Alfred Adler was born on Feb 7,1870 in a suburb of Vienna , Austria.
He was the second of seven children of a Hungarian born grain merchant.
In 1902 famed Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
invited Adler to join a small discussion group , which became the famous Vienna
Adler’s theory of personality and humanity significantly differed from Freud ‘s as
well as significantly deffering from much of today ‘s mainstream psychology,
Adler believed that the social and community realm is equally as important to
psychology as the internal realm of the individual.
Used this term for his conception of personality because he was interested in
investigation the uniqueness of the person.
1. Intrapsychic(with in the psyche)
1. Refers to the urge in human nature to adopt oneself to the conditions of the
social environment .
2. It expresses itself subjectively in one’s consciousness of having something in
common with other people and of being one of them.
Adler agreed with Jung that teleology in necessary for a full understanding of
For Adler,the goal that the individual pursues the decisive factor and he called
Many of our guiding goals are fictions. Adler did not equate fiction with
falseness; rather he indicated that we can not know whether not our goals a true
or false because there is no way to scientifically test them.
We are unable to have a complete understanding of things as they really are ,so
we structure our own idea of reality.
FICTION are an individual’s or groups interpretations of the events of the
world .they are philosophical assumption.
We are assume that it’s best to tell the truth that all people are basically good
,or that hardwork will eventually pay off.such basic concepts are fictional
To be continued
Adler suggested that the psyche has as its primary objective the goal of
This is the ultimate fictional finalism for which all human beings strive , and it
gives unity and coherence to the personality.
Initially , Adler conceived of the primary motivating as aggression later he
identified the primary drives as a”will to power” .
He refined the concept of a drive toward power and suggested that the essential
dynamics of human nature lies in its striving for superiority .
Striving for superiority
Finally,he changed from striving for individual superiority to striving for a
The drive for superiority involves the desire to be compotent and effective in
whatever one strives to do.
Similar to Jung idea of self realization . Adler frequently used the term
perfection as a synonym for “superiority “which also means “completed” or
Life is encouraged by the desire to move from below to above.
To be continued
The striving for superiority arises because as human beings we feel inferior.
Inferiority feelings have their origin in our encounter as infants in the
environments.as human infants unlike other animals we are born immature in
complete to satisfy even our basic needs.
Each individual seeks to cope with the environment and develop superiority in
each of us shares the common goals of striving for superiority.even though
there are many different ways by which we have achieve this goal.
Style of life
1. The ruling type
2. The getting type
3. The avoiding type
4. The socially useful type
Four primary styles of life
The quality of emotional relationships among members of the family reflect.
It is self in its creative aspects that interprates and makes meaningful the
experiences of the organism and that searches for experiences to full fill the
persons unique style of life.
Creative self or the climax of the