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# History of Zero - Mathematics

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### History of Zero - Mathematics

1. 1. HISTORY OF ZERO By Divya Rajput
2. 2. WHAT IS ZERO ? Zero is a strange number and one of the greatest paradoxes of human thought. It means both everything and nothing. It is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that numbers in numerals. It fulfils a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers and many other algebraic structures. Without zero, not just mathematics, but all branches of sciences would have struggled for clearer definitions. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems. The value of Zero is well known today as it holds the highest value today. Without the invention of 0, the binary system and computer are not possible. It is a greatest invention on which every calculation depends. Zero is a tiny number but it can never be ignored.
3. 3. ‘Zero’ the ingenuity of our fore-fathers. The number 0 is neither positive nor negative and appears in the middle of a number line. It is neither a prime number nor a composite number. It cannot be a prime because it has infinite number of factors and cannot be expressed by multiplying prime numbers (0 must always be one of the factors).
4. 4. Initially, zero was not considered a number. There was the idea of empty space, which may be thought conceptually similar to zero. Babylonians around 700 BC used two hooks to denote an empty space in the positional notation. Records show that the ancient Greeks seemed unsure about the status of zero as a number. The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India where by the 9th century AD practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division. The concept of zero took some time for acceptance. It was only around 1600 that zero began to come into widespread use after encountering a lot of support and also criticism from mathematicians from the world.
5. 5. History of Zero It is said that the number zero originated or was created in these 3 places. Ancient India, Ancient Babylon, and the Mayan Civilization. Historians believed that it came into existence from 458 AD. Zeros were created at different times in each of these civilizations. But the one that people think was used first was in Ancient India by the Hindus and the Arabics. Undoubtedly the complete credit goes to India for the invention of Zero and its effects use as a number.
6. 6. The number 0 appear in the late 10th century in India. The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century CE, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division .The word for zero in Hindu-India is “shunya” meaning void or empty. India is recognized with great respect for its invention of Zero by importance with Technological world .These are the numbers that the Hindus and the Arabics use.
7. 7. The Babylonians got their number system from the Sumerians, the first people in the world to develop a counting system. They created 0 in the third century B.C. The Babylonians were the first culture to invent the place value system. The Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone. Nor was it used at the end of a number They had a sexigesimal number system, that is, they counted in 60s, as we count in tens. However, they never developed the idea of zero as a number. This is their numeral system.
8. 8. Six hundred years later and 12,000 miles from Babylon, the Mayans developed zero as a placeholder around A.D. 350 and used it to denote a placeholder in their elaborate calendar systems. Despite being highly skilled mathematicians, the Mayans never used zero in equations . The symbol for 0 in the Mayans looks like a bowl or an eye. Their numeral system was 20.They got the number twenty by putting 0 below 1. This means that zero is actually 20 and one is 1. This is their numeral system. 
9. 9. The Islamic and the Arabic mathematicians took the idea of the Indian mathematicians further west. Al-Khwarizmi described the Indian place-value system of numerals based on zero and other numerals. Ibn Ezra, in the 12th century, wrote The Book of the Number, which spread the concepts of the Indian numeral symbols and decimal fractions to Europe.
10. 10. It is also said that Aryabhatta invented the number 0. Aryabhatta was one of the world’s greatest mathematician-astronomer. Aryabhata devised a number system, which had no zero, as a positional system, but used to denote empty space. There is evidence that a dot had been used in earlier manuscripts to denote an empty space in positional notation. He gave the world the digit "0" (zero) for which he became immortal . He was the first mathematician to use the concept of zero. He used zero for the first time to define decimal system .it is said that he was aware of the concept and even used it in his calculations. He certainly did not use the symbol, but the French mathematician Georges Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata's place-value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients.
11. 11. It was known by the name “SHUNYA” .After the translation of the Indian word “Shunya” became ‘Sifr’ in Arabic language. The word ‘Sifr’ became ‘Zephyr’ in Latin. Later the word ‘Zephyr’ became ZERO. In the same way it was called by different words in different languages.  Cyfra – in polish.  Cifra – in Spain.  Zero – in French.  Sonne – in Kannada.  Ziffer – in German.  Siffra – in Swedish.  Meithen – in Greek.
12. 12. A Hindu astronomer and mathematician named Brahmagupta developed a symbol for zero — a dot underneath numbers. This was recognized as a number of its own, as both an idea and a symbol. He also developed mathematical operations using zero, wrote rules for reaching zero through addition and subtraction, and the results of using zero in equations. The initial shape of zero was exactly the same thing as the letter 'o'. It is only today that there is a distinction between zero and the letter 'o'.
13. 13. The great mathematician of India Brahmagupta wrote on nature of Zero in his book “Bramhagupta Siddhanth” 1) A + 0 = A 2) A – 0 = A 3) A × 0 = 0 4) A / 0 = 0 His first 3 equations were correct but he failed to express the product of 4th one. He told it as Zero instead of Infinity. Later it was solved by another famous Indian mathematician Bhaskar It was mentioned in his famous book “Leelavathi”
14. 14. The sum of zero and a negative number is negative. The sum of zero and a positive number is positive. The sum of zero and zero is zero. The sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; or, if their absolute values are equal, zero. A positive or negative number when divided by zerois a fraction with the zero as denominator. Zero divided by a negative or positive number is either zero or is expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite quantity as denominator. Zero divided by zero is zero.
15. 15. Thank you