21 Jun 2021

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  2. Use and over exploitation 01 Minerals and their ores extraction 02 Mine Safety 03 Case Study 04 Environmental Problems 05
  3. Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids having a definite chemical composition and characteristic physical properties Minerals are formed over a period of millions of years in the earth’s crust Mineral Resources
  4. Characteristics of minerals Ubiquitousin nature (found everywhere ) Both organic and inorganic Organic minerals:Coal,Petroleum&NaturalGas Inorganicminerals:Iron ,Copper,Manganeseetc… Metallicmineralsare not readily usable They are found in the form of ores. Mineralsare used electricalappliances. Mineralsprovideraw materialto industries. Most mineralsoccur in crustbut some occur very deep intotheearth(petroleum)
  5. Section Break 1 Insert the Sub Title of Your Presentation • Metallic Content -Metallic minerals -Non metallicminerals • IronContent -Ferrousminerals -Non ferrrousminerals
  6. Major Reserve and important uses Metal Major WorldResources Major uses Aluminium Australia, Guinea,Jamaica Packaging food items, transportations, utensils Chromium CIS,SouthAfrica For making high strength steel alloys Copper USA, Canada,CIS,Chile,Zambia Electricand Electronicgoods Iron CIS,SouthAmerica,Canada,USA Heavy machinery, steel production transportation means Lead NorthAmerica, USA,CIS Leaded gasoline,Car batteries, paints Manganese SouthAfrica,CIS, Brazil,Gabon High strength, heat resistantsteel alloys Platinumgroup SouthAfrica,CIS Use inAutomobiles, catalytic converters, electronics,medicaluses Gold SouthAfrica ,CIS,Canada Ornaments, medicaluse,electronics use Silver Canada,SouthAfrica, Mexico Photography, electronics,jeweler Nickel CIS,Canada, New Caledonia
  7. National Mineral Scenario India produces as many as 87 minerals, which includes 4 fuel, 10 metallic, 47 non-metallic, 3 atomic and 23 minor minerals (including building and other materials). India possesses a large variety of mineral- ores in fairly huge quantities India is rich in coal, manganese, iron, chromites and mica. It is deficient in the gold, silver, nickel etc.
  8. 1. Use and Over Exploitation
  9. Use And Exploitation Development of industrial plants and machinery Generation of energy e.g. coal, lignite,uranium Construction, housing, settlements. Transportation means Defense equipments weapons, armaments
  10. Use And Exploitation Communication- telephone wires,cables, electronic devices Medicinal system- particularly inAyurvedic System Formation of alloys for various purposes (e.g. phosphorite) Jewellery–e.g. Gold, silver, platinum, diamond Agriculture –asfertilizers, seed dressings and fungicides (e.g. zineb containing zinc, Maneb- containing manganese etc..)
  11. 2. Minerals and their ores extraction
  12. MINING Minerals and their ores need to be extracted from the earth’s interior so that they can be used. This process is known as mining. Mining operations generally progress through four stages: • Prospecting: Searching for minerals. • Exploration: Assessing the size, shape, location, and economic value of the deposit. • Development: Work of preparing access to the deposit so that the minerals can be extracted from it. • Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from the mines. • Reclaimation: for cleaner environment and stricter laws regulating the abandonment of a mine.
  13. Reclamation Closure Mineral Resource Development Cycle Ope 10-30 years • Prospecting • Exploration • Development • Exploitation • Reclamation
  14. Types of Mining Surface Mining Underground Mining Placer Mining Strip Mining Mountaintop removal Hydraulic Open pit Dredging Drift Mining Slope Mining Shaft Mining Hard rock Bore hole MINING Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials fromthe earth from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest tothe miner.
  15. 3. Mine Safety
  16. Mine Safety • Mining is a hazardous occupation, and the safety of mine workers is an important environmental consideration of the industry. • Surface mining is less hazardous than underground mining. • Metal mining is less hazardous than coal mining.
  17. Mine Safety • Mines, rock and roof falls, flooding, and inadequate ventilation are the greatest hazards. • Large explosions have occured in coal mines, killing many miners. More miners have suffered from disasters due to the use of explosives in metal mines
  18. 3. Mine Safety
  19. Case Study 4.
  20. Mining in Sariska Tiger Reserve in Aravallis • The Araballi range is spread over about 692Km in the North-West India Coverving Gujarat. Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi. • The hill region is very rich in biodiversity as well as mineral resources. • The Sariska Tiger reserve has gentle slopy hills, vertical rocky valleys, flat plains as well as deep gorges. • The reserve is very rich in wild life and has enormous mineral reserves like quartzite, Schists, marble and granite in abundance. • Mining operations within and around the Sariska Tiger reserve has left many areas permanently infertile and barren. • The precious wild life is under serious threat.
  21. • We must preserve the Aravalli series as a National Heritage and the Supreme Court on December 31st, 1991 has given a judgement in response to a Public Interest Litigation of Tarun Bharat Sangh, an NGO wherein both Centre and State Government of Rajasthan have been directed to ensure that all mining activity within the park be stopped. • More than 400 mines were shut immediately. But, still some illegal mining isin progress.
  22. • About 200 open cast mining and quarrying centers in Udaipur about half to which are illegal are involed in stone mining including soap stone,building stone, rock phosphate and dolomite. • The mines spread over 15,000 hectares in Udaipur have caused many adverse impacts on environment. About 150 tones of explosives are used per month in blasting.
  23. • The waste water flows towards a big tank of “BagDara”. • Due to scarcity of water people are compelled to use this effluent for irrigationpurpose. • The blasting activity has adversely affected the fauna and the animals like tiger, lion, deer and even hare, fox, wild cats and birds have disappeared from the mining area. • The overburden, washoff, discharge of mine water etc. pollute the water.The Maton mines have badly polluted theAhar river. The hills around the mines are devoid of any vegetation except a few scattered patches and the hills are suffering from acute soil erosion.
  24. Truth behindmining…… July 22,2012 Footertexthere 16
  25. 5. Environmental Problem
  26. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MINERAL EXTRACTION AND USE . The issue related to the limits of the mineral resources in our earth's crust or in the ocean is not so significant. More important environmental concern arises from the impacts of extraction and processing of these minerals during mining, smelting etc. • Jaduguda Uranium Mine, Jharkhand—exposing local people to radioactivehazards. • Jharia coal mines, Jharkhand—underground fire leading to land subsidence and forced displacement of people. • Sukinda chromite mines, Orissa—seeping of hexavalent chromium into river posing serious health hazard, Cr6+ being highly toxic and carcinogenic. of groundwater. Jaduguda UraniumMine Jharia coal mines Sukinda chromitemines
  27. ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTS OF MINERAL EXTRACTIONAND USE . The issue related to the limits of the mineral resources in our earth's crust or in the ocean is not so significant. More important environmental concern arises from the impacts of extraction and processing of these minerals during mining, smelting etc. • Kudremukh iron ore mine, Karnataka—causing river pollution and threat tobiodiversity. • East coast Bauxite mine,Orissa—Land encroachment and issue of rehabilitation unsettled. • North-Eastern Coal Fields, Assam—Veryhigh sulphur contamination Kudremukh iron ore mine
  28. The environmental damage caused by mining activities are as follows: • Devegetation and defacing of landscape • Subsidence ofland • Groundwater contamination • Surface waterpollution • Airpollution • Occupational Health Hazards Devegetation Subsidence ofland waterpollution waterpollution Airpollution