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Sample MS-54 Jan June 2016
Course Code MS - 54
Course Title Management Information Systems
Assignment Code MS-54/TMA/SEM -...
This is sample copy, Only for viewing. You cannot copy or
take print of this copy.
1. Define structured and unstructured d...
Decisions may be taken either by an --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
 They are powerful in the sense of having multiple analytical and intuitive models for the evaluation of data and the
abi...
When detailed design -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
 The direct cutover strategy --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
4. Ring Topology- In Ring Topology, --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
8. Hybrid Topology- Hybrid networks --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
In circuit switching -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
While the layers of software, as described by the standards ensure error free' communication between two stations, the
app...
 ---------------------------------------- maintenance
 Increased ability ----------------------------------------- requi...
6. Implementation- The ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
organization or company excellence.
Organizations and companies ----------------------------------------------------------...
In the olden days, we have news ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
-sit and ride a computerized car which will take him to his workplace with very little intervention from him. Perhaps he d...
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Bank Name ICICI Bank
Account no. 628101546792
Account Type SAVING A/C
Account Holder Name DHARAMENDRA KUMAR S...
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MS-54 JAN JUNE 2016 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

MS-54 JAN JUNE 2016 IGNOU MBA SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

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MS-54 JAN JUNE 2016 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT

  1. 1. Sample MS-54 Jan June 2016 Course Code MS - 54 Course Title Management Information Systems Assignment Code MS-54/TMA/SEM - I/2016 Assignment Coverage All Blocks MBA Help Material Provided by Unique Tech Publication Unauthorized copying, selling and redistribution of the content is prohibited. This Material is provided for your reference only. The utility of this content will be lost by sharing. Please do not share this material with others. To know price of this assignment & For more inquiry visit: http://ignousolvedassignmentsmba.blogspot.in/ Dharmendra Kumar Singh ignousolvedassignmentsmba@gmail.com Mail us- ignou4you@gmail.com School of Management Studies INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY MAIDAN GARHI, NEW DELHI – 110 068
  2. 2. This is sample copy, Only for viewing. You cannot copy or take print of this copy. 1. Define structured and unstructured decisions. Discuss the rational individual models of decision making. What are the implications of these models to information system analysts? Structured decisions have a well ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------are made on a regular basis in business environments, it makes sense to place a comparatively rigid framework around the decision and the people making it. Structured decision support -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -to make a decision more structured, the support system for that decision is designed to ensure consistency. Many firms that hire individuals without a great deal of experience provide them with detailed guidelines on their decision making activities and support them by giving them little ---------------------------------------------------------------- structured is that the liability for inappropriate decisions is shifted from individual decision makers to the larger company or organization. An example of a structured ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- an international account depending on the current exchange rate. Unstructured decision relies on ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------of the decision there may only a limited number of people within the organization qualified to evaluate the decision. Generally, unstructured ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- their individual ability that is of value. One approach to support systems in this area is to construct a program that simulates the process used by a particular individual. In essence, these systems—commonly referred to as "expert systems"—prompt the user with a series of questions regarding a decision situation. Once the expert system has sufficient information about the decision scenario, it uses an -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -planning, cash flow management, operational planning and budgeting, and portfolio management. Another approach is to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- approaches. An example of an unstructured ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------- what market should be targeted. Rational individual -------------------------------------------------
  3. 3. Decisions may be taken either by an ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------, and so on that could come into play. Because organisations are made up of individuals, it makes sense to build information systems that facilitate individual decision making, wherever possible. Different assumptions have been made while proposing some model or the other. 1. Rational Model Some economists, -------------------------------------- decisions are always made rationally because the decision maker:  Knows his or her --------------------------------------------- all possible alternative solutions to the decision problem;  Knows the ----------------------------------------------; and  Chooses the --------------------------------- of the objective. Such idealistic ----------------------------------------------------------------------- that is pursued in real life situations. Still, despite these criticisms, the rational model remains a --------------------------------------------- human decision making. 2. Bounded ------------------------------------- Instead of searching for all of the -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----other also. Even goals are prioritised or placed in a hierarchy. In this way rationality is bounded. Simon proposes the `satisfying' approach rather than the `optimising approach'. 3. Muddling through Model In 1959, Lindblom proposed the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---. Non incremental policies are apolitical (not likely to bring agreement among important groups) and dangerous as nobody knows what they will lead to. Lastly, it is argued that choices are not "made". Instead decision making involves a continuous process in which final decisions are always being modified to accommodate changing objectives, environments, value preferences and policy alternatives provided by decision makers. 4. Psychological Types and Frames of Reference The psychologists have ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- deep seated tendency to avoid risks. when seeking gains but to accept risks in order to avoid losses. In other words, people are more sensitive to negative outcomes than to positive ones. ----------------------------------------- for Information Systems Decision making is not a ---------------------------------------------- in mind when designing information systems. The following characteristics of information systems could be encouraged:  They are flexible and ------------------------------------- evaluating information.  They are ---------------------------------------------------, skills and knowledge.  They are capable of ---------------------------------------- their values.
