  45. 45. LIGHT PENETRATION AND DISTRIBUTION WITH IN CANOPY 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 %LightPenetration 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Canopy Depth(feet)
  46. 46. Central Leader Branching begins on Leader at 75-100 cm above soil surface  One main upright trunk referred to as Leader  In first year 3-4 branches called as Scaffold Whorls are selected  Leave alternate areas without any branches in between scaffolds to allow sunlight to enter Leader Space scaffold branches at 50-60 cm
  47. 47. Open centre system Branching begins at 45 cm above ground level 3-5 branches selected at the base  Most common Training System used in stone fruits  Centre of the tree remains open allowing enough sunlight penetration
  48. 48. Modified Leader System  Also called as Delayed Open Centre System  Combination of Central Leader System and Open Centre System  Central Leader allowed to grow for a few years , 6-8 scaffold branches radiating on all sides of leader are selected, where after the leader is removed
  49. 49. Tatura trellis system 5 wires at 60 cm spacing at each pole Poles inserted at 60° angle to the soil 1.5 m spacing between trees  Developed at Tatura Research Station, Australia initially for peach but now used for stone fruits
  50. 50. Training in Apple
  51. 51. Single-wire trellis for single curtain training Fig.- Two-cane Kniffen system Four-cane Kniffen system Head-trained vine Two cane Kniffen
  52. 52. Vertically shoot Positioned Trellis Telephone SystemSmart-Dyson Ballerina Vertically shoot Positioned Trellis
  53. 53. Grape Harvester
  54. 54. Fruit crops Bearing habit Apple Bears on spurs and terminally on two or more year old wood Almond Laterally on last season’s growth and on spurs, before the leaves open Pear Bear on spur and terminally on previous season wood Peach Laterally on previous season growth Plum Bears on spurs and laterally on one year old shoot Apricot Bears on spurs and laterally on one year old shoot Cherry Laterally on spurs of one year old shoot Kiwifruit Bears on current season growth, arising from bud developed in previous year. Grapes Bears in leaf axils of current season growth, arising from bud developed in previous year. Walnut & Pecan nut Female flowers appear at tip of current season growth and male flower/ catkin laterally on previous season growth. Pomegranate Bear terminally on shorts spurs, arising from matured shoots. Persimmon Bear in leaf axils of current growth.
  55. 55. Rootstock
  56. 56. Adaptability of Pear rootstock to different conditions  Pyrus amygdaliformis and P. elaeagrifolia rootstocks perform well in soil with pH 7.5 - 8.0  BP1 and BP3 are highly suitable for rich soil and poor soil, respectively (Zyl and Etsebeth, 1981).  P. betulifolia is recommended for alkaline soil. Pyrus ussuriensis rootstock is preferred for severe climate. It is also used as a winter hardy rootstock in several regions like Northern Asia and North America. D 6 rootstock is highly suitable under drought conditions (Cole, 1966). Seedling of Williams Bartlett, Winter Nelis, Clonal seedling of Anjou, Bartlett, Old Home and P. amygdalifolia, P. pashia, seedling of P. calleryana etc. can suitably grown under warm winter or hot summer conditions. Old Home, P. ussuriensis can survive under a temperature as low as -400C A series of OH X F rootstocks, P. caucasia, P. nivalis, Bartlett, Anjou, P. fauriei, P. pseudopashia etc. can survive under a low temperature of -300C
  57. 57. Parameter Peach Rootstock Resistance to crown gall Nemaguard,Rutger’s Red Leaf, Rubira Resistance to bacterial gummosis Bemaguard, S-37, Lovell Nematode resistance Nemared, Namaguard, Marianna 2624 Mariana GF 8-1 Nemaguard, Hyb. GF. 557 Salt tolerance Hyb. GF 557 Hyb. GF 677 Drought tolerance Hyb. GF 557, Hyb. GF 677, Resistance to water-logging St Julian Hyb. 2, st Julian Hyb. 1, Damas GF 1869 Cold hardiness Siberian C
  58. 58. Root stock characteristics Plum Rootstock Cold hardy St Julian A, Mariana 2624, Mariana GF 8/1 Tolerant to drought Myrobalan 27 High soil moisture tolerant Mariana GF8/1, Mariana 2621, Damas GF 1869 High soil ph tolerant Myrobalan 29C, Mariana GF 8/1, Damas GF 1869 Resistant to crown gall Mariana GF 8/1, Mariana 2624, Myrobalan GF 31, Myrobalan 29C Resistant to canker Myrobalan B, Pixy Resistant to nematodes Mariana GF 8/1, Mariana 2624
  59. 59. Choices for rootstocks used for apricot Rootstock Common name/variety Characteristics P. armeniaca apricot seedlings and commercial varieties low temperature tolerant, frost hardy, resistant to nematodes P. cerasifera, P. myrobalana cherry plum, myrobalan seedlings and clones resistance to stemborer; wide soil adaptation; improve winter hardiness , adaptive to heavy and calcareous soils, resistant to iron chlorosis P. cerasifera x P. munsoniana wild-goose plum; GF 8-1, Marianna 2624 wide soil adaptation, resistant to water-logging , resistant to Meloidogne incognita nematode P. domestica L European plum winter hardiness P. persica L peach, Lovell, Nemaguard, Nemared some resistance to bacterial canker and Verticillium; Nemaguard & Nemared have root-knot nematode resistance P. insititia Pollizo Resistance to lime chlorosis
