Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Introduction to Visual Culture
Deborah Jackson
Introduction to Visual Culture
10am - 12noon Introduction and
Showing Seeing
12noon-1pm Break for Lunch
1pm - 3pm Lecture
...
Aims:
You will develop your understanding of the ways in which
images and artefacts can be analysed in relation to their
c...
Ways of Seeing
Visual culture works towards a social
theory of visuality, focusing on
questions of what is made
visible, w...
Dominance of the Image
Visual culture is concerned with visual
events in which
information, meaning, or pleasure is
sought...
Showing Seeing
David Sherry
Looking through Tom
Cruises eyes
(2005)
Showing Seeing
Visual culture is the visual construction of
the social, not just the social construction
of vision.

Mitch...
Performing Theory
You are ethnographers who come from, and are reporting back
to, a society that has no concept of visual ...
Break for
Lunch
Back here
at 1pm
David Sherry
Just popped out back in 2 hours
(2008)
Introduction to Visual Culture
Vision as a cultural activity
David Sherry
Eye swap
(2009)
Vision, ways of
seeing, is a cultural
construction, which is
le...
What about Art History?
In recent years Art History has come
under scrutiny.
Art History is the historical study of
artist...
What about Art History?
The canon is considered to be the
prime object of the art
historian, while art history helps to
le...
Art Appreciation
The important thing to note
about this kind of art
appreciation is that it requires no
knowledge of art h...
Connoisseurship and Taste
This implies something far
more elitist than just
enjoying looking at art.
This kind of art appr...
How do museums and other cultural institutions influence
our interpretations of taste?
What is Visual Culture?
Very broadly, Visual Culture is everything that is
seen, that is produced to be seen, and the way ...
Visual culture, to borrow
Nicholas Mirzoeff's
definition, is perhaps best
understood as a tactic for
studying the function...
We are all participants in Visual Culture
“This is Visual Culture. It is not just a part of
your everyday life, it is your...
Visual Culture is a growing interdisciplinary field of
study, which emerged out of the interaction of
anthropology, art hi...
Visual Culture is
concerned with the
production, circulation,
and consumption of
images and the
changing nature of
subject...
Visual Culture involves exploring, analyzing, and
critiquing the relationship between culture and
visuality, from a range ...
Why study Visual
Culture?
Our experiences are
now more visual and
visualized than ever
before. In the era of
the visual sc...
The Visual Culture approach acknowledges the reality of living
in a world of cross-mediation.
Our experience of culturally...
Images often move across social arenas from documentary
images to advertisement to amateur video to news images to
artwork...
New Ways of Seeing
Visual Culture studies recognises that the visual
image is not stable but changes its relationship to
e...
Decoding images
We decode, or read, complex images almost instantly, giving little
thought to our process of decoding.
We ...
Study of Visual Culture merges popular and low
cultural forms, media and communications, and the
study of high cultural fo...
Visual Cultural Perspectives
Visual culture analyses
the relevance of
classed, gendered, se
xual and raced social
identiti...
The study of Visual Culture can include anything from:
• Painting
• Sculpture
• Installation
• Video art
• Digital art
• P...
Clement Greenberg
(1909 – 1994)
Avant-Garde and Kitsch (1939)
• Art of the masses, or kitsch, is uncultured.
Kitsch is tie...
What is natural and what is acquired in our
visual experiences?
Artifacts and pictures have been made to be seen in
a cert...
Visual Culture Studies involves an analysis of
contemporary culture, media and society
It important to understand how soci...
Images and Power
All images are produced
within dynamics of social
power and ideology.
Ideology is the shared set of
value...
Images and Ideology
Ideologies are produced and affirmed through the social
institutions in a given society, such as the
f...
The emergence of Visual Culture
develops what W.J.T. Mitchell has
called Picture Theory.
Spectatorship (the look, the
gaze...
Representation
Representation refers to the
use of images (and language)
to create meaning about the
world around us.
Thes...
Image and Meaning
All images have two levels of meaning:
The denotative meaning of the image refers to its literal
descrip...
The Myth of the Image
Roland Barthes uses the
term myth to refer to the
cultural values and beliefs
that are expressed thr...
Visual Literacy
Visual literacy has no limits. It is not just the
understanding of canonical fine art, or the business of
...
High/Low Culture
Sam Taylor Wood
David
(2004)
Experiencing ‘other’ cultures
Culture and Travel
Tracey Moffat
Adventure Series
(2003)
“Who are
we?”, “Where
are we going?”
and “Why do we
do what we do...
