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For YOUR
Climate Zone
PV2 San Diego 2015
Stefan Sobkowiak, M.Sc, MLA

www.miracle.farm
I am not here to change your way of
growing
Diego Footer
Lush Cosmetics
Sponsorship
2 presentations
YOU??
Thank you
Want to work in an inspiring
environment?
Save years of trial and error?
Save 1000's of Dollars?
Want a business that can gross $1/
ft2 ($10/m2) and regenerates life?
$1/ft2
With
Less work
More yield
More fun?
That can be profitable in first year?
While you grow in peace, joy and
patience?
Utopic? Unrealistic?
Wakeup: lose 50 turkeys to a
raccoon in one night
Lose 45 chickens to a mink in a day.
There are marvellous days
And challenging days
Days of great joy
And great heartaches, nursery eaten!
Zone 5b (Canada) warmest zone Qc

Zone 4 US
Brief History
Purchased conventional orchard in December '92
(12 years old)
4,000 dwarf M-26
apple trees on 5 HA
(12 acres)
Brief History
Organic transition '93-'96
Certified organic '96-'00
Not certified since but
maintaining organic
standards.
Brief History: Replant
Decline '01
Start nursery '02-'03
Nursery trees ready fall '03
Trees all eaten winter '03
Start ove...
Lesson learned: Plant in the FALL
And protect young trees with guards
Use mouse traps or poison in nursery when snow
Brief History: Permaculture Orchard
2006 tore out, redesign
2007 replanted .5 ha.
Permaculture Orchard
2008 '' .5 ha “ “
2...
Want this presentation?
Text: your email to (514) 830-9640
Your email + Name + PO presentation
My Mission: 1000ha, 1000 people, 50
countries adopt Permaculture Orchard model
That's why I am here
My OBSERVATIONS:
Nature is well designed
Nature has stood the test of time
We can copy nature
Killing is not the solution

(pesticides, fungicides, herbicides
1% vs 99%)
People demand better and are
informed
Let's return to a model in harmony
with nature
Many examples of the model are
being established
France, Conservatoire d'Aquitaine
Sweeden, Alnarp, Swedish Univ. of Biol....
If a Permaculture Orchard is in your
future? You're in the right place
How is a Permaculture Orchard
different?
By design:

Polyculture not monoculture
By design:
Design the solutions
into the orchard
Solutions last a long
time
Different by biodiversity
Allies do most of the work
(fertilize, pest control, mowing)
Different:
INFORMATION vs INPUTS
INFO vs INPUTS
1X in the life 1X or more per season
of the orchard
ex. TRIOS
Different: working with nature
Different:
Marketing


(our farm
membership
Upick)
Different: planted by harvest date
multi-species and cultivars/ row
How Beyond Organic? I was
organic, not a functional ecosystem
I tried to diversify 100 sheep on 5ha
Large scale monoculture is not a
functional ecosystem
Focus on the positive (what can I
DO) not on the negative
Details of Permaculture Orchard
TRIO: NAP
(1 nitrogen fixer - 2 fruit trees)
(1 nitrogen fixer - 1 fruit - 1 nut)
Each fruit tree is next to a N-fixer
TRIO: N (n-fixer)-Apple-Pear or Plum
Repeated Pattern: N A1 P1, N A2 P2, N A3 P3...
A1 = Apple cultivar 1, A2 = Apple cult...
Orchard Pattern is not a bad idea
MONOCULTURE Orchard pattern IS a bad idea
N nitrogen fixers we use
(Gleditsia triacanthos
inermis) Honey locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Black locust
Shrubs:
Caragana...
Goal: never 2 apple trees touch...
In the row
and
between
rows
DUH!!!
Paradigm shift for Fruit Growing industry.
TREE TRIOS give 60-80%? of
positive results
Layers For Newbies
1 - 2 - 3 (TRIOS - Horizontal)
1 Vertical
2 TRIOS
3
4 (grass)
5 (vine)
Layer 2 = Shrubs: 1-4/ tree
Gooseberry
Black and red currant
Haskap
Aronia
Amelanchier
Raspberry
Rhubarb
Gooseberry 4 cvs
Amelanchier (A. alnifolia) 8 cvs?
Perennials
Perennials:
Alliums (onions)
Herbs
Perennial
vegetables
Perennials: 16/ tree
Perennials (2x8) :
Alliums
Herbs
Perennial
vegetables
Vines climb on N-fixers only

