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Exercise and oral health

Routine exercise has many known benefits but it can also have an impact on oral health.

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Exercise and oral health

  2. 2. THE IMPORTANCE OF EXERCISING Routine exercise has many known benefits:  Increased fitness  Improved health  Prevention of systemic diseases  Sense of wellbeing  Increased self-esteem Physical activity can have an impact on oral health.
  3. 3. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORAL HEALTH A recent review of the literature revealed that competitive athletes do not have proper oral health: Injuries: 14-47% Caries: 15-75% Dental erosion: 36-85% Periodontitis: 15% 5-18% of athletes recognise that oral health problems may have had a negative impact on their athletic performance. Ashley P, Di Iorio A, Cole E, Tanday A, Needleman I. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2015; 49 (1): 14-19
  5. 5. Psychomotor- and performance-related factors influence periodontal health 2. Poor aerobic capacity, foot balance and reaction are associated with inferior periodontal health. EXERCISE ORAL HEALTH. BENEFITS Obesity may be a risk factor for periodontitis1. Persons with lower BMI and higher oxygen consumption have better periodontal health. 1. Shimazaki Y, Egami Y, Matsubara T, Koike G, Akifusa S, Jingu S, Yamashita Y. Relationship between obesity and physical fitness and periodontitis. J Periodontol 2010; 81 (8): 1.124-1.131. 2. Wakai K, Kawamura T, Umemura O, Hara Y, Machida J, Anno T, Ichihara Y, Mizuno Y, Tamakoshi A, Lin Y, Nakayama T, Ohno Y. Associations of medical status and physical fitness with periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 1999 Oct;26(10):664-72. 3. Sanders AE, Slade GD, Fitzsimmons TR, Bartold PM. Physical activity, inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2009; 36 (5): 388-395 Protection against excessive inflammatory response in periodontitis3. Exercising during leisure time is associated with lower inflammatory markers.
  6. 6. EXERCISE ORAL HEALTH. BENEFITS Stress reduction3,4 Playing sports during leisure time reduces stress and protects against its harmful effects. Stress is considered to be a risk factor for periodontal disease. Improved glycaemic control in diabetic patients1,2 Both aerobic exercise and resistance training improve insulin action and glucose control. Poor glucose control in diabetic patients may assist in the development of periodontal disease. 1. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, Chasan-Taber L, Albright AL, Braun B; American College of Sports Medicine; American Diabetes Association. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010 Dec;33(12):e147-67. 2. Taylor JJ, Preshaw PM, Lalla E. A review of the evidence for pathogenic mechanisms that may link periodontitis and diabetes. J Clin Periodontol. 2013 Apr;40 Suppl 14:S113-34 3. Agudelo LZ, Femenía T, Orhan F, Porsmyr-Palmertz M, Goiny M, Martinez-Redondo V, Correia JC, Izadi M, Bhat M, Schuppe-Koistinen I, Pettersson AT, Ferreira DM, Krook A, Barres R, Zierath JR, Erhardt S, Lindskog M, Ruas JL. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α1 modulates kynurenine metabolism and mediates resilience to stress-induced depression. Cell. 2014 Sep 25;159(1):33-45 4. Barbieri G, Mateos L, Bascones A. Papel del estrés en la etiopatogenia de la Enfermedad Periodontal. Av Periodo n Implantol. 2003; 15,2: 77-86.
  7. 7. EXERCISE ORAL HEALTH. RISKS Dental fractures Injuries from sports components (floor, racket, wall, etc.) Bruxism Common, due to the stress many athletes undergo Xerostomia Consequence of intense exercise and mouth breathing, which can also cause temporary bad breath Caries The high sugar content of sports drinks, as well as the usual carbohydrate-rich diets of athletes and decreased saliva from xerostomia Tooth sensitivity From enamel erosion caused by: - the acidity of isotonic or energy drinks and soft drinks - bruxismo - teeth coming in contact with chlorine (swimmers)
  9. 9. ORAL HEALTH EXERCISE. RISKS Systemic inflammation resulting from periodontitis May increase the risk of having other conditions and could worsen athletic performance Malocclusion and bruxism Overloading jaws and transfer of tension to neck and back - muscle contractures Bacteraemia resulting form oral infections Infection may cause fatigue Inadequate chewing Slower digestion and reduced energy power in athletes Dental injury or pain Inferior athletic performance (and reduced quality of life) Martínez Medina IA., Bleró A., Navarro Montes CS., Ratia Mártínez F., Sánchez Aguilera F (23 de abril de 2009). El dolor de espalda causado por malposiciones dentarias. Gaceta Dental. Needleman I, Ashley P, Petrie A, Fortune F, Turner W, Jones J, Niggli J, Engebretsen L, Budgett R, Donos N, Clough T, Porter S. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study. Br J Sports Med. 2013 Nov;47(16):1054-8 Carrasquer A. Mejora tu rendimiento deportivo: ¡empieza por tu boca! Cuida tus Encías. SEPA Divulgación. 2015; 8:4-8
  11. 11. Prevention solves most oral problems Importance of changing habits that are harmful for oral health and long-term compliance with these. This may require professional help. The use of mouthguards  prevents dental fractures Proper hydration  prevents dry mouth and reduces the risk of caries Regular dental check-ups  dentists and hygienists are dedicated to caring for oral health, and if necessary, to diagnosing and treating emerging oral-related problems Using a night guard for bruxism Do not consume an excessive amount of isotonic drinks, limiting them to high intensity exercise. RECOMMENDATIONS
  12. 12. RECOMMENDATIONS. ORAL HYGIENE Brush teeth 2 times per day or after meals (night time very important) After consuming acidic drinks, wait at least 10 min before brushing. A toothbrush should be replaced every 3 months or when filaments appear to be worn Interproximal hygiene Daily use of a tongue cleaner Use of toothpaste and mouthwash: with fluoride to prevent the onset of caries with antiseptics to prevent gum disease with moisturisers or sialogogues (stimulants of salivary secretion) in persons with dry mouth after physical activity Consult your pharmacist who can recommend the most suitable oral hygiene products for you.
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