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Diversity And Conservation Strategies Of
Banana And Coconut
What is Biodiversity?
Biodiversity, also called biological diversity, the
variety of life found in a place on Earth or, of...
Biodiversity Conservation
 Protection of natural habitats of organisms
through controlled exploitation.
 Maintenance of ...
Threats to our Biodiversity
 Degradation, fragmentation and loss
of habitat.
 Spreading of invasive species.
 Unsustain...
Conservation Method
Diversity And Conservation Strategies Of Banana
Banana
BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION
 Scientific Name – Musa sp.
 Family – Musaceae
 Chromosome No. – 22,44,66,88
BOTANICA...
Agro-Climatic Requirements
 Banana a tropical crop, grows well in a
temperature ranges of 15°C - 35°C with
relative humid...
Top 10 Banana Producing Countries in
the World 2018
Serial
No.
Country Production (Million Tonnes)
1 India 29.82
2 China 1...
Banana-growing countries that produce 1 million metric tonnes or more.
Each country’s production is allocated to four cate...
Banana Producing States in
India
Ra
nk
State Production- (000MT)
1 Tamil Nadu 5136.2
2 Gujarat 4523.49
3 Maharashtra 3600
...
Map showing the top 10 banana
producing states in India
Growing and Potential Belts in
India
Banana varieties in India
State Varieties grown
Andhra
Pradesh
Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Amritpant,
Thellachakra...
State Varieties Grown
Karnataka Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Monthan,
Elakkibale
Kerala Nendran (Plantain),...
MAP SHOWING THE BANANA GROWING STATES IN INDIA
Important Cultivars of Banana
Sr. no. Banana Variety Features Grown Areas
1 Dwarf Cavendish The duration of the crop
is 11...
Sr.
No.
Banana
Variety
Features Grown Areas
4 Nendran Exported to Gulf Countries,
bunch weight varies from 8-15
kg having ...
Sr. No Banana
Variety
Features Grown Areas
7 Grand Naine It is a medium to tall statured
variety and is a heavy yielder
wi...
Sr.
No
Banana
Variety
Features Grown Areas
10 Karpuraval
li
Tolerance to drought. Salt and Wind,
ease of cultivation and h...
Virupakshi Monthan
Dwarf Cavendish Grand Naine
Karpuravalli Nendran
Pachanadan Udhayam
Poovan Red Banana
Robusta
Methods of Banana
Conservation
 The Surveyed Collections
 Ex Situ conservation
1. Conservation of wild
species
2. Field ...
Agency work on conserving
Musa sp. In India
National Research Centre on Banana
- NRCB
Field and in vitro collection, conta...
The Surveyed Collections
There is a gradual and continuous establishment of
ex situ collections from the late 1960s to rec...
Ex Situ conservation
 Some wild germplasm accessions disappear from ex
situ collections because field collections do not ...
Field Collection
 Field gene banks provide easy access to
plant genetic resources.
 It helps for characterization, evalu...
Cont.
 According to the survey the most damaging
biotic factors affecting the field collections are
the following:-
1. Fu...
In vitro Collection
 In vitro collections are used mainly for the safety
duplication of the field collections and for rap...
Out of the 56 collections from the
Global Musa Survey, 32 institutes
maintain an in vitro collection varying
from a few ac...
Cont.
The collection with more than 100 accessions conserved
in vitro
Cryopreservation Collection
Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of
in vitro collections, with minimal ...
The following 3 institutes maintain germplasm in
cryopreservation:
1. ITC collection with 938 accessions (76%
cultivars, 1...
Cryopreservation of individual meristems
Production of robust, rooted in vitro plants of
banana
Illustration of meristem isolation.
(Leaves are removed one by one ...
Recovered shoots from
cryopreserved apical
meristems of banana
Meristem cultures of different banana
cultivars
Conservation of wild species
through seed
 Conservation of the
wider Musa wild
diversity through seeds
and embryo.
 Seed...
Overview of Banana
Conservation
1. Vegetative methods are the best and more
widely used methods of banana conservation.
2....
Diversity And Conservation Strategies Of Coconut
Introduction
 The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.)
belongs to the Arecaceae family (Order
Arecales) and is the only speci...
Cont.
 Coconut genetic diversity
Coconut is one of the few major crop species that has
no closely related wild relatives....