1 vine/ tree
Grape
Kiwi
How many plants for 1 acre?(.4ha)
450 trees
minimum 450 shrubs
16 x 450 = 7,200 perennials + ground-cover
vines = 150
Tota...
Just Do It
Start a nursery
Just Do It
Start a nursery:
70’x 30’= 1000 trees
(23m x 9m)
Grocery store concept
73
Month = 3 x 10 day HARVEST
3 + HARVEST periods/ year
July Small Fruit, Herbs, Flowers…
Raising poultry on grass in the
aisles
Advantages of Permaculture Orchard
Something is
REALLY working
● Trees blooming from
early May to end of
June, 60 days.
● VS 10 days (apple)
From 4 to 23 hives in 1 week
Abundance of Pollination
No fertilizers since
2007
● Very good growth and
fruiting
Advantage:
REDUCED
INPUTS
25-30 sprays
(conventional)
vs 6 us (whey)
Advantage: INCREASED
BIODIVERSITY
Advantage:
Diversity
of Yields
Advantage: Easy, Logical to Harvest
Advantage: More Wildlife
More FUN to work in.
Advantage: Impulse Buying
(Marketing U-Pick… Tomorrow at 3)
More FUN to work in.
Advantage: More FUN
Permaculture Orchard
Looks, smells, feels more like a forest.
= Disadvantage
Disadvantage: More mosquitos
Disadvantage: OVER pollination
Disadvantage: Need More
Containers
Steep LEARNING CURVE
Orcharding
Pruning and Training
Animal Husbandry
Soil biology
Irrigation
U-pick marketing
Direct mark...
Lesson: Know yourself
Know yourself
Se connaitre
Sharing know how
Innovate: Rabbit Roller cage
Innovate: 

Biotope for

20+ species 

of wildlife
LUSH
cosmetics $$
Innovate: Apple Maggot Fly trap
(Rhagoletes)
What do you love?
Futur Miracle Farms?
4ha of Permaculture
Orchard
+ grassfed meats
Fill plantings, gross
$1/ft2 ($10/m2)
+Biotopes
Bio Clim...
How can I help you?
Watch the 3 videos
Update 2014
Friend or follow: Les Fermes Miracle
Farms on Facebook
Attend a tour:
Tours 2015:
1st Saturday of month
(may-oct)
Reserve:
www.miracle.farm
Internship: www.miracle.farm/stages
2 day forest

garden course
2 day
Permaculture
Orchard course
Watch the film
Read my books
+ QnA book
Want a hard copy:
www.miracle.farm/book
Design Exercise: Magic Model
Base done in 5 minutes
to a 7 year old level
Use materials at hand
PLAY
Goal: Design 2 trios for your climatic
region
Trio: 3 Trees
3 Shrubs
3 Perennial species
Can add more levels
This Design Exercise is meant to:
Help you design a Permaculture Orchard for your
climatic zone.
Help you see new possibil...
This Design Exercise is meant to:
Teach you to play with design rather than work at
design.
Begin discussions of climatica...
Climatic Regions
Cold Temperate
Warm Temperate (USDA
zone 7+)
Subtropical
Tropical
Cold Desert (High)
Hot Desert
Mediterra...
Elements & Assumptions
of Trio 1, Trio 2
Designers:
Climatic zone _____________________ Number of layers __

Trio species ...
Thank you
Www.permacultureorchard.com
Www.miracle.farm
info@miracle.farm
Stefan Sobkowiak
A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak
A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak
A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak
A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak
A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak
A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak
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A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak

In the first half we will look at the principles, advantages and disadvantages of the Permaculture Orchard. Then you will team up to adapt the Permaculture Orchard to your climatic zone.

We will then use a simple model technique to design 2 trios for your permaculture orchard.

Learn more at permaculturevoices.com.

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A Permaculture Orchard for YOUR Climate Zone Presented by Stefan Sobkowiak