Cognitive Outlook
Examine the
relationship
between
things, space,
and
everyday
practices.
Visual Culture involves
exploring, analyzing, and
critiquing the relationship
between culture and visuality,
from a range ...
A specific set of
learned
behaviors, beliefs, at
titudes, values, and
ideals that are
characteristic of a
particular socie...
Culture and Heritage
Heritage is:
• NOT history
• A carefully selective engagement with the past
• A way of making the pas...
Culture and Identity
David Shrigley
Who do you think you are?
For most of us, answering
questions about identity
begins by...
Enculturation
Cultures are learned through the process of enculturation.
Culture is learned and passed
down from previous ...
Bruce Nauman
Human Nature/Knows
Doesn't Know
(1983/6)
Things that strike us
as „natural‟ or
„normal‟ or „common
sense‟ or ...
On the Road
Home
Travel
Territory
Heritage
Nations
Belonging
Globalization
Displacement
Diaspora
Identities
Observation
Vi...
We can explore other cultures by, studying
behavior, customs, material culture
(artifacts, tools, technology), language, e...
• Learned. Process of learning one's culture is called enculturation.
• Shared by the members of a society. There is no „c...
Ethnocentrism
The idea that one
persons culture is
superior to other cultures.
It is important ensure that
attitudes such ...
Racism
Heterosexism
Discrimination
Cultural Sensitivity
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Ethnici...
Colonialism/Postcolonialism
Yinka Shonibare
Gallantry and
Criminal
Conversation
(Parasol)
2002
Alterity/Otherness
First we construct some group as Other.
Next we project onto it those qualities we reject, fear, or
dis...
Binary oppositions
Rational -
White -
Male -
Heterosexual -
Order -
Mind -
Active -
Town -
Cowboys -
Civilised -
Rational ...
Cultural Imperialism
Cultural imperialism
refers to the spread of
one culture at the
expense of others
usually because of
...
Culture and Power
Ellen Gallagher
DeLux
(2004-5)
Representation
is not neutral.
Many people never
acknowledge how their day-
to-day behaviors have been
shaped by cultural norms
and values and reinforced...
Artist as Ethnographer
Ethnographic aesthetics: the
intersection between art and
anthropology.
Artists, like
ethnographers...
Anthropology
Anthropology is a tool for
understanding what makes
people and cultures different
and what makes them the
sam...
Artists and
anthropologists
share a set of
common practices
that raise similar
ethical issues.
David Shrigley
Artist as An...
Culture and Place
Places are created by
cultural practices.
Places are never
finished.
Yinka Shonibare
Gallantry and Crimi...
Cultural Geography
Cultural geographers study the cultural aspects that explain how
and/or why people function as they do ...
Globalisation
Globalisation is also
becoming increasingly
important to this field
as it is allowing these
specific aspects...
Material Culture
Bob and Roberta Smith
Everything is Made
(2012)
Material Culture is
concerned with the
relationship betwe...
The meaning of objects shift
and change according to
the various physical,
temporal, social and cultural
contexts in which...
Break
Back here
in 15mins
David Shrigley
Workshop
Guidelines on Visual Analysis
• Visual language can be read in the same manner as any other
language although visual langu...
Interpreting the content of the visual image can be
undertaken through a number of means:
Analysing the syntax of the image including style and composition.
Syntax being the building blocks of the image pictorial...
Analysing the techniques used to produce the image.
Evaluating the aesthetic merit of the work.
Evaluating the merit of th...
Discussion of the context of the work.
Attempting to grasp the interaction, innovation and affective
impact and or feeling...
Examining the social impact of the image and discussing the
purpose and the relationship between the audience and the
auth...
Understanding an image can also be achieved by
asking questions such as:
Who created the image?
In what point of history and in what context was the image created?
Jenny Holzer
The abuse of power...
For what purpose was the image created?
In what context is the image being seen?
Who is the intended audience?
What has been omitted, altered or included in the image?
What does the image say about history?
Yinka Shonibare
Diary of a...
What does the image communicate about individual or national
identity?
What does the image communicate about society?
What...
