2. INDIAN MAJOR CARPS
80% of freshwater farming constituted by carps and other cyprinids globally.
Indian major carps- CATLA, ROHU, MRIGAL- Indo Gangetic riverine systems of India
Common carp- Cyprinus carpio enjoys a world wide distribution
Silver barb- Puntius gonionotus main native carp species of Thailand.
Bisexual, sexes can be distinguished only during the breeding season
Males- Pectoral fin- has rough dorsal surface , longer than that in female
Genital aperture not very prominent , milt oozes out
Belly Not swollen
Females- Dorsal side of Pect. Fin smooth.
Genital aperture reddish and swollen
Belly is soft and bulging
4. All 3 major carps attain sexual maturity in the second year
Males mature earlier than female
Carps of 2+ years and up to 5 years are preferred for breeding.
Seasonal riverine spawners, spawning during the southwest monsoon.
DONOT spawn in confined waters.
STRUCTURE OF EGG
A FRESHLY LAID unfertilised egg consists of cyotplasm filled with yolk
Nucleus is at the animal pole
Oocyte is surrounded by a vitelline membrane ,which is enclosed in a
Narrow opening called the micropyle is present on this chorion.
AFTER FERTILIZATION micropyle is closed.
Eggs start absorbing water.
Chorion changes into a tough structure through water hardening-
Perivitelline space gets filled with water, and swelling of oocyte takes place
Eggs attain more than 4 to 6 times their original size.
Development of eggs start with meroblastic cleavage-
Group of cells morula > blastula >GASTRULATION>embryo having3germlaye
– ecto, endo and mesoderm
6. After gastrulation body organs are formed.
Small embryo with bilaterally symmetrical body ,as the embryo grows
the yolk sac gets reduced in size.
Thick inner layer of chorion is broken by hatching enzymes
and the embryo by its feeble movements can break the weakened layer
and hatch out.
The newly hatched larvae of carps – slender , transparent ,
non pigmented body having head, trunk and tail.(3-5.3mm)
They lie at the bottom, occasionally coming up with irregular movements.
After 24 hrs- slight darting movements.
After 36 hrs- feeble horizontal movements.
After 48 hrs- shooting and darting movement .Devt of mouth, stomach,
intestine & gills covered with operculum.
72 hrs- dorsal and ventral fin rudiments appear, yolk sac is fully absorbed
7. SEED COLLECTION FROM NATURAL SPAWNING GROUNDS
Major carps spawn during monsoon season- in inundated terrains
1. Fresh floods kills the flora and fauna and the decaying matter
provides food for growth of micro org. and zoopl. –food for fry.
2. Area free from natural predators and predatory insects that feed on carp spawn.
3. Water rich in O2 favours rapid dev’t of eggs and larvae.
Disadv. of spawn collection from wild:-
1. Uncertainty in availability of seed.
2. Impossible to get a pure stock of seed
3. Process of procurement – labour intensive
4. Heavy mortality of seed collected
8. A SHOOTING NET is used for collection of
•Spawn, larvae and fry of fish are found at
3-6 feet depth,
• at current velocity of 0.5-3 km/hr.
•current direction is parallel to bank of the
9. BUNDH BREEDING
• First attempt to breed major carpslocated at thewater.of a catchment area.
• Bundh – seasonal or perrenial pond slope
•Breeding done during rainy season-the pond, which catchment is allowed guarded
to flow through narrow canals into
water from the
has an outlet valve also,
by wire mesh. Conditions simulate a riverine condition and they breed.
•Wet bundhs- perrenial , largeWater rushes, from the in the slope of a catchment area
With proper embankment.
water body situated
elevated catchment over an
extensive shallow area, which stimulates the brood carp to spawn .
•No human interventions.
•Dry bundh- man made, well3designed. seasonal shallow ponds ,ranging from 0.5wateracr
•Bound by embankments on portion, malesfilled during monsoon. When sufficient is
accumulated in the deeper
and females from the neighboring
areas are introduced for acclimatization and spawning.
•Bundhs operational Summer.of West Bengal, Rajasthan, Maharashtra.
Remains dry during
• in states
10. Wet Bundh : With the onset of monsoon the fresh rain water from the catchment area
enters into the bundh and the latter is inundated. The excess water flows out from
the bundh creating a water current. The breeders present in the deeper area of the
bundh migrate to shallow areas where they start breeding.
11. Rain water which accumulates in the catchment area during
premonsoon showers flows in to fill up the pond seasonally. Thereafter,
the brood fishes from a perennial pond are introduced into the seasonal ponds
to breed, preferably on cool rainy days. Spawning usually commence during and
after heavy showers when the bundh as well as the catchment area are flooded
with fresh rainwater.
12. INDUCED BREEDING OF CARPS
Technique responsible for augmenting the carp seed production in India.
More than 500 commercial hatcheries producing carp seed through this technique.
Both traditional HYPOPHYSATION AND GnRH based inducing techniques are used
Technique of induction of breeding by administration of PITUITARY EXTRACTS
Different Steps in the technique
1. Collection of pituitary gland.
Freshly killed or ice preserved mature fish.
Either male / female
a.Alcohol : Preserved in absolute alcohol in amber colored phial.
Stored in refrigerator.
b. Acetone: Pituitary is put in fresh acetone , kept in fridge for 36-48 hrs.
Acetone is changed 2-3 times at 8-12 hrs.
Glands are taken out, allowed to dry for 1 hr.
Weighed. Stored in phials for 6-12 months.
13. 3. Preparation of Pituitary Gland Extract
Usually prepared just before injection.
