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Theory of Personality- B.F.Skinner

Personality for Skinner.

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Theory of Personality- B.F.Skinner

  1. 1. Hi, I’m B.F. Skinner (Burrhus Frederic Skinner) Gabuat, Ma. Rhodora A. Panaligan. Thea Ellain Gail A. Serraon, Roselhoney F. II-12 BSEVE
  2. 2. • Educational Background: Hamilton College, majored in English Literature He completed his B.A. in English Literature in 1926 Spent 6 months living in Greenwich Village. He enrolled at Harvard University from where he received his M.A. in 1930. He received his PhD from the Harvard University in 1931 and served as a researcher till 1936.
  3. 3. • Wife: Yvonne Blue Daughters: Julie and Deborah Died: 18 August 1990
  4. 4. “I have no personality” - B.F. Skinner
  5. 5. Operant Conditioning - is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened when it's followed by reinforcement and weakened when followed by punishment.
  6. 6. • Operant Conditioning teaches humans the relationship between environment stimuli and our own behavior. We are the way we are because we were rewarded for being that way.
  7. 7. OPERANT CONDITIONING  B.F SKINNER
  8. 8. WORD FOR THE DAY! OPERANT = OPERATE
  9. 9. “ If the occurrence of an operant is followed by presentation of a reinforcing stimulus, the strength is INCREASED.” --- B.f Skinner ,1938
  10. 10. What is an Operate Behavior? Skinner emphasizes behavior is not linked to any stimulus. For him it appears to be simply emitted by the organism. *emitted- to send, to make
  11. 11. The Principles of Operant Conditioning: 1.Acquisition - found that conditioning did not depend on the subject’s awareness of what was happening.
  12. 12. 2. Shaping • - “Shaped into existence” C O M P O N E N T S: Differential reinforcement -some responses are reinforced and some are not. Successive Approximations - Responses that are reinforced are those that are increasingly close to the response ultimately desired.
  13. 13. According to operant theory: The BEST WAY to teach a COMPLEX SKILL is to divide it into its BASIC COMPONENTS and GRADUALLY SHAPE IT INTO EXISTENCE one small step at a time.
  14. 14. 3.Extinction - Rewarded behavior persists, and nonrewarded behavior extinguishes. - -Skinner looks upon this as the proper method of dealing with undesirable behavior.
  15. 15. 4. Spontaneous Recovery - “Reappearance” - Renewed burst of response following delay after extinction.
  16. 16. 5.Discriminative Operants - Operant response that is made under one set of circumstances but not under others. - It is a signal that if a certain response is made it will be followed by reinforcement.
  17. 17. 6. Secondary Reinforcement *primary reinforcers- related to SURVIVAL. (food, water, oxygen, elimination, sexual activity.) Secondary reinforcers are stimuli that acquired their reinforcing properties through the association with a primary reinforcer.
  18. 18. 7. Chaining - Involves the notion of secondary reinforcement. - A response may produce or alter some of the variables which control another response.
  19. 19. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT 1.Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule (FI) - On this schedule, the organism is reinforced for a response that is made following a certain time interval. ( ex. 30-sec interval) - - Note: ONLY ONE RESPONSE is needed to obtain reinforcement, if the response is made at just the right time.
  20. 20. 2. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule ( FR) - The organism must make (x) number of responses before it is reinforced. (ex. : Every fourth response is reinforced.) -Rate of responding
  21. 21. 3. Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule (VI) - Reinforcement is determined by the random appearance. - It is not the number of responses made that is important rather, it is the passage of time that determines when a response will be reinforced.
  22. 22. 4. Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule (VR) - In this schedule the faster the respond, the more reinforcement it will obtain. This schedule produces the highest rate of responding.
  23. 23. SUPERSTITOUS BEHAVIOR • - Making associations that one event causes or depends on the other. ( ex.: Lucky shirt ) • -Only occasional reinforcement is required to sustain it.
  24. 24. SELF-CONTROL The ability to take some action to alter impact of these external events.
  25. 25. SELF-CONTROL TECHNIQUES • Stimulus Avoidance Removing yourself from an external variable that affects and control your behavior. • Self-Administered Satiation We can exert control to cure ourselves of bad habits by overdoing the behavior. • Aversive Stimulation Involves unpleasant or repugnant consequences. • Self-Reinforcement  Reward ourselves for displaying good or desirable behaviors.
  26. 26. CONTIGENCIES OF REINFORCEMENT
  27. 27. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT • Presentation of a “pleasant stimulus” following the occurrence a response. • Increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
  28. 28. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT • A response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.
  29. 29. EXTINCTION • Decrease and eventual disappearance of a learned behavior • Do nothing. No reward or punishment
  30. 30. PUNISHMENT • Presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows.  Positive Punishment- Application  Negative Punishment- Removal
  31. 31. OUR BIGGEST PROBLEM MAN’S BIGGEST PROBLEM IS THAT HIS BEHAVIOR IS MORE EASILY INFLUENCED BY SMALL, BUT IMMEDIATE AND DEFINITE REINFORCERS THAT IT IS BY LARGE, BUT DISTANT AND UNCERTAIN REINFORCERS -Malott, Ritterby, and Wolf (1973, pp. 4-2)
  32. 32. HEALTHY PERSONALITY • An individual’s desirable behavior was shaped by positive reinforcement. • An individual do not much depend on external forces like reinforcement to do an act or behavior.
  33. 33. UNHEALTHY PERSONALITY Skinner viewed the unhealthy personality as means of coping with excessive social control.
  34. 34. CASE STUDY #1 Robert’s father promised him that if he became the Top of the class his father would give him 5 packs of Hershey chocolate. Since Robert badly wants to have 5 packs of chocolate his father promised him, he study hard and became the Top of their class. So Robert’s father gave him his reward. Robert was indeed very happy yet with- hold himself of not eating all the 5 packs of chocolate in jut 1 day even though that is what he is planning to do. Robert knew that if he will do that he might have some tooth ache and it would be bad for his own health.
  35. 35. CASE STUDY #2 Christian is a student who always comes to school late. But their new president gave an amendment that those who will be late will pay Php 50. Because of that Christian always come to school early to avoid the said punishment. After the semester there was again a re- election of a new class president and the newly elected class president remove the policy of the former president concerning those who will be late. Due to this Christian goes back to his old attitude of being late.
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