Percentage share in area &
production of Coconut: Major
countries
Coconut – National scenario
Coconut research setup in
India
Coconut Genetic Resources
in India
Exotic Coconut Germplasm at
CPCRI
Indigenous Coconut Germplasm
at CPCRI
Improved coconut varieties
developed in India
Cont.
Cont.
Superior Coconut Hybrids
released in India
Conservation method
 Plant Genetic Research are commonly
conserved using ex situ or in situ
approaches.
 Ex situ refers ...
1. Pollen
2. Tissues
3. cells or DNA.
 Coconut bears very large size seeds
so seed conservation not possible.
1) Field genebank:-
Advantages-
 Easy access for characterization, evaluation
and use.
 Simple infrastructure needs.
 D...
Research needed-
 Minimum number of palms needed to maintain
representative genetic diversity
 Filed plot techniques for...
2) In vitro collecting and culture of
zygotic embryos-
Advantages-
 Well established protocols.
 Facilitates germplasm e...
In vitro culture
3) Cryopreservation-
Advantages-
 Feasible for long term secure storage.
 Easy to maintain, low costs.
 Protocol for co...
Cont.
Cryopreservation of coconut plumules using
encapsulation/dehydration technique
4) Pollen
conservation-
Advantages-
 Large number of samples
can be maintained in small
space.
 Easy to handle.
 Useful...
5) On-farm-
Advantages-
 Dynamic conservation in relation to
environmental changes.
 Participation of local communities ...
Research needed-
 Little information on status of genetic diversity
across coconut stands.
 Systematic documentation of ...
On farm Coconut conservation
Comparison of conservation options for coconuts
In situ on
farm /natural
habitats
Botanic
Gardens
‘Convention
al’
Genebank...
Cont.
In situ on
farm
/natural
habitats
Botanic
Gardens
‘Conventional’
Genebanks
(seed banks,
field
genebanks)
Slow growth...
The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut.
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The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 1 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 2 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 3 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 4 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 5 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 6 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 7 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 8 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 9 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 10 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 11 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 12 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 13 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 14 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 15 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 16 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 17 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 18 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 19 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 20 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 21 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 22 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 23 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 24 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 25 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 26 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 27 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 28 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 29 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 30 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 31 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 32 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 33 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 34 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 35 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 36 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 37 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 38 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 39 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 40 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 41 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 42 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 43 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 44 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 45 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 46 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 47 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 48 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 49 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 50 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 51 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 52 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 53 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 54 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 55 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 56 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 57 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 58 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 59 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 60 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 61 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 62 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 63 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 64 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 65 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 66 The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut. Slide 67
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The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut.

  1. 1. Diversity And Conservation Strategies Of Banana And Coconut
  2. 2. What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity, also called biological diversity, the variety of life found in a place on Earth or, often, the total variety of life on Earth. A common measure of this variety, called species richness, is the count of species in an area.
  3. 3. Biodiversity Conservation  Protection of natural habitats of organisms through controlled exploitation.  Maintenance of rare species in protected areas such as national parks, sanctuaries etc.,  Establishment of specific biosphere reserves for endangered plants and animals.  Protection of wild life through legislation such as banning hunting etc.,  Imposing specific restrictions on export of endangered plants and animals or their products.  Educating the public about the need to protect and preserve the environment as a
  4. 4. Threats to our Biodiversity  Degradation, fragmentation and loss of habitat.  Spreading of invasive species.  Unsustainable use of natural resources.  Change in climate.  Inappropriate fire regimes.  Change within aquatic environment and water flows.
  5. 5. Conservation Method
  6. 6. Diversity And Conservation Strategies Of Banana
  7. 7. Banana BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION  Scientific Name – Musa sp.  Family – Musaceae  Chromosome No. – 22,44,66,88 BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION  Type of Fruit- Berry  Edible Part – Endocarp Origin – S.E. Asia
  8. 8. Agro-Climatic Requirements  Banana a tropical crop, grows well in a temperature ranges of 15°C - 35°C with relative humidity of 75-85%  It require loamy soil with pH between 6.5- 7.5  Rich in organic material with high nitrogen content, adequate phosphorus and plenty of potash.  Average rainfall require is 650-750mm.