  1. 1. For YOUR Climate Zone PV2 San Diego 2015 Stefan Sobkowiak, M.Sc, MLA
 www.miracle.farm
  2. 2. I am not here to change your way of growing
  3. 3. Diego Footer Lush Cosmetics Sponsorship 2 presentations YOU?? Thank you
  4. 4. Want to work in an inspiring environment?
  5. 5. Save years of trial and error?
  6. 6. Save 1000's of Dollars?
  7. 7. Want a business that can gross $1/ ft2 ($10/m2) and regenerates life? $1/ft2
  8. 8. With Less work More yield More fun?
  9. 9. That can be profitable in first year?
  10. 10. While you grow in peace, joy and patience?
  11. 11. Utopic? Unrealistic?
  12. 12. Wakeup: lose 50 turkeys to a raccoon in one night
  13. 13. Lose 45 chickens to a mink in a day.
  14. 14. There are marvellous days
  15. 15. And challenging days
  16. 16. Days of great joy
  17. 17. And great heartaches, nursery eaten!
  18. 18. Zone 5b (Canada) warmest zone Qc
 Zone 4 US
  19. 19. Brief History Purchased conventional orchard in December '92 (12 years old) 4,000 dwarf M-26 apple trees on 5 HA (12 acres)
  20. 20. Brief History Organic transition '93-'96 Certified organic '96-'00 Not certified since but maintaining organic standards.
  21. 21. Brief History: Replant Decline '01 Start nursery '02-'03 Nursery trees ready fall '03 Trees all eaten winter '03 Start over '04 Ready fall '05 Trees eaten winter '05 Start again '06
  22. 22. Lesson learned: Plant in the FALL And protect young trees with guards Use mouse traps or poison in nursery when snow
  23. 23. Brief History: Permaculture Orchard 2006 tore out, redesign 2007 replanted .5 ha. Permaculture Orchard 2008 '' .5 ha “ “ 2009 replanted .5 ha. “ “ (1.25 acre)
  24. 24. Want this presentation? Text: your email to (514) 830-9640 Your email + Name + PO presentation
  25. 25. My Mission: 1000ha, 1000 people, 50 countries adopt Permaculture Orchard model
  26. 26. That's why I am here
  27. 27. My OBSERVATIONS:
  28. 28. Nature is well designed
  29. 29. Nature has stood the test of time
  30. 30. We can copy nature
  31. 31. Killing is not the solution
 (pesticides, fungicides, herbicides 1% vs 99%)
  32. 32. People demand better and are informed
  33. 33. Let's return to a model in harmony with nature
  34. 34. Many examples of the model are being established France, Conservatoire d'Aquitaine Sweeden, Alnarp, Swedish Univ. of Biol. Sciences New Zealand La Pocatière, Qc, ITA La Pocatière +100 private properties or farms
  35. 35. If a Permaculture Orchard is in your future? You're in the right place
  36. 36. How is a Permaculture Orchard different?
  37. 37. By design:
 Polyculture not monoculture
  38. 38. By design: Design the solutions into the orchard Solutions last a long time
  39. 39. Different by biodiversity
  40. 40. Allies do most of the work (fertilize, pest control, mowing)
  41. 41. Different: INFORMATION vs INPUTS
  42. 42. INFO vs INPUTS 1X in the life 1X or more per season of the orchard ex. TRIOS
  43. 43. Different: working with nature
  44. 44. Different: Marketing 
 (our farm membership Upick)
  45. 45. Different: planted by harvest date multi-species and cultivars/ row
  46. 46. How Beyond Organic? I was organic, not a functional ecosystem
  47. 47. I tried to diversify 100 sheep on 5ha
  48. 48. Large scale monoculture is not a functional ecosystem
  49. 49. Focus on the positive (what can I DO) not on the negative
  50. 50. Details of Permaculture Orchard
  51. 51. TRIO: NAP (1 nitrogen fixer - 2 fruit trees) (1 nitrogen fixer - 1 fruit - 1 nut)
  52. 52. Each fruit tree is next to a N-fixer
  53. 53. TRIO: N (n-fixer)-Apple-Pear or Plum Repeated Pattern: N A1 P1, N A2 P2, N A3 P3... A1 = Apple cultivar 1, A2 = Apple cultivar 2, A3 = Apple cultivar 3 P1 = pear (or plum) cultivar 1,...
  54. 54. Orchard Pattern is not a bad idea MONOCULTURE Orchard pattern IS a bad idea
  55. 55. N nitrogen fixers we use (Gleditsia triacanthos inermis) Honey locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Black locust Shrubs: Caragana Seaberry (Hippophae r.) Buffaloberry (Eleagnus commutata) (Eleagnus angustifolia) Russian olive
  56. 56. Goal: never 2 apple trees touch... In the row and between rows
  57. 57. DUH!!! Paradigm shift for Fruit Growing industry.
  58. 58. TREE TRIOS give 60-80%? of positive results
  59. 59. Layers For Newbies 1 - 2 - 3 (TRIOS - Horizontal) 1 Vertical 2 TRIOS 3 4 (grass) 5 (vine)
  60. 60. Layer 2 = Shrubs: 1-4/ tree Gooseberry Black and red currant Haskap Aronia Amelanchier Raspberry Rhubarb
  61. 61. Gooseberry 4 cvs
  62. 62. Amelanchier (A. alnifolia) 8 cvs?
  63. 63. Perennials Perennials: Alliums (onions) Herbs Perennial vegetables