  4. 4.  They are powerful in the sense of having multiple analytical and intuitive models for the evaluation of data and the ability to keep track of many alternatives and consequences. 2. How much importance should be accorded to implementation phase as part of the total MIS development activity? Explain. Briefly discuss the various implementation strategies. Under what circumstances are they suitable? A long range MIS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- contents which will be dealt by the designer under a support from the top management. It is necessary to develop the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of the MIS would be so stated that they can be measured. The implementation of the system is a management process. It brings about organizational change; It affects people and changes their work style. The process evokes a behavior response which could be either favorable or unfavorable depending upon the strategy of system implementation. In the process of --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------person in the organization and how the change affects him. On many occasions, the new role may reduce his importance in the organization, the work design may make the new job impersonal, and a fear complex may get reinforced that the career prospects may be affected. ------------------------------------------------------------- successful implementation of the system. The system designer should not question beyond a limit the information need of the user. System analysis is the --------------------------------------------------------------- business and information system and the definition of business requirements. System analysis involves two phases: study phase and definition phase. Implementation of the MIS in --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------model suggests three steps in this process. The first step is ------------------------------------------------------------------------- and interested in the change. The second step is choosing a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ level of stability, and ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ and equilibrium is reinforced. Many a times, this process is implemented through an external change agent, such as a consultant playing the role of a catalyst. System development cycle stages are ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- systems expedite problem solving and improve the quality of decision-making.
  5. 5. When detailed design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Briefly, the activities performed in implementation phase are-  Prepare the ---------------------------- Charts or CPM/PERT networks advisable,  -------------------------------------- space,  ----------------------------------------------------,  Train the -----------------------------------------------------------,  Obtain and -------------------------------------------------------,  Develop and test software including programs, design of forms (input as well as output), files, data base etc., and  Finally testing and re------------------------------------------------------- the operation and maintenance phase. For very small projects, plan ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -in providing visually a clear picture of the total plan. It is helpful later on for control function over actual stages of ' implementation. An example of network diagram is given below: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Conversion is the process of changing from the old system to the new system. Four main conversion strategies can be employed. They are the parallel strategy, the direct cutover strategy, the pilot strategy and the phased strategy.  In a parallel strategy both the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------expensive, and additional staff or resources may be required to run the extra system.
  6. 6.  The direct cutover strategy --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---found. There is no other system to fall back on. Dislocations, disruptions and the cost of corrections are enormous.  The pilot study strategy ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and working smoothly, it is installed throughout the rest of the organization, either simultaneously or in stages.  The phased approach strategy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------first, followed by outlying operating units four months later. Moving from an old system to a new system requires that end users be trained to use the new system. Detailed documentation showing how the system works from both a technical and end-user standpoint is finalized during conversion time for use in training and everyday operations. Lack of proper training and documentation contributes to system failure, so this portion of the systems development process is very important. 3. What are the various kinds of network topologies? Describe the types of switching available in networks and describe the various applications to which networks can be put. Network topologies- Computer network ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------different components. Topologies are of following types: 1. Point-to-Point Topology- In point--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------to other adjacent nodes, ad infinitum. 2. Multipoint or Multidrop Topology- A -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------, however, the company can implement a functional network of production systems quickly and without major cost considerations. 3. Star Topology- In Star ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of “hub”. All the data on the star -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pair (UTP) Ethernet cable is used to connect workstations to central node.