Weighed , homogenized in distilled water.
Add distilled water @ 0.2 ml/kg of the breeder. Centrifuged.
Supernatant( Carp Pituitary Extract ) is used for injection.
CPE can be preserved in glycerin for better shelf life, with ratio of 2:1 glycerin &water.
4. Administration of Hormones
Female is given 2 doses. First – initial dose / preparatory/priming dose
Second- after 5-6 hrs in IMC - final/ decisive/ resolving dose.
First dose advances the maturation of the oocytes, interval between the doses
depends on the species and on temperature.
Males given one dose at the time of the second injection of the female.
Quantity of the dose depends on the maturity status of brood fish and
quality of pituitary glands.
Injection done intramuscularly/ intraperitoneally- the latter is found more effective.
Dorsal part of caudal peduncle/ dorsal muscle above lateral line and below anterior
Portion of dorsal fin- intramuscular
Carried out in 1. traditional Breeding Hapas
2. spawning pools of Chinese Circular Hatchery or
One female with 2 males in breeding hapas
1:1 in ecohatchery
Rectangular box shaped structure stitched out of fine meshed
mosquito net cloth/nylon net cloth.size of hapa- 3.5 X1.5 X1m to
1.8 X0.9 X0.9m
Net tied with help of laces to 4 bamboo poles fixed in water
10-20 cm of upper surface of hapa is above water.
A flap at one end of the hapa is used for introduction of brood
pair & collection of eggs.
After hypophysation the pair is let into the hapa, fertilised eggs
are collected in the morning.
17. SPAWNING POOL OF CHINESE CIRCULAR HATCHERY
Circular tank, 5-8 m dia depth of 1 to 1.5 m Tank made of bricks/ RCC or FRP.
Bottom of the pool slopes towards the centre, into the outlet pipe which leads to the
egg collection chamber / or directly into the incubation pool.
A circular flow of water is created inside the tank by arranging the
inlet pipes at 60 degrees angle. Injected breeders are introduced into the
tank in the evening hours
Over the spawning pool, water showers of 6 mm dia are fixed at 1 m on top of tanks.
Initial dose -2-3 mg/kg in female
After 5- 6 hrs males are given the dose at 4-6 mg/kg and females at 10-12 mg/kg.
Water current is created at speed of 2- 5 m/sec
Under the hormonal influence and the water current that simulates river flow ,
19. Operational aspects of Spawning pool.
1. About 3.5 kg brood fish/m2 can be stocked in a spawning pool provided
with good quality water with DO 5-6 ppm.
2. Water temp- 28-30 degree C.
3. Water depth 0.6-1m
4. Brood fish are kept under shower before and after hormone injection.
5. Water current is initiated one hour before the calculated spawning
6. Speed of water current – 3-5 m/sec.
7. Water flow stopped as soon as spawning is over.
8. Brood fish are transferred back to the pond
9. Spawning and hatching units are disinfected with 5 ppm KMNO4
before and after each operation.
10.After 5-6 operations it is advisable to clean the tank with strong
20. INCUBATION OF FERTILISED EGGS
1. Hatching hapa
Two enclosures or hapas are used one inside the other (outer and inner
Hapas made of nylon net . Outer hapa mesh size- 0.5 mm and inner hapa 2-
Fixed in the pond using bamboo poles.
Eggs after prophylactic treatment are placed in inner hapa. After hatching
the hatchlings move out of the inner hapa and are collected in the outer
2. Funnel Type incubators
Fiber glass funnel shaped vertical jars closed at the broad end with a
rubber or plastic head and provided with an outlet.
Eggs are incubated in the funnel after the water is let in through the inlet
The upward moving water causes the egg to move and roll in this process
the eggs get sufficient oxygen and in turn the CO2 diffuses out.
Newly hatched eggs escape from the jar to be collected in a separate tub.
21. FUNNEL TYPE (JAR) HATCHERY
Eggs loaded @ 7500 to 10000/litre
Water flow @2-3 litres/min
When hatching begins the rate is
Increased, to facilitate the movement
Hatching success upto 90%.
22. 3. INCUBATION POOL OF CHINESE CIRCULAR HATCHERY /ECOHATCHERY
Circular in shape having 2 chambers, outer and inner,.made of bricks/FRP
Outer chamber 3-6 m dia and inner 0.8- 1.5 m and depth of 1 to 1.5m
Circular wall separating the inner and outer chambers provided with windows with
fine meshed net , allows water flow but not eggs / spawn.
At centre of inner chamber is the outlet pipe , maintains the desired water depth in
Inlet pipes duck mouth taps at the bottom of outer chamber , fitted at an angle of
45 degrees so that water moves in a circle inside the chambers.
Eggs released into the outer chamber , drift in a circular motion.
Good water circulation is important for the hatching success –speed maintained at
4- 5 m/sec – first 12 hrs
1- 2 m/sec – in next 6 hrs
3 - 4 m/sec- next 12 hrs.Hatchlings are allowed to remain there for 3 days until
the yolk sac is absorbed.
Hatching time varies from 16-20 hrs depending upon the temperature.
23. Operational aspects of egg incubation unit of ecohatchery
1. Eggs must be received on a water cushion in the outer chamber, loaded @
7-10 lakh eggs.
1. D. O should not be les than 4 ppm.
2. Direction of the duck mouth inlets and speed of the water are maintained
in such a way that it keeps the developing eggs away from the screen
and wall of incubation chamber.
4. Cleaning of the incubation pool should be done, incl. dead eggs and spawn
Surface, Subsurface, Column and bottom cleaners are used.