  64. 64. Perennials: 16/ tree Perennials (2x8) : Alliums Herbs Perennial vegetables
  65. 65. Vines climb on N-fixers only
 1 vine/ tree Grape Kiwi
  66. 66. How many plants for 1 acre?(.4ha) 450 trees minimum 450 shrubs 16 x 450 = 7,200 perennials + ground-cover vines = 150 Total = minimum of 8,250 plants
  67. 67. Just Do It Start a nursery
  68. 68. Just Do It Start a nursery: 70’x 30’= 1000 trees (23m x 9m)
  69. 69. Grocery store concept
  70. 70. 73 Month = 3 x 10 day HARVEST
  71. 71. 3 + HARVEST periods/ year
  72. 72. July Small Fruit, Herbs, Flowers…
  73. 73. Raising poultry on grass in the aisles
  74. 74. Advantages of Permaculture Orchard
  75. 75. Something is REALLY working ● Trees blooming from early May to end of June, 60 days. ● VS 10 days (apple)
  76. 76. From 4 to 23 hives in 1 week Abundance of Pollination
  77. 77. No fertilizers since 2007 ● Very good growth and fruiting
  78. 78. Advantage: REDUCED INPUTS 25-30 sprays (conventional) vs 6 us (whey)
  79. 79. Advantage: INCREASED BIODIVERSITY
  80. 80. Advantage: Diversity of Yields
  81. 81. Advantage: Easy, Logical to Harvest
  82. 82. Advantage: More Wildlife More FUN to work in.
  83. 83. Advantage: Impulse Buying (Marketing U-Pick… Tomorrow at 3) More FUN to work in.
  84. 84. Advantage: More FUN
  85. 85. Permaculture Orchard Looks, smells, feels more like a forest. = Disadvantage
  86. 86. Disadvantage: More mosquitos
  87. 87. Disadvantage: OVER pollination
  88. 88. Disadvantage: Need More Containers
  89. 89. Steep LEARNING CURVE Orcharding Pruning and Training Animal Husbandry Soil biology Irrigation U-pick marketing Direct marketing Systems Design
  90. 90. Lesson: Know yourself
  91. 91. Know yourself
  92. 92. Se connaitre
  93. 93. Sharing know how
  94. 94. Innovate: Rabbit Roller cage
  95. 95. Innovate: 
 Biotope for
 20+ species 
 of wildlife LUSH cosmetics $$
  96. 96. Innovate: Apple Maggot Fly trap (Rhagoletes)
  97. 97. What do you love?
  98. 98. Futur Miracle Farms? 4ha of Permaculture Orchard + grassfed meats Fill plantings, gross $1/ft2 ($10/m2) +Biotopes Bio Climatic building +Tours, workshops, interns, courses
  99. 99. How can I help you?
  100. 100. Watch the 3 videos Update 2014
  101. 101. Friend or follow: Les Fermes Miracle Farms on Facebook
  102. 102. Attend a tour: Tours 2015: 1st Saturday of month (may-oct) Reserve: www.miracle.farm
  103. 103. Internship: www.miracle.farm/stages
  104. 104. 2 day forest
 garden course 2 day Permaculture Orchard course
  105. 105. Watch the film
  106. 106. Read my books + QnA book Want a hard copy: www.miracle.farm/book
  107. 107. Design Exercise: Magic Model Base done in 5 minutes to a 7 year old level Use materials at hand PLAY
  108. 108. Goal: Design 2 trios for your climatic region Trio: 3 Trees 3 Shrubs 3 Perennial species Can add more levels
  109. 109. This Design Exercise is meant to: Help you design a Permaculture Orchard for your climatic zone. Help you see new possibilities. Show you a way of using a simple model technique.
  110. 110. This Design Exercise is meant to: Teach you to play with design rather than work at design. Begin discussions of climatically adapted patterns (trios) of the Permaculture Orchard.
  111. 111. Climatic Regions Cold Temperate Warm Temperate (USDA zone 7+) Subtropical Tropical Cold Desert (High) Hot Desert Mediterranean (Byron?)
  112. 112. Elements & Assumptions of Trio 1, Trio 2 Designers: Climatic zone _____________________ Number of layers __ Trio species __________________, ___________________,  _____________________ Trio species __________________, ___________________,  _____________________ Shrub species __________________, ___________________,  __________________ Shrub species __________________, ___________________,  __________________ Ground layer species  __________________, ___________________,  ____________ Ground layer species  __________________, ___________________,  ____________ Vines ____________________________________, ____________________________ Other   __________________, ___________________,  ___________________ closed __ or open __ canopy Row orientation N-S __, E-W __, NE- SW ___, NW-SE __, Curved__, Circle__ Assumptions: Flat __, Rolling __, Slope ___  % slope ___, Slope Orientation: N __, S__, E __, W __ Soil: Loam __, Clay __, Silt ___, Sand ___ Water source: Rain __, Swale __, Pond __, Well __ Photograph the trios and post to your FB (+tag me) or my FB page (les fermes miracle farms) or both.  Or send as email attachment to info@miracle.farm
  113. 113. Thank you Www.permacultureorchard.com Www.miracle.farm info@miracle.farm Stefan Sobkowiak

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