  7. 7. 4. Ring Topology- In Ring Topology, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------. Sending and receiving of data takes place by the help of TOKEN. Token contains a piece of information which along with data is sent by the source computer. This token then passes to next node, which checks if the signal is -------------------------------------------------------------- the network, otherwise passes token along with the data to next node. This process continues until the signal reaches its intended destination. 5. Bus Topology- Bus ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- well as servers) are connected to the single cable (called bus), by the help of interface connectors. This central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as Bus (thus the name). Every workstation communicates with the other device through this Bus. A signal from the -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. A terminator is added at ends of the central cable, to prevent bouncing of signals. A barrel connector can be used to extend it. 6. Mesh Topology- In a mesh ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -used in computer networks. It is commonly used in wireless networks. Flooding or routing technique is used in mesh topology. Partially connected mesh topology Fully connected mesh topology 7. Tree Topology- A tree ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------. This results in both disadvantages of bus topology and advantages of star topology. For example, if the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------is arranged in a hierarchical form and any intermediate node can have any number of the child nodes.
  8. 8. 8. Hybrid Topology- Hybrid networks ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------different basic network topologies are connected. Two common examples for Hybrid network are: star ring network and star bus network  A star ring network consists of --------------------------------------------------------- using a multistation access unit (MAU) as a centralized hub.  A Star Bus -------------------------------------------- using a bus trunk (the bus trunk serves as the network's backbone). Types of switching available in networks- A network consists of --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A switched network is made up of a series of interconnected nodes called switches. There are basically three types of switching methods are made available. Out of three methods, circuit switching and packet switching are commonly used but the message switching has been opposed out in the general communication procedure but is still used in the networking application. 1. Circuit Switching- Circuit Switching is generally ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -are proved to be inefficient. The network for Circuit Switching is shown in figure. Here the network connection allows the electrical current and the associated voice with it to flow in between the two respective users. The end to end communication was established during the duration of call.
  9. 9. In circuit switching ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------- and the receiver then the information is forwarded continuously over the provided link. In Circuit Switching a dedicated link/path is established across the sender and the receiver which is maintained for the entire duration of conversation. 2. Packet Switching In Packet Switching, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ this case for following reasons:  Bandwidth is ---------------------------------------- routes for a busy circuit.  For a certain ----------------------------------------- the the remaining packet can be sent through another route. The major advantage of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------for exclusive use during the communication session. In cases where traffic fees are charged, for example in cellular communication, packet switching is characterized by a fee per unit of information transmitted. 3. Message Switching In case of Message Switching it is not necessary to establish a dedicated path in between any two communication devices. Here each message is treated as an independent unit and includes its own destination source address by its own. Each complete message is then transmitted from one device to another through internetwork. Each intermediate device receive the message and store it until the nest device is ready to receive it and then this message is forwarded to the next device. For this reason a message switching network is sometimes called as Store and Forward Switching. Message switches --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- regarding to the near switches that can be used for forwarding the present message to their required destination. The storing and ---------------------------------------------------------------- recommended for real time applications like voice and video. Applications to which networks can be put- Popular network --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------etc. or software like a language compiler or an application program. All these applications have their own requirements and they have to be mapped on to the network in an appropriate manner.