Introduction to Visual Culture
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Introduction to Visual Culture

  • Identifiez-vous pour voir les commentaires

Introduction to Visual Culture

  1. 1. Introduction to Visual Culture Deborah Jackson
  2. 2. Introduction to Visual Culture 10am - 12noon Introduction and Showing Seeing 12noon-1pm Break for Lunch 1pm - 3pm Lecture 3:00pm – 3:15pm Coffee Break 3:15pm - 5pm Visual Analysis Workshop
  3. 3. Aims: You will develop your understanding of the ways in which images and artefacts can be analysed in relation to their cultural, social and historical context You will develop your analytical skills to analyse visual works and develop your understanding of visual culture and its implications for understanding cultural activity more broadly
  4. 4. Ways of Seeing Visual culture works towards a social theory of visuality, focusing on questions of what is made visible, who sees what, how seeing, knowing and power are interrelated. It examines the act of seeing as a product of the tensions between external images or objects, and internal thought processes. Hooper-Greenhill, Eilean, Museums and the Interpretation of Visual Culture, London: Routledge, 2000, p. 14 Yinka Shonibare Diary of a Victorian Dandy (1998)
  5. 5. Dominance of the Image Visual culture is concerned with visual events in which information, meaning, or pleasure is sought by the consumer in an interface with visual technology. By visual technology, I mean any form of apparatus designed either to be looked at or to enhance natural vision, from oil painting to television and the Internet. Douglas Gordon Self Portrait of You + Me (Signoret) (2008)
  6. 6. Showing Seeing David Sherry Looking through Tom Cruises eyes (2005)
  7. 7. Showing Seeing Visual culture is the visual construction of the social, not just the social construction of vision.
 Mitchell, W.J.T., “Showing seeing: a critique of visual culture”, Journal Of Visual Culture, 2002, Vol 1(2), p. 170
  8. 8. Performing Theory You are ethnographers who come from, and are reporting back to, a society that has no concept of visual culture. Everything which seems transparent and self-evident is in need of explanation. You cannot take for granted that your audience has any familiarity with everyday notions such as colour, line, eye contact, cosmetics, clothing, facial expressions, mirrors, glasses, or voyeurism, much less with photography, painting, sculpture or other so-called visual media.
  9. 9. Break for Lunch Back here at 1pm David Sherry Just popped out back in 2 hours (2008)
  10. 10. Introduction to Visual Culture
  11. 11. Vision as a cultural activity David Sherry Eye swap (2009) Vision, ways of seeing, is a cultural construction, which is learned and cultivated, not simply given by nature.
  12. 12. What about Art History? In recent years Art History has come under scrutiny. Art History is the historical study of artists, artistic practices, styles, movements, and institutions. Art History has the inclination to celebrate the formal rendering of a work of art. Visual Culture can be considered as an evolution of art history. Visual Culture is an expansion of art history’s resources to encompass
  13. 13. What about Art History? The canon is considered to be the prime object of the art historian, while art history helps to legitimise the canon.
  14. 14. Art Appreciation The important thing to note about this kind of art appreciation is that it requires no knowledge of art history. In this way, art appreciation requires no knowledge of the context of art. Visual Culture is defined as a focus on cultural meaning of a work of art, rather than on its aesthetic value.
  15. 15. Connoisseurship and Taste This implies something far more elitist than just enjoying looking at art. This kind of art appreciation is linked to the art market and involves being able to recognize the work of individual artists as this has a direct effect on the work’s monetary value.
  16. 16. How do museums and other cultural institutions influence our interpretations of taste?
  17. 17. What is Visual Culture? Very broadly, Visual Culture is everything that is seen, that is produced to be seen, and the way in which it is seen and understood. It is that part of culture that communicates through visual means. Alex Frost Format wars (HD DVD), 2007
  18. 18. Visual culture, to borrow Nicholas Mirzoeff's definition, is perhaps best understood as a tactic for studying the functions of a world addressed through pictures, images, and visualizations, rather than through texts and words. What is Visual Culture?
  19. 19. We are all participants in Visual Culture “This is Visual Culture. It is not just a part of your everyday life, it is your everyday life.” Nicholas Mirzoeff Kevin Harman Hotel Room (2010)
  20. 20. Visual Culture is a growing interdisciplinary field of study, which emerged out of the interaction of anthropology, art history, critical theory, philosophy and many other disciplines that focus on visual objects or the way images are created and used within society. Visual Culture Studies Bob and Roberta Smith Hijack Reality (2008) Visual Culture focuses on aspects of culture that rely on visual images.