  9. 9. Top 10 Banana Producing Countries in the World 2018 Serial No. Country Production (Million Tonnes) 1 India 29.82 2 China 11.64 3 Uganda 11.23 4 Philippines 9.45 5 Ecuador 8.24 6 Brazil 7.65 7 Indonesia 5.27 8 Colombia0 5.27 9 Cameroon 4.94 10 Tanzania 4.08
  10. 10. Banana-growing countries that produce 1 million metric tonnes or more. Each country’s production is allocated to four categories: Cavendish cultivars, other dessert cultivars, Plantain cultivars, and other cooking cultivars. India is the largest producer with 29.82 million tonnes.
  11. 11. Banana Producing States in India Ra nk State Production- (000MT) 1 Tamil Nadu 5136.2 2 Gujarat 4523.49 3 Maharashtra 3600 4 Andhra Pradesh 3242.797 5 Karnataka 2529.6 6 Bihar 1702.412 7 Madhya Pradesh 1701 8 West Bengal 1077.8 9 Assam 837.021 10 Orissa 521.31
  12. 12. Map showing the top 10 banana producing states in India
  13. 13. Growing and Potential Belts in India
  14. 14. Banana varieties in India State Varieties grown Andhra Pradesh Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Amritpant, Thellachakrakeli, Karpoora Poovan, Chakrakeli, Monthan and Yenagu Bontha Assam Jahaji (Dwarf Cavendish), Chini Champa, Malbhog, Borjahaji (Robusta), Honda, Manjahaji, Chinia (Manohar), Kanchkol, Bhimkol, Jatikol, Digjowa, Kulpait, Bharat Moni Bihar Dwarf Cavendish, Alpon, Chinia , Chini Champa, Malbhig, Muthia, Kothia , Gauria Gujarat Dwarf Cavendish, Lacatan, Harichal (Lokhandi), Gandevi Selection, Basrai, Robusta, G-9, Harichal, Shrimati Jharkhan d Basrai, Singapuri
  15. 15. State Varieties Grown Karnataka Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Monthan, Elakkibale Kerala Nendran (Plantain), Palayankodan (Poovan), Rasthali, Monthan, Red Banana, Robusta Maharashtra Dwarf Cavendish, Basrai, Robusta, Lal Velchi, Safed Velchi, Rajeli, Nendran, Grand Naine, Shreemanti, Red Banana Orissa Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Champa, Patkapura (Rasthali) Tamil Nadu Virupakshi, Robusta, Rad Banana, Poovan, Rasthali, Nendran, Monthan, Karpuravalli, Sakkai, Peyan, Matti West Bengal Champa, Mortman, Dwarf Cavendish, Giant Governor, Kanthali, Singapuri
  16. 16. MAP SHOWING THE BANANA GROWING STATES IN INDIA
  17. 17. Important Cultivars of Banana Sr. no. Banana Variety Features Grown Areas 1 Dwarf Cavendish The duration of the crop is 11 months and produces bunch with an average weight of 20 kg, compactly arranged with 140 to 160 fruit / bunch Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and Meghalaya 2 Robusta Plants bear potential bunches weighing 25 to 30 Kgs each with good sized, slightly curved fruit Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, Jharkhand, Kerala and Maharashtra 3 Rasthali Plants are medium statured and the crop takes 13 to 15 months to come to harvest with bunch weighing 15-18 kg Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam and Mizoram
  18. 18. Sr. No. Banana Variety Features Grown Areas 4 Nendran Exported to Gulf Countries, bunch weight varies from 8-15 kg having 30 – 50 fingers. Fruit have a distinct neck with thick and green peel which turns yellow on ripening. Kerala, Tamil Nadu 5 Poovan Under optimum crop management, it bears bunches weighing 20-24 kg each having 150 – 300 fingers, it is distinguished from other cultivars by its pink pigmentation on the ventral side of the midri of young leaves. Tripura, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Arunach al Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, Jharkhand, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala and Karnataka 6 Ney Poovan First crop cycle in 12-13 months, bunch orientation is Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
  19. 19. Sr. No Banana Variety Features Grown Areas 7 Grand Naine It is a medium to tall statured variety and is a heavy yielder with long cylindrical bunch. On an average is produces a bunch weighing 25-35 Kg and goes up to 60-65 Kg in crop duration of 11-12 months. All over India 8 Red Banana Elite banana cultivar and grown for red peeled delicious fruit of unique taste. The plants are tall, robust ranging from 2.5 m to 3.0 m in height, produces bunches to tune of 20 – 30 Kg Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Karnata ka and Tamil Nadu 9 Monthan Fairly tall and robust, growing to a height of 2.5 to 3.0 m Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Jharkha nd, Odisha and Kerala
