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DSD-INT 2022 PROTIST - a new primary production module for D-Water Quality - Schneider

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DSD-INT 2022 PROTIST - a new primary production module for D-Water Quality - Schneider

  1. 1. Lisa K. Schneider, Lora Buckman, Nathalie Gypens, Michelle Jeuken, Maarten Klapwijk, Arjen Markus, Tineke A. Troost, Lauriane Vilmin, Luca van Duren, Willem Stolte Modelling phytoplankton, mixoplankton & protozooplankton PROTIST - a new primary production module for D-Water Quality
  2. 2. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion Primary producers such as (phyto)plankton form the base of marine coastal ecosystems. 2 Eutrophication Carry capacity Harmful Algae Blooms Carbon fluxes Numerical Model Hydrodynamics + Sediment Dynamics + Water Quality + …
  3. 3. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion DELWAQ is the water quality component of the Deltares numerical modelling suite. 3 plankton DYNAMO BLOOM Two different modules to simulate plankton and primary production
  4. 4. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion These two primary production modules differ in their mathematical principles applied. 4 DYNAMO BLOOM Monod kinetics Linear programming Small time step → Turbulent systems Species competition Simple → Too simple 24 h time step → Difficult in turbulent systems → Difficult in species ecosystem interaction
  5. 5. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion Hot topic in coastal zone management is the combination of offshore wind farms with different forms of aquaculture. 5 + Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) Primary production module requirements: Small time step → Interspecies competition → Turbulent systems Multiple species Offshore wind farms Planktonic primary production +
  6. 6. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion DELWAQ recently released a new primary production module called PROTIST. 6 plankton DYNAMO BLOOM PROTIST Three different modules to simulate plankton and primary production
  7. 7. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 7 PROTIST is a primary production module for DELWAQ that models the complete protist community. PROTIST 5 protist functional types simultaneously Schneider et al. (2021) Modelling mixoplankton along the biogeochemical gradient of the Southern North Sea. Ecological Modelling, 459. ligh t NO3 - NH4 + CO2,NH4 +,DIP DIP DO M PO M CO2 pre y SAPPM 1 protist functional type at a time Flynn (2021) Enhancing Microalgal Production - constructing decision support tools using system dynamics modelling. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5036605
  8. 8. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion Phytoplankton Protozooplankton Mixoplankton 1. Photosynthesis 2. Uptake dissolved inorganic nutrients 1. Capture and assimilate prey 1. Photosynthesis 2. Uptake dissolved inorganic nutrients 3. Capture and assimilate prey 8 A protist community is the base of marine food web and consists of phyto-, protozoo-, and mixoplankton.
  9. 9. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 9 Mixoplankton can be distinguished into four different types. 9 Constitutive Mixoplankton CM Non-Constitutive Mixoplankton NCM Innate chloroplasts Must aquire photosynthetic capabilities from prey General GNCM plastid Specialist pSNCM endosymbiotic Specialist eSNCM e.g. Alexandrium e.g. certain ciliates e.g. Dinophysis Noctiluca scintillans
  10. 10. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 10 Protist has five different functional types with each a different amount of state variables Each Protist Functional Type (PFT) → Protist C → Protist N → Protist P Phototrophic PFTs → Protist Chl Diatom PFT → Protist Si
  11. 11. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 11 All state variables required → 5 Protist Function Types (PFTs) → diatom → green algae → constitutive mixoplankton CM → non-constitutive mixoplankton NCM → protozooplankton → 5 inorganic nutrient state variables → 4 particulate organic state variables
  12. 12. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 12 Gain fluxes → Nutrient uptake
  13. 13. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 13 Gain fluxes → Photosynthesis
  14. 14. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 14 Gain fluxes → Grazing
  15. 15. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 15 Gain fluxes → Grazing → Nutrient uptake → Photosynthesis
  16. 16. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 16 Loss fluxes → Respiration (all PFTs)
  17. 17. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 17 Loss fluxes → Mortality (all PFTs)
  18. 18. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 18 Loss fluxes → Excretion
  19. 19. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 19 Loss fluxes → DOC voiding
  20. 20. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 20 Loss fluxes → Nutrient voiding
  21. 21. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 21 Loss fluxes → Sedimentation for diatoms
  22. 22. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 22 Loss fluxes → Respiration (all PFTs) → Mortality (all PFTs) → Excretion → DOC voiding → Nutrient voiding → Sedimentation for diatoms
  23. 23. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 23 Conceptual model of PROTIST
  24. 24. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 24 Both sugar kelp as well as the protist community require access to the dissolved inorganic nutrient pool. → Uptakes inorganic nutrients during winter → Harvested during summer → Competes for dissolved inorganic nutrients Does the intensification of kelp aquaculture affect the composition of planktonic protist communities?
  25. 25. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 25 We set up a 3D ecological model of the North Sea and ran two different scenarios. Zijl, F. et al. (2018). The 3D Dutch Continental Shelf Model – Flexible Mesh (3D DCSM-FM). Deltares rapporte 1220339-000. PROTIST Dutch Continental Shelf Model – Flexible Mesh (DCSM-FM) D-Water Quality (DELWAQ) Deltares (2022). D-Water Quality user manual. https://content.oss.deltares.nl/delft3d/manuals/D-Water_Quality_User_Manual.pdf
  26. 26. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 26 PROTIST was combined with a seaweed module and two scenarios were run. Reference scenario Seaweed scenario Diatom Green algae Protozoo- plankton CM Seaweed -
  27. 27. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 27 In the seaweed scenario, seaweed was seeded in 25 % of the area of each offshore wind farm. Modified from Vilmin and Van Duren (2021) Modelling seaweed cultivation on the Dutch continental shelf. Deltares report (https://www.deltares.nl/en/publications/)
  28. 28. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 28 The reference scenario manages to capture the timing of the nutrient peak concentrations well.
  29. 29. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 29 These model results visualize the relative difference between the reference and seaweed scenario. → Decrease in DIN and DIP Surface DIN difference [%] Surface DIP difference [%]
  30. 30. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 30 The model results show a relative change in trophic composition of the protists community in OWF. → Relative increase in CM and diatom biomass Surface CM biomass difference [%] Surface diatom biomass difference [%]
  31. 31. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 31 From the 3D model results, it can tentatively be concluded that Seaweed aquaculture in the SNS could lead → Decrease in DIN and DIP concentrations Could lead to a → Increase of CM biomass → Increase of diatom biomass → Change in trophic composition of protist communities Reference scenario Seaweed scenario Diatom Green algae Protozoo- plankton CM Seaweed -
  32. 32. introduction : PROTIST : application : conclusion 32 PROTIST offers a useful tool to analyze the impact of anthropogenic changes on marine environments. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) Offshore wind farms Planktonic primary production
  33. 33. Contact www.deltares.nl info@deltares.nl @deltares @deltares linkedin.com/company/deltares facebook.com/deltaresNL lisa.schneider@deltares.nl

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