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THE GREAT 
DEPRESSION 
By 
DIVYA RAJPUT
• THE GREAT DEPRESSION 
– THE COMING OF DEPRESSION 
– THE BEGINNING 
– CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION 
 Banks failure. 
 Dec...
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
THE GREAT DEPRESSION 
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic 
depression in the decade preceding World War I...
THE COMING OF DEPRESSION 
During the 1920s, many Americans enjoyed what seemed like an endless era of prosperity. 
But in ...
THE BEGINNING 
The economic contraction that began with the 
Great Crash triggered the most severe 
economic downturn in t...
Together, government and business spent more in the first half of 
1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous y...
CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION 
Banks failure. 
Decline of 
international 
trade. 
Overproduction of 
agricultural goods. 
Ove...
BANKING INDUSTRY COLLAPSED 
 Families lose savings in crash; 
banks have little cash left on 
reserve. 
 Banks lose mone...
INTERNATIONAL TRADE DECLINED 
European demand for goods 
declines 
Factories producing more 
Personal income , tax, rev...
Overproduction of Agricultural 
Goods 
American farmers had prospered during 
World War I 
Use profits to buy machines t...
Overproduction of Industrial Goods 
oTechnological advances change how 
Americans live and work 
oIn the Roaring 1920s: 
•...
FARMING INDUSTRY DECLINE 
 Farmers borrowed from bank 
to buy machinery 
 Foreclosed on mortgages and 
other debts 
 Ba...
UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF 
WEALTH 
• Gap between the rich and poor widens in 
the 1920s 
• By 1929 some Americans have more ...
EFFECTS OF GREAT 
DEPRESSION 
The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and 
poor . Personal income ,...
RESULTS OF GREAT 
DEPRESSION 
Nations 
economy 
crashed. 
Farmers 
struggled a 
lot. 
Rising price 
resulted in 
declining...
THE NATION’S SICK ECONOMY 
As the 1920s advanced, serious problems threatened 
the economy while 
Important industries str...
FARMERS STRUGGLE 
◊ No industry suffered as much as 
agriculture 
◊ During World War I European 
demand for American crops...
CONSUMER SPENDING DOWN 
‼ By the late 1920s, 
American consumers 
were buying less 
‼ Rising prices, 
stagnant wages and 
...
GAP BETWEEN RICH 
& POOR 
‡ The gap between rich 
and poor widened 
‡ The wealthiest 1% saw 
their income rise 75% 
‡ The ...
FINANCIAL COLLAPSE 
◊ After the crash, many 
Americans panicked and 
withdrew their money 
from banks 
◊ Banks had investe...
GNP DROPS, UNEMPLOYMENT 
SOARS 
† Between 1928-1932, the U.S. 
Gross National Product (GNP) 
– the total output of a natio...
HARDSHIPS, 
HOMELESSNESS 
INCREASED 
The Great Depression brought 
hardship, homelessness, and 
hunger to millions 
Acro...
WORLD WIDE EFFECTS 
AUSTRALIA 
EAST ASIA 
FRANCE 
GERMANY 
LATIN AMERICA 
INDIA 
USA
AUSTRALIA 
¤ Australia's extreme dependence on 
agricultural and industrial exports meant it 
was one of the hardest-hit c...
East Asia 
 The Great Depression in East 
Asia was of minor impact 
 The Japanese economy shrank 
by 8% 1929–31 
 The i...
FRANCE 
 The Depression began to affect 
France from about 1931 
 France's relatively high degree of 
self-sufficiency m...
Germany 
† Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the 
depression, as American loans to help rebuild the 
German econom...
LATIN AMERICA 
 Because of high levels of United States investment in Latin 
American economies, they were severely damag...
INDIA 
‡ Decline of international trade 
resulted the obtaining of low 
revenue. 
‡ Indian gold reserves sold off. 
‡ Unin...
USA 
§ About 13 million 
people became 
unemployed 
§ In the early 
1930s, more people 
emigrated from the 
United States ...
GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA
GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA 
The Great Depression began in August of 1929, when the United States 
economy first went into an ...
CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA 
Banks began to fail in October 1930 (one year after the crash) when 
farmers defaulted ...
EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESION 
ON USA 
13 million people became unemployed. Many people belonged to 
families with no regular...
GREAT DEPRESSION IN INDIA
GREAT DEPRESSION IN INDIA 
The Great Depression of 1929 had a very severe impact on India, which 
was then under the rule ...
EVENTS RELATED TO THE GREAT DEPRESSION 
IN INDIA 
Declaration of 
independence 
Salt satyagraha
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 
On December 31, 1929, at a session 
of the Indian National Congress held 
on the banks of the...
SALT SATYAGRAHA 
The Salt Satyagraha formed the highpoint of the Civil 
Disobedience Movement. While the heavy salt tax wa...
BIBILOIGRAPHY 
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_India 
 http://www.flexiguru.com/expert/what-is-the-eff...
 https://www.google.co.in/search?site=&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1137& 
bih=666&q=GREAT+DEPRESSION&oq=GREAT+DEPRESSION&gs_l=...
THANK 
YOU
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The Great Depression

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A power point presentation on the Great Depression, it's causes, effects, results,etc.; and the Great Depression in India and USA. and so on

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The Great Depression

  1. 1. THE GREAT DEPRESSION By DIVYA RAJPUT
  2. 2. • THE GREAT DEPRESSION – THE COMING OF DEPRESSION – THE BEGINNING – CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION  Banks failure.  Decline of international trade.  Overproduction of agricultural goods.  Over production of industrial goods.  Decline of farming industry.  Unequal distribution of wealth. – RESULTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION  Nations economy crashed.