  20. 20. Sr. No Banana Variety Features Grown Areas 10 Karpuraval li Tolerance to drought. Salt and Wind, ease of cultivation and high productivity has favoured its commercial cultivation at larger scale in marginal soil conditions in South India. Takes about 16 months to complete first crop cycle with bunches of 25-35 Kg weight under optimum crop management conditions. Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu 11 Virupakshi Duration of crop is 14 months, average bunch weight is 12 Kg and 6-8 hands with 80-90 fruit / bunch. Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu 12 Udhayam The Plants are comparatively dwarf in stature with a duration of 13 – 14 months Tripura, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala 13 Pachanad an Duration of the crop is 11 – 12 months, tall statured with 2.6 to 3.1 m Tamil Nadu
  21. 21. Virupakshi Monthan Dwarf Cavendish Grand Naine
  22. 22. Karpuravalli Nendran Pachanadan Udhayam
  23. 23. Poovan Red Banana Robusta
  24. 24. Methods of Banana Conservation  The Surveyed Collections  Ex Situ conservation 1. Conservation of wild species 2. Field Collection  In vitro Collection 1. Cryopreservation Collection 2. Conservation of wild species through seed.
  25. 25. Agency work on conserving Musa sp. In India National Research Centre on Banana - NRCB Field and in vitro collection, containing 4505 mats of 901accessions in the field and 72 accessions in the lab, supplying farmers, horticulturists and breeders in India. Botanical potential of the collection for breeding is evident.
  26. 26. The Surveyed Collections There is a gradual and continuous establishment of ex situ collections from the late 1960s to recently, with the following collections currently present in the 4 regions  Eastern Africa: 10 collections  Western Africa: 7 collections  Asia and the Pacific: 27 collections  Latin America and the Caribbean: 9 collection the institutes managing Musa genetic diversity ex situ and the total number of accessions
  27. 27. Ex Situ conservation  Some wild germplasm accessions disappear from ex situ collections because field collections do not always provide the suitable ecology.  Wild species are sometimes better at seed propagation than vegetative propagation.  It helps access to a wider selection of genes, rather than one or two collected genotypes within the population. The idea of wild sub-collections in appropriate environments is interesting but difficult to implement. The best alternative is in situ conservation of wild taxa , with geo-referenced passport data. Conservation of wild species
  28. 28. Field Collection  Field gene banks provide easy access to plant genetic resources.  It helps for characterization, evaluation or utilization, while the same material conserved in vitro or in cryo must be regenerated and grown before it can be evaluated.  Materials grown in the field are also important for conserving vegetatively propagated genotypes that commonly produce variants (genetic variation), since these can be more easily identified in the field than in vitro
  29. 29. Cont.  According to the survey the most damaging biotic factors affecting the field collections are the following:- 1. Fusarium wilt, 2. Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) 3. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), 4. Banana streak virus(BSV), 5. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), 6. Bacterial wilt, 7. Black leaf streak (BLS), 8. Mycosphaerella leaf spots, 9. Nematodes and weevils
  30. 30. In vitro Collection  In vitro collections are used mainly for the safety duplication of the field collections and for rapid multiplication and safe movement of disease-free planting material.  Controlled growth conditions avoids infestation of the germplasm by pests and diseases, as well as climate shocks. Production of robust, rooted in vitro plants of
  31. 31. Out of the 56 collections from the Global Musa Survey, 32 institutes maintain an in vitro collection varying from a few accessions to the largest collection at ITC of 1,479 accessions. A total estimated 4,507 accessions are conserved in vitro.
