SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Vous avez débloqué des téléchargements illimités sur SlideShare!
(Burrhus Frederic Skinner)
Gabuat, Ma. Rhodora A.
Panaligan. Thea Ellain Gail A.
Serraon, Roselhoney F.
• Educational Background:
Hamilton College, majored in English Literature
He completed his B.A. in English Literature in 1926
Spent 6 months living in Greenwich Village.
He enrolled at Harvard University
from where he received his M.A. in 1930.
He received his PhD from the Harvard University in 1931
and served as a researcher till 1936.
Wife: Yvonne Blue
Daughters: Julie and Deborah
Died: 18 August 1990
“ If the occurrence of an operant is
followed by presentation of a
reinforcing stimulus, the strength is
--- B.f Skinner ,1938
What is an Operate Behavior?
Skinner emphasizes behavior is not
linked to any stimulus. For him it
appears to be simply emitted by the
*emitted- to send, to make
The Principles of Operant Conditioning:
- found that conditioning did not
depend on the subject’s
awareness of what was
• - “Shaped into existence”
C O M P O N E N T S:
-some responses are reinforced and some are not.
- Responses that are reinforced are those that are
increasingly close to the response ultimately
According to operant theory:
The BEST WAY to teach a COMPLEX
SKILL is to divide it into its BASIC
COMPONENTS and GRADUALLY
SHAPE IT INTO EXISTENCE one small
step at a time.
- Rewarded behavior persists, and
- -Skinner looks upon this as the
proper method of dealing with
4. Spontaneous Recovery
- Renewed burst of response
following delay after
- Operant response that is made under one set of
circumstances but not under others.
- It is a signal that if a certain response is made it
will be followed by reinforcement.
6. Secondary Reinforcement
*primary reinforcers- related to SURVIVAL. (food, water,
oxygen, elimination, sexual activity.)
Secondary reinforcers are stimuli that acquired
their reinforcing properties through the association
with a primary reinforcer.
- Involves the notion of secondary reinforcement.
- A response may produce or alter some of the
variables which control another response.
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
1.Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule (FI)
- On this schedule, the organism is reinforced for
a response that is made following a certain
time interval. ( ex. 30-sec interval)
- - Note: ONLY ONE RESPONSE is needed to
obtain reinforcement, if the response is made
at just the right time.
2. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule ( FR)
- The organism must make (x) number of
responses before it is reinforced.
(ex. : Every fourth response is reinforced.)
-Rate of responding
3. Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule
- Reinforcement is determined by the random
- It is not the number of responses made that is
important rather, it is the passage of time that
determines when a response will be reinforced.
4. Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule (VR)
- In this schedule the faster the respond, the more
reinforcement it will obtain. This schedule produces
the highest rate of responding.
• - Making associations that one event causes or
depends on the other. ( ex.: Lucky shirt )
• -Only occasional reinforcement is required to
The ability to take some action to alter impact
of these external events.
• Stimulus Avoidance
Removing yourself from an external variable that
affects and control your behavior.
• Self-Administered Satiation
We can exert control to cure ourselves of bad habits
by overdoing the behavior.
• Aversive Stimulation
Involves unpleasant or repugnant consequences.
Reward ourselves for displaying good or desirable
• Presentation of a “pleasant stimulus”
following the occurrence a response.
• Increases the likelihood that the behavior
will occur again
• A response is strengthened by the removal
of something considered unpleasant.
• Decrease and eventual disappearance of a
• Do nothing. No reward or punishment
• Presentation of an adverse event or outcome
that causes a decrease in the behavior it
Positive Punishment- Application
Negative Punishment- Removal
OUR BIGGEST PROBLEM
MAN’S BIGGEST PROBLEM IS THAT
HIS BEHAVIOR IS MORE EASILY
SMALL, BUT IMMEDIATE AND DEFINITE
THAT IT IS BY
LARGE, BUT DISTANT AND UNCERTAIN
-Malott, Ritterby, and Wolf (1973, pp. 4-2)
• An individual’s desirable behavior was shaped
by positive reinforcement.
• An individual do not much depend on external
forces like reinforcement to do an act or
Skinner viewed the unhealthy personality as
means of coping with excessive social control.
CASE STUDY #1
Robert’s father promised him that if he became the Top
of the class his father would give him 5 packs of Hershey
chocolate. Since Robert badly wants to have 5 packs of
chocolate his father promised him, he study hard and
became the Top of their class. So Robert’s father gave
him his reward. Robert was indeed very happy yet with-
hold himself of not eating all the 5 packs of chocolate in
jut 1 day even though that is what he is planning to do.
Robert knew that if he will do that he might have some
tooth ache and it would be bad for his own health.
CASE STUDY #2
Christian is a student who always comes to school late.
But their new president gave an amendment that those
who will be late will pay Php 50. Because of that
Christian always come to school early to avoid the said
punishment. After the semester there was again a re-
election of a new class president and the newly elected
class president remove the policy of the former president
concerning those who will be late. Due to this Christian
goes back to his old attitude of being late.