  21. 21. Visual Culture is concerned with the production, circulation, and consumption of images and the changing nature of subjectivity. Keith Farquhar Boy (2012)
  22. 22. Visual Culture involves exploring, analyzing, and critiquing the relationship between culture and visuality, from a range of diverse theoretical perspectives, including: Art history Postmodernism Gender studies Marxism Feminism Sociology Globalisation Poststructuralism Literary theory Philosophy Cultural anthropology Postcolonialism Capitalism Queer Theory Film/TV
  23. 23. Why study Visual Culture? Our experiences are now more visual and visualized than ever before. In the era of the visual screen, your viewpoint is crucial. For most people, life is mediated through television, film, and the Internet.
  24. 24. The Visual Culture approach acknowledges the reality of living in a world of cross-mediation. Our experience of culturally meaningful visual content appears in multiple forms, and visual content and codes migrate from one form to another. Why study Visual Culture? d Roberta Smith
Make your own damn art...
(1999)
  25. 25. Images often move across social arenas from documentary images to advertisement to amateur video to news images to artworks. Each change in context produces a change in meaning. Mark Wallinger State Britain (2007) A recreation of Brian Haw's anti-war protest in Parliament Square.
  26. 26. New Ways of Seeing Visual Culture studies recognises that the visual image is not stable but changes its relationship to exterior reality at particular moments. A single image can serve a multitude of purposes, appear in a range of settings, and mean different things to different people. Representation and spectatorship involves relationships of power.
  27. 27. Decoding images We decode, or read, complex images almost instantly, giving little thought to our process of decoding. We decode images by interpreting clues to intended, unintended, and even suggested meanings. These clues may be formal elements of the image, such as colour, shade, and contrast, or the socio-historical context in which it is presented. Banner held up by Celtic football fans, deriding their rivals Glasgow Rangers
  28. 28. Study of Visual Culture merges popular and low cultural forms, media and communications, and the study of high cultural forms or fine art, design, and architecture. Big Fat Gypsy Weddings Channel 4 (2010-) Visual Cultural Perspectives
  29. 29. Visual Cultural Perspectives Visual culture analyses the relevance of classed, gendered, se xual and raced social identities.
  30. 30. The study of Visual Culture can include anything from: • Painting • Sculpture • Installation • Video art • Digital art • Photography • Film • Television • The Internet • Mobile screenic devices • Fashion • Medical & scientific imaging • Architecture & Urban design • Social spaces of museums, galleries, exhibitions, and other private and public environments of the everyday
  31. 31. Clement Greenberg (1909 – 1994) Avant-Garde and Kitsch (1939) • Art of the masses, or kitsch, is uncultured. Kitsch is tied to mass production, and is not genuine culture Many of Greenberg‟s ideas have been abandoned in contemporary criticism, no longer does art criticism make such a harsh distinctions between high art and low art. High and Low Culture
  32. 32. What is natural and what is acquired in our visual experiences? Artifacts and pictures have been made to be seen in a certain way, that is to say, they are social and cultural, not natural. Visual Culture focuses on the visual as a place where meanings are created and contested. Jeremy Deller
Sacrilege (2012)
  33. 33. Visual Culture Studies involves an analysis of contemporary culture, media and society It important to understand how societies construct their visual perspectives through knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, and customs, amongst other things. Cathy Wilkes I Give You All My Money (2012)
  34. 34. Images and Power All images are produced within dynamics of social power and ideology. Ideology is the shared set of values and belief which individuals live out their complex relations to a range of social structures. Ideologies often appear to be natural or given aspects of everyday life. Stuart Murray Wohoahh… (2012)
  35. 35. Images and Ideology Ideologies are produced and affirmed through the social institutions in a given society, such as the family, education, medicine, law, the government, and the entertainment industry, among others. Joanne Tatham & Tom O’Sullivan The Story… (2012)
  36. 36. The emergence of Visual Culture develops what W.J.T. Mitchell has called Picture Theory. Spectatorship (the look, the gaze, the glance, the practices of observation, surveillance, and visual pleasure) involves many of the same strategies as reading in order to analyse an image (decipherment, decoding, interpre tation, etc). Picture Theory Barbara Kruger. Your gaze hits the side of my face (1981)
  37. 37. Representation Representation refers to the use of images (and language) to create meaning about the world around us. These systems have rules and conventions about how to express and interpret meaning. We learn the rules and conventions of the systems of representation within a given culture. Alasdair Grey Faust in his study (1958)
  38. 38. Image and Meaning All images have two levels of meaning: The denotative meaning of the image refers to its literal descriptive meaning. The connotative meanings rely on cultural and historic context of the image and its viewers. Jeff Koons
  39. 39. The Myth of the Image Roland Barthes uses the term myth to refer to the cultural values and beliefs that are expressed through connotations parading as denotations. Myth is the hidden set of rules and conventions through which meanings, which are specific to a certain group, are made to seen universal. Scott Myles Thank You (2012)
  40. 40. Visual Literacy Visual literacy has no limits. It is not just the understanding of canonical fine art, or the business of advertising, but also the entire visual world. Visual Culture studies provide you with the ability to analyse the visual world. Nam June Paik Highway (1995)
  41. 41. High/Low Culture Sam Taylor Wood David (2004)
  42. 42. Experiencing ‘other’ cultures
  43. 43. Culture and Travel Tracey Moffat Adventure Series (2003) “Who are we?”, “Where are we going?” and “Why do we do what we do?”