  32. 32. Cont. The collection with more than 100 accessions conserved in vitro
  33. 33. Cryopreservation Collection Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of in vitro collections, with minimal probabilities of deteriorating and losses of germplasm. The material is generally not distributed in this form. Two cryopreservation protocols are currently available for a range of banana cultivar groups. 1. CRYOPRESERVATION OF APICAL BANANA MERISTEMS 2. CRYOPRESERVATION OF BANANA MERISTEM CLUSTERS The following 3 institutes maintain germplasm in cryopreservation: 1. ITC collection with 938 accessions (76% cultivars, 14 % wild taxa and 9% breeding lines) 2. India – NBPGR with 50 accessions 3. USDA - Puerto Rico with 10 accession
  34. 34. The following 3 institutes maintain germplasm in cryopreservation: 1. ITC collection with 938 accessions (76% cultivars, 14 % wild taxa and 9% breeding lines) 2. India – NBPGR with 50 accessions 3. USDA - Puerto Rico with 10 accession
  35. 35. Cryopreservation of individual meristems
  36. 36. Production of robust, rooted in vitro plants of banana Illustration of meristem isolation. (Leaves are removed one by one until the apical dome is visible but still partially covered by 1 to 2 young leaf Partly-covered apical meristems of banana
  37. 37. Recovered shoots from cryopreserved apical meristems of banana Meristem cultures of different banana cultivars
  38. 38. Conservation of wild species through seed  Conservation of the wider Musa wild diversity through seeds and embryo.  Seed storage behavior is studied as germination of Musa seeds in soil is still very unpredictable.  The germination process is slow and takes long time.
  39. 39. Overview of Banana Conservation 1. Vegetative methods are the best and more widely used methods of banana conservation. 2. Germplasm can be maintained as vegetatively maintained genotypes in fields or screenhouses (field banks), in tissue culture or via cryopreservation (in vitro). 3. When the objective is solely to conserve the genes (but not specific combinations of genes), true seeds can be used instead, as long as seeds are produced. 4. Seeds can probably also be conserved with cryo techniques. 5. Genes can also be maintained for further use in the form of DNA (DNA banks or lyophilized leaves) or cryopreserved pollen.
  40. 40. Diversity And Conservation Strategies Of Coconut
  41. 41. Introduction  The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) belongs to the Arecaceae family (Order Arecales) and is the only species of the genus Cocos.  The coconut palm is diploid (2n=32). It is woody and perennial with a stem that is erect, unbranched and cylindrical and grows from a single shoot meristem at the apex of the plant.  It is anchored by numerous adventitious roots which are produced from the swollen basal part of the stem.  The top of the trunk consists of a radiating compact crown with large, thick cuticled pinnate leaves.  The fruit is a fibrous drupe with a smooth outside skin (exocarp) which varies in color.
  42. 42. Cont.  Coconut genetic diversity Coconut is one of the few major crop species that has no closely related wild relatives. Coconut belongs to the palm family (Palmae or Arecaceae),which has about 2800 species of 190 genera. The Cocoeae tribe with 27 genera and nearly 600 species includes several economically important plants such as 1. Cocos nucifera(coconut), 2. Elaeis guineensis(African oil palm), 3. Attalea cohune( babacu ), 4. Bactris gasipaes(peach palm). Palm species most related to the coconut palm are found in Colombia (Cook 1901).
  43. 43. Percentage share in area & production of Coconut: Major countries
  44. 44. Coconut – National scenario
  45. 45. Coconut research setup in India
  46. 46. Coconut Genetic Resources in India
  47. 47. Exotic Coconut Germplasm at CPCRI
  48. 48. Indigenous Coconut Germplasm at CPCRI
  49. 49. Improved coconut varieties developed in India
  50. 50. Cont.
  51. 51. Cont.
  52. 52. Superior Coconut Hybrids released in India
  53. 53. Conservation method  Plant Genetic Research are commonly conserved using ex situ or in situ approaches.  Ex situ refers to their conservation outside their natural habitat in facilities such as 1) Seed banks 2) Field genebanks • In vitro collections 1) Botanic gardens 2) Germplasm conserved in the form of 1. plants, 2. seeds,
  54. 54. 1. Pollen 2. Tissues 3. cells or DNA.  Coconut bears very large size seeds so seed conservation not possible.
  55. 55. 1) Field genebank:- Advantages-  Easy access for characterization, evaluation and use.  Simple infrastructure needs.  Does not require highly skilled manpower. Disadvantages-  Space limitation compounded by need to maintain safe isolation distance between trees, especially for the Tall types that out cross frequently .  Labour intensive; High risk in mislabelling.  Vulnerability to biotic and abiotic factors.  Exchange of germplasm.  Participation with end users difficult.  Legal issues as related to land ownership.