  10. 10. While the layers of software, as described by the standards ensure error free' communication between two stations, the applications have their own requirements of protocols. For example, even ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------- for these two applications are quite different. For example, the file transfer tries to identify receiver station and establishes a logical link over which ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------and sends it to his counterpart in Delhi. The exchange of letters between the post offices is similar to the exchange between Mail' Transfer Agents. The post office in Delhi through a delivery mechanism delivers the letter to the receiver. Thus the application 'requirements of an electronic mail are quite different from that of file transfer. In the case of an electronic bulletin board, a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------------in which a number of notices are stuck on the board and the reader only picks up the notices that are of relevance to him/her. The networks can be used in a variety of environments. For each environment; the major activities in the environment will decide the applicability of Networks to that environment. Some examples of environments are administrative offices finance and insurance, transport, hotels, manufacturers and hospitals. An administrative office has got both --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------typewriter. With the full availability of PCs, an internal electronic mail can effectively replace the movement of paper within the office. The traditional services like client-account servicing, client-record accessing, documentation control and distribution, financial administration and purchasing and sales can all be integrated into a Network which is nothing but an effective interconnection of PCs. 4. Outline the basic sequence of steps to acquiring a DMBS. What steps are the most important? Why should an organization be careful about placing over reliance on “benchmark” tests in selecting a DBMS? Sequence of steps to acquiring a DMBS- A Database --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Several factors may motivate the move -----------------------------------:  The need --------------------------------------------------------------- retrieval capabilities.  Faster --------------------------------------------------  ------------------------------------------ redundancy  Transferability ---------------------------------
  11. 11.  ---------------------------------------- maintenance  Increased ability ----------------------------------------- requirements.  More consistent --------------------------------  ------------------------------------------  Better audit facilities.  More ---------------------------------------- recovery  Reduced operating costs. Whatever the reasons, they --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- organisation and data processing facilities, and characteristics of the vendor. The most important ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of selection criteria must be tailored to the needs of the organisation, certain technical criteria are often overlooked. The process of database --------------------------------------------------. It consists of a series of steps. They are The six major steps in --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------from another. 1. Requirement Analysis- The purpose -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------will become the basis of the database design. 2. Conceptual Design - --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------database design. 3. DBMS Selection- The purpose of ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------economical in terms of hardware, software and staff-training costs. 4. Logical Design- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------in the language of the chosen DBMS. 5. Physical Design- Physical ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ used transactions are retrieved from the database as quickly as possible.
  12. 12. 6. Implementation- The ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the data in a controlled way. The selection and acquisition of a DBMS and -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------difficulty in gathering information and making the selection is one point of resistance to acquiring the new DBMS tools. The initial cost may also ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ acquisition cost becomes irrelevant. In spite of the apparent resistance to acquisition, the projections by the crystal-gaters in the industry are forecasting a multi- billion dollar industry by the year 2000. Even though an organisation may acquire a DBMS, there are still several additional points of resistance to overcome. The following are examples of database applications: Computerized library ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------database after failures and restoring it from backup files, as well as maintaining database security. An organization be ----------------------------------------------- “benchmark” tests in selecting a DBMS Benchmarking is a process of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ the best practice and to learn how to lower costs, reduce defects, increase quality, or improve outcomes linked to
  13. 13. organization or company excellence. Organizations and companies ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ become the basis for strategies, objectives, and goals. Often, a general idea that improvement is possible is the reason for undertaking benchmarking. Benchmarking, then, means looking for and finding organizations or companies that are doing something in the best possible way and learning how they do it in order to emulate them. Organizations or companies often attempt to benchmark against the best in the world rather than the best in their particular industry. OVERRELIANCE COULD LEAD TO - it may restrict the --------------------------------------------------------------------. -By emulating current exemplary ----------------------------------------------------- or technique rather than a way for the organization or company to gain managerial dominance or marketing share. -can kill ------------------------------may not generate new ideas. -may not be a -------------------------- -What is best -------------------------------- suit you -Poorly defined ------------------------------- effort and meaningless results. -Incorrect comparisons -Reluctance to share information 5. Write a detailed note on “the impact of computerization on our living style”. The impact of computerization on our living style- Computers are commonly used items in many fields in our present world as will be in the future. Since the ages of the fathers of computers like Blaise Pascal and Charles Babbage. These machines have proven to be very essential or important and significant especially for people who run large organizations and industries, but also to the individuals themselves. We are presently living in 21st ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --way we do our routine things. Our dependence on computers in daily life is increasing gradually and after some time we may reach the point where our life will not go forward without computers. Computers have affected our ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- be connected with friends and family around the world, many business deals and conference is now made through the help of computer. Nevertheless the entertainment world would not have been as successful as it is if it weren`t for computers, because movies these days require a lot of animations and use of graphics to create effects. So basically the whole universe is a computerized universe as it is right now.
