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Glossary

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Some concepts of interest to the teaching of the second language

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Glossary

  1. 1. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo 1 Some concepts of interest to the teaching of the second language
  2. 2. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo 2 In this presentation some concepts and issues of interest to the teaching of the second language will be analyzed.
  3. 3. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Cognition According to American Psychological Associaton in their Glossary of Psycological Terms (From Gerrig, Richard J. & Philip G. Zimbardo. Psychology And Life, 16/e. Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright (c) 2002 by Pearson Education. Reprinted by permission of the publisher) ”Processes of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning; also the content of the processes, such as concepts and memories.” Cognition involves different processes that allow the acquisition, processing and appropriation of knowledge, such as sense perception, memory, imagination, thought, language and attention. Cognition is closely linked with emotional and motivational processes. http://www.apa.org/research/action/glossary.aspx?tab=3 3
  4. 4. MindAmong the different definitions that appears in the dictionary are:  (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.:  the processes of the human mind.  Psychology. the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities.  intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence.  intellectual power or ability. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/mind The mind is associated with thinking Dinorah J Reyes Bravo 4
  5. 5. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Brain In medicine is the portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It functions as a primary receiver, organizer, and distributor of information for the body. It has a right half and a left half, each of which is called hemisphere. In different areas are located the functions psychological and physiological through neural activity of the brain. It is the main organ that drives the whole functioning of the body and human activity. It is responsible for learning. Its plasticity is a capacity that can adapt and change functions of areas that result in changes in behavior and experience of human being. 5
  6. 6. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo It is the biological support of mental activity It is makes the intellectual activity leading human learning through psychological processes that have their physiological basis in the brain Brain Mind 6
  7. 7. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Language According to Cambridge Dictionary is a “system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar, or the system of communication used by people in a particular country or type of work….” language acquisition in children, technical language, English language, written language, sign language, computer programming language….. The language has been studied from different disciplines such as linguistics and psychology….. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/language 7
  8. 8. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Language Summarizing important aspects of these sciences for our interest .... language is a cognitive process it is closely related with thought determines (from the vigotskiana theory) the development of thought it has its own functions, including regulating human behavior, in addition to the acquisition of knowledge and communication, among others there are different types of language: oral language, written language, sign language, internal language its components are: phonetics and phonology, semantics, lexicon, syntax, morphology, pragmatics, some the new theories they grouped according to their use, content and form Language 8
  9. 9. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Thought Thought is a high mental process. At the same time it has rational operations and logical operations. Rational operations  Analysis  Synthesis  Comparison  Generalization  Abstraction Logical operations  Concepts  Judgments  Conclusions  Comprehension  Reasoning 9
  10. 10. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Between thought and language there is a very close, indissoluble dialectical relationship, we can not see the thought without language and viceversa .... language is the material envelope of thought (Marx & Engels) Both language and thought are social character, they are based on human needs. Both they have the same origin described by Engels in his book "Paper work in humanization monkey". Thought Language 10
  11. 11. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Learning Learning has many definitions and theories in the field of education and psychology. "Learning is a dialectical process (individual or group) personal and social enrichment permanent that allows the transformation or acquisition of content, in correspondence with the biological, social and psychological development of the subject that interacts in different spaces and times involved in comprehensive and coherent way new ways of feeling, thinking and doing." (Moncada, 1997) Vygotsky sees learning as a social process, interactive, in which the biological aspect not only is the foundation of it, but as a product of historical development of man as a social being he becomes as part of an interaction and collaboration with their environment surrounding, hence it arises that learning is first produced as a interpsychological category (in their interaction with others) and then as a intrapsychological category by internalizing and personalizing of learned in the social context. 11
  12. 12. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Language learning is broadly defined as developing the ability to communicate in the second / foreign language, and in this context includes:  Language learning for specialists  Language learning for non‐specialists or service languages  Languages for instruction  Language learning for social purposes language learning The development of language in children from the birth. By the age of six, children have usually mastered most of the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language. Second language acquisition (also known as second language learning or sequential language acquisition) refers to the process by which a person learns a "foreign" language--that is, a language other than his or her mother tongue. language acquisition 12
  13. 13. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Role of language in the process of learning It is impossible to conceive of learning without the mediation of language. Here are just some points to consider for this statement: Language is a process in close relationship with thought. Memory, imagination, perceptions, feelings, emotions, carry implicit language itself. Therefore it is a psychological process that links the emotional with cognition. The acquisition of reading and writing is impossible without language, both are communication skills together with the listening and speaking. 13
  14. 14. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Characteristics of a good language learner. Low inhibitions Risk taking ability High self-confidence Intrinsic motivation Cooperative learning skills Right-brain processes High ambiguity tolerance Intuition Error feedback processing skills Personal goals Characteristics adapted from Brown’s ‘maxim’ for good language learning (2007: 145) 14
  15. 15. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo Good language learners find a style of learning that suits them. Good language learners are actively involved in the language learning process Good language learners try to figure out how the language works. Good language learners know that language is used to communicate Good language learners are like good detectives Good language learners learn to think in the language. Good language learners realize that language learning is not easy. Good language learners are also good culture learners aware of the very close relationship between language and culture. Good language learners have a long term commitment to language learning. They are realistic in realizing that it takes time and practice. Characteristics of a good language learner. http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/uploadedFiles/schools/kempmilles/dualprogram/Characteristics_of_good_learners.pdf 15
  16. 16. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo The possibility of transforming a poor language learner into a good language learner using the concepts you have studied I would consider: ➡ Needs ➡ Interests ➡ Motivations ➡ Learning styles ➡ Cultural context ➡ Language development of the mother tongue ➡ …………….etc. 16
  17. 17. Dinorah J Reyes Bravo http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2516 https://www.verywell.com/learning-study-guide-2795698 http://www.lanqua.eu/theme/language-learning/ http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-tips-foreign-languages/42458-language- acquisition-vs-language-learning/ http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/languageacquisitionterm.htm http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org/content/3/1/4.full.pdf http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/college- artslaw/cels/essays/younglearners/Daviesessay2GLLessaybank.pdf http://www.apa.org/research/action/glossary.aspx?tab=7 http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/uploadedFiles/schools/kempmilles/dualprogram/Char acteristics_of_good_learners.pdf http://www.dictionary.com/browse/mind http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/language References 17

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