  56. 56. Research needed-  Minimum number of palms needed to maintain representative genetic diversity  Filed plot techniques for proper characterization and evaluation  Economics of coconut field genebank maintenance Field genebank
  57. 57. 2) In vitro collecting and culture of zygotic embryos- Advantages-  Well established protocols.  Facilitates germplasm exchange. Disadvantages-  Only short-term storage.  Relatively high infrastructure needs.  High maintenance cost.  Less accessible to users. Research needed-  Testing of optimized in vitro culture protocol.
  58. 58. In vitro culture
  59. 59. 3) Cryopreservation- Advantages-  Feasible for long term secure storage.  Easy to maintain, low costs.  Protocol for coconut embryos has been developed.  Not labour intensive. Disadvantages-  Requires skilled labour.  High initial investment cost for Infrastructure. Research needed-  More work required to refine cryopreservation protocol.
  60. 60. Cont. Cryopreservation of coconut plumules using encapsulation/dehydration technique
  61. 61. 4) Pollen conservation- Advantages-  Large number of samples can be maintained in small space.  Easy to handle.  Useful for crosses.  Can be cryopreserved allowing long term storage. Disadvantages-  Not yet feasible for long term.  Only conserve part of diversity.  Cannot be used to conserve specific genotypes. Research needed-  Refinement on Coconut pollen in freezer Drying of coconut pollen
  62. 62. 5) On-farm- Advantages-  Dynamic conservation in relation to environmental changes.  Participation of local communities and stakeholders made easier.  Conserve a much larger genetic diversity overall.  Highly suitable for coconuts.  Difficult to exchange germplasm. Disadvantages-  Vulnerable to natural and man-directed disasters, e.g. fire, cyclones, vandalism, change in land use, deforestation etc.  Materials not easily available for utilization.  Appropriate management regimes poorly understood.  Require active supervision and monitoring  Genetic diversity scattered .
  63. 63. Research needed-  Little information on status of genetic diversity across coconut stands.  Systematic documentation of farmers knowledge is needed.  Several issues related to socioeconomics of coconut farming, indigenous knowledge, community participation in relation to on-farm conservation.  On farm conservation methodologies need further work .  Ways and means to enhance benefits for promoting conservation on farm.  Piloting in situ methods for locating, measuring and monitoring genetic diversity.
  64. 64. On farm Coconut conservation
  65. 65. Comparison of conservation options for coconuts In situ on farm /natural habitats Botanic Gardens ‘Convention al’ Genebanks (seed banks, field genebanks) Slow growth conditions (short-term) Cryopreserv ation - liquid N (long- term) Mature plant Coconuts conserved on farm widely and in home gardens and natural stands exist on small isolated islands and atolls. Occurs in botanic gardens but limited scope for conserving genetic diversity. Field genebank most widely used conservation method so far. National and international coconut field genebanks exist. Not applicable Not applicable Seeds and zygotic embryos Not feasible- seeds are recalcitrant, no natural soil seed banks Not feasible Seeds are recalcitrant and too large; seed conservation not feasible Field collecting protocol established for zygotic embryos; In vitro culture functional Cryopreservati on protocol has been established for zygotic embryos; suitable for long term conservation Somatic embryos Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Mass propagation problematic; Not applicable
  66. 66. Cont. In situ on farm /natural habitats Botanic Gardens ‘Conventional’ Genebanks (seed banks, field genebanks) Slow growth conditions (short-term) Cryopreserva tion - liquid N (long-term) Pollen Not applicable Not applicable Possible, for short term conservation (2-6 months) Not applicable Coconut pollen can be cryopreserved and could be suitable for long term conservation Apices Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable cryopreservati on protocol established; relatively low survival and regeneration of plants very difficult DNA Not applicable Not applicable Storage as DNA libraries exists – value not known Not applicable Long-term storage possible (LN or –80°C freezer). Use of stored DNA questionable.
  • ChristineWaters7

    Dec. 4, 2021
  • DheerajSharma165

    Mar. 25, 2019

The diversity and Conservation strategies of Banana and Coconut.

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