  14. 14. In the olden days, we have news -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----write programs and much more with the help of computers. Starting from reading ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and educating their students about computers. Computers are also ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------software) to avoid unwanted risks. Computers are playing a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------any task without any errors. The increased need of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and more effective models. From computers our journey continued to laptops, notebooks and ultra books and presently we are using tablets. In the near future we may see more advanced technology with awesome features to modify our life to a higher level. An individual who ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- professional to become more competent. An individual who is a member of an --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------on many things other than the opportunity to avail the technology. An individual who is a researcher either in physical sciences or social sciences is perhaps more benefited from the use of computers. In processing data, in getting accuracy, in controlling flow of chemicals etc., in simulation etc., the computer offers enormous potential. The common man in general is also ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------for so long that he will definitely enjoy the services that can be provided in a computerized environment. In developing countries which ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  15. 15. -sit and ride a computerized car which will take him to his workplace with very little intervention from him. Perhaps he does a kind of work in his organisation for which he need not necessarily go to the workplace, but can sit at home and work on a terminal connected to the office. At ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------of the world sitting at home and avoid a costly and time-consuming travel. I am sending sample of MS-54 assignment. If you like then you can buy this assignment. We provide excellent assignments. Assignments Code Assignment Name Price (Rs.) MS-54 Management Information Systems 130 Following options are available in our below mentioned Account. 1. Click on below link and purchase online from web store This method is very simple. In this method you can purchase assignments like anything you purchases online. Here you can directly pay using your debit card/ credit card/ net banking within seconds. This is a faster method and you will get assignments faster than any other method. https://www.payumoney.com/store/buy/mba-jan-june-2016-solved-assignments 2. If you have Paytm App then you can send money direct to our Paytm wallet using our mail id ignousolvedassignmentsmba@gmail.com or mobile no 8604607390 3. If you have MobiKwik App then you can send money direct to our MobiKwik wallet using our mail id mobile no 8604607390 4. ONLINE TRANSFER USING NET BANKING: Bank details are given below along with IFSC code of the bank branch. You can transfer funds online conveniently from your home/office without any extra charges. 5. CASH DEPOSIT- You can directly walk-in to any nearest branch of bank and deposit cash directly in the given bank account. 6. IMPS TRANSFER- HDFC/CITI BANK ACCOUNT HOLDERS can transfer funds to our account instantly using their net banking. There is a new feature called IMPS transfer. This transfer happens instantly and is very simple
  16. 16. Bank Details Bank Name ICICI Bank Account no. 628101546792 Account Type SAVING A/C Account Holder Name DHARAMENDRA KUMAR SINGH IFSC code & branch address IFSC Code- ICIC0006281 Branch- HAZRAT GANJ, LUCKNOW Note- Bank Transaction charges – No extra charge in case of Cash deposit Bank Name STATE BANK OF INDIA Account no. 31436792295 Account Type SAVING A/C Account Holder Name DHARMENDRA KUMAR SINGH IFSC code & branch address IFSC Code- SBIN0003085 Branch- TOWN HALL, SHAHJAHANPUR (UP) Note- Bank Transaction charges – Rs. 50/- applicable for cash deposit/ATM /Cheque payment in SBI A/C. (Rs. 50/- extra on total amount). DHARMENDRA KUMAR SINGH

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