  60. 60. Rootstock Trunk cross- sectional area[cm2 ] Cumulative yield 2008-2011 Mean fruit weight 2008- 2011 [g][kg/tree] [kg/cm2 TCA] [t/ha] Sylvia F12/1 204.9 40.0 0.19 29.1 8.96 GiSelA 5 93.4 62.1 0.66 45.1 8.80 GiSelA 3 64.4 49.4 0.77 35.9 7.96 Piku 4 155.9 67.9 0.44 49.4 8.86 Weiroot 72 75.6 52.0 0.69 37.8 8.85 Karina F12/1 294.1 76.8 0.26 55.8 9.00 GiSelA 5 185.8 108.1 0.58 78.6 8.54 GiSelA 3 101.1 73.8 0.73 53.7 8.04 Piku 4 236.6 87.1 0.37 63.3 8.92 Weiroot 72 104.7 83.9 0.80 61.0 8.25 Case Study-5: Effect of rootstock on trunk cross-sectional area, yield of 8-year-old ‘Sylvia’ and ‘Karina’ sweet cherry trees
  61. 61. REPLANT PROBLEM • Replantation pertains to the plantation of new plants in the fields vacated by removal of old and declining tree of same species. • There has been increasing concern about poor growth, delayed fruiting and short life of apple trees grew before. This problem being faced by the growers is termed as ‘Replant Problem’. • It is also, sometimes, termed as ‘Replant Disease’ when only biotic causes are involved to develop such situation  Weak, damaged or diseased nursery stock.  Poor planting and management techniques.  Water deficiencies or excessive, spray injuries.  Weak competition or damage from insects.  Diseases, rodents etc. Causes of Replant Problem
  62. 62. • Imbalanced soil nutrients (particularly N, P, K) can cause physiological stress that leads to replant problem. • The high N doses in the form of ammonium nitrate drastically lower the soil acidity and subsequently increase the concentration of aluminum and manganese elements in the root zone which become toxic and cause replant problem. • Besides, heavy metals such as arsenic derived from pesticides have also been implicated in apple replant problem. Peach Replanting : As far as root toxicity is concerned, amygdalin in the cells of peach root bark decomposed by certain fungi and bacteria. These toxic decomposition products, HCN and benzaldehyde, can kill peach rootlets or roots, adversely affect growth or even kill the young peach replants.
  63. 63. Management of Replant Problem Different management practices are recommended Including :  Site and crop selection  Soil Sterilization  Inoculation of bio-fertilizer to the seedlings  liming to correct soil pH  Fresh lay out of orchard and avoiding old pits  Bigger pit size with new Soil  Inter-cropping  Drainage improvement  Balanced Fertilizer applications  Integrated Pest management  Employment of bio-control agents
  64. 64. Technology for Rain Water harvesting and Drought management for stone fruit Cultivation in Rainfed Areas Half Moon System 1. Low cost technology 2. Suitable for sloppy lands 3. Conserves better moisture, enhances plant growth and yield. Full Moon System 1. Low cost technology 2. Suitable for plain lands. 3. Conserves better moisture, enhances plant growth and yield. Cup & Plate System 1. Low cost technology 2. Suitable for plain lands 3. Rain water harvesting for good plant growth and yield enhancement. Trench System 1. Low cost technology 2. Suitable for sloppy lands 3. Conservation of rain water for better plant growth and yield. Full Moon SystemHalf Moon System Cup & Plate System Trench System
  65. 65. MULCHING Crescent Bond Open Catchment V- Ditch TERRACING TERRACING WITH STONE TARRACING WITH PEBBLES
  66. 66. Intercropping in Almond
  67. 67. Mechanized Cherry Harvesting
  68. 68. Mechanized Kiwi Cultivation
  69. 69. Socio- Economic Constraints 1. Small and scattered land holdings 2. Lack of man power to supervise the field activity 3. Lack of marketing accessibility 4. Large initial investment 5. Weak extension system
  70. 70. Post Harvest constraint 1. Poor shelf life of fruits 2. Lack of storage Unit 3. Lack of processing industry for value addition 4. Lack of packaging industry
  71. 71. Conclusion • Orchard should be scientifically managed and all the recommended package of practices should be followed from time to time. However, following points need special attention: • Among the standard varieties there should be more proportion of regular bearing varieties than the Delicious varieties. • Where adequate proportion of pollinizing varieties has not been provided, top working of the trees with pollinizing varieties should be done. • During flowering and fruit set, 2 bee hives/acre be provided for adequate cross pollination. • Orchard soil and canopy management practices should be given due attention for proper productivity. • There is urgent need to go for high density plantation in different temperate fruit crops. • Judicious use of insecticides/pesticides/fungicides should be done since their excessive use can increase tolerance and eradication of many natural enemies of these pests.
  72. 72. Thank You
  • DianaNongthombam

    May. 24, 2021
  • jprathore

    Mar. 23, 2021
  • AadilBashir9

    Dec. 5, 2020
  • RANJITH255

    Aug. 4, 2020
  • AvishekDutta22

    Jan. 11, 2020

Climate, low chill variety, Fruit Drop, HDP, training and Pruning, Orchard Floor management, Replant Problem, Farm mechanization contact: dhota3@gmail.com

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