  44. 44. Cognitive Outlook Examine the relationship between things, space, and everyday practices.
  45. 45. Visual Culture involves exploring, analyzing, and critiquing the relationship between culture and visuality, from a range of diverse theoretical perspectives. It important to understand how societies construct their visual perspectives through knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, and customs, amongst other things. Cultural Perspectives Bob and Roberta Smith Culture Bashing is Book Burning (2012)
  46. 46. A specific set of learned behaviors, beliefs, at titudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population. Culture Boyle Family Earth Pieces (1960-present)
  47. 47. Culture and Heritage Heritage is: • NOT history • A carefully selective engagement with the past • A way of making the past coherent, manageable and meaningful for the present • A comparatively recent form of leisure pursuit and culture • Material: listed buildings, protected landscapes, art, and design etc. • Conceptual: shared memory, myth, beliefs about the past etc. • Also, officially defined, policed and protected national construct (e.g. National Trusts)
  48. 48. Culture and Identity David Shrigley Who do you think you are? For most of us, answering questions about identity begins by listing details that can be found on birth certificates– name, sex, ethnicity, and family origins.
  49. 49. Enculturation Cultures are learned through the process of enculturation. Culture is learned and passed down from previous generations. It is not something an individual is born with. Learning culture is continuous process Cultures involve the use of language and symbols - things that stand for something else.
  50. 50. Bruce Nauman Human Nature/Knows Doesn't Know (1983/6) Things that strike us as „natural‟ or „normal‟ or „common sense‟ or „human nature‟ are often cultural. Nature/Culture
  51. 51. On the Road Home Travel Territory Heritage Nations Belonging Globalization Displacement Diaspora Identities Observation Visual anthropology Material culture Ethnography Museum and display Participation Ethnocentrism Difference
  52. 52. We can explore other cultures by, studying behavior, customs, material culture (artifacts, tools, technology), language, etc. Ilya Kabakov The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment (1984)
  53. 53. • Learned. Process of learning one's culture is called enculturation. • Shared by the members of a society. There is no „culture of one‟. • Patterned. People in a society live and think in ways that form definite patterns. • Mutually constructed through a constant process of social interaction. • Symbolic. Culture, language and thought are based on symbols and symbolic meanings. • Arbitrary. Not based on „natural laws‟ external to humans, but created by humans according to the needs and preferences of the group e.g. standards of beauty. • Internalized. Habitual. Taken-for-granted. Perceived as „natural.‟ Culture is…
  54. 54. Ethnocentrism The idea that one persons culture is superior to other cultures. It is important ensure that attitudes such as this do not pollute the interpretations of any culture being studied.
  55. 55. Racism Heterosexism Discrimination Cultural Sensitivity Prejudice Ethnocentrism Stereotype Sexism Multiculturalism Ethnicity Race
  56. 56. Colonialism/Postcolonialism Yinka Shonibare Gallantry and Criminal Conversation (Parasol)
2002
  57. 57. Alterity/Otherness First we construct some group as Other. Next we project onto it those qualities we reject, fear, or disown in ourselves. Then we assign qualities to variable human individuals on the basis of their inclusion in this constructed Alterity. Once we take this step in our construction of Alterity, then, at last, we have also created prejudice and stereotyping. Alterity is not the same thing as prejudices (for example, racism, sexism, classism), although it leads to them.
  58. 58. Binary oppositions Rational - White - Male - Heterosexual - Order - Mind - Active - Town - Cowboys - Civilised - Rational - Culture - Irrational/emotional Black Female Homosexual Chaos Body Passive Country Indians Primitive Irrational Nature David Shrigley
  59. 59. Cultural Imperialism Cultural imperialism refers to the spread of one culture at the expense of others usually because of differential economic or political influence.
  60. 60. Culture and Power Ellen Gallagher DeLux (2004-5) Representation is not neutral.
  61. 61. Many people never acknowledge how their day- to-day behaviors have been shaped by cultural norms and values and reinforced by families, peers, and social institutions. How one defines „family‟, identifies desirable life goals, views problems, and even says hello are all influenced by the culture in which one functions. The Location of Culture
  62. 62. Artist as Ethnographer Ethnographic aesthetics: the intersection between art and anthropology. Artists, like ethnographers, train their eyes to see things other people don‟t see. They try to present what they see so that we, the audience, can glimpse something where we have looked a thousand times and failed to find anything noteworthy. Simon Starling Infestation Piece (Musseled Moore) (2012)
  63. 63. Anthropology Anthropology is a tool for understanding what makes people and cultures different and what makes them the same. Roderick Buchanan Mixed Marriage (2007) Studying and going to „other‟ cultures provides us with comparative perspectives of the world.
  64. 64. Artists and anthropologists share a set of common practices that raise similar ethical issues. David Shrigley Artist as Anthropologist
  65. 65. Culture and Place Places are created by cultural practices. Places are never finished. Yinka Shonibare Gallantry and Criminal Conversation (Parasol) (2002)
  66. 66. Cultural Geography Cultural geographers study the cultural aspects that explain how and/or why people function as they do in the areas in which they live e.g. language, religion, different economic and governmental structures, art, and music. Berlin from above Berlin in parts From: Odd Things Happen When You Chop Up Cities And Stack Them Sideways
  67. 67. Globalisation Globalisation is also becoming increasingly important to this field as it is allowing these specific aspects of culture to easily travel across the globe. N55 Walking House (2008)
  68. 68. Material Culture Bob and Roberta Smith Everything is Made (2012) Material Culture is concerned with the relationship between artefacts and social relation. Material Culture Studies aims to systematically explore the linkage between the construction of social identities and the production and use of culture.
  69. 69. The meaning of objects shift and change according to the various physical, temporal, social and cultural contexts in which they are used and displayed. Museology is the science of collecting and arranging objects for museums. Museology
  70. 70. Break Back here in 15mins David Shrigley
  71. 71. Workshop
  72. 72. Guidelines on Visual Analysis • Visual language can be read in the same manner as any other language although visual language can fool us by seeming natural and therefore self-explanatory. • The codes of the image must be deconstructed to release the social and cultural meaning of the image or visual language. • An example that can be given for the relationship between the image and its meaning is an iceberg. Only 10% of an iceberg is visible above the water. The remaining 90% of the iceberg is suggested by the part we can see. • Rather than say an image is beautiful or significant you need to attempt to explain why it is so. To read the image one must attempt to understand, interpret and evaluate the visual message.
  73. 73. Interpreting the content of the visual image can be undertaken through a number of means:
  74. 74. Analysing the syntax of the image including style and composition. Syntax being the building blocks of the image pictorial structure, graphic composition (shapes, lines, colour) as well as things such as camera placement, editing juxtaposition and point of view.
  75. 75. Analysing the techniques used to produce the image. Evaluating the aesthetic merit of the work. Evaluating the merit of the work in terms of purpose and audience.
  76. 76. Discussion of the context of the work. Attempting to grasp the interaction, innovation and affective impact and or feeling of the image. Allen Jones Chair (1968) Jemima Stehli Chair (1997)
  77. 77. Examining the social impact of the image and discussing the purpose and the relationship between the audience and the authorship of the image. Discussion of the manipulative uses and the ideological implications of the image.
  78. 78. Understanding an image can also be achieved by asking questions such as:
  79. 79. Who created the image? In what point of history and in what context was the image created? Jenny Holzer The abuse of power comes as no surprise (1980)
  80. 80. For what purpose was the image created? In what context is the image being seen? Who is the intended audience?
  81. 81. What has been omitted, altered or included in the image? What does the image say about history? Yinka Shonibare Diary of a Victorian Dandy (1998)
  82. 82. What does the image communicate about individual or national identity? What does the image communicate about society? What aspects of culture is the image communicating? Miley Cyrus and Robin Thicke 2013 MTV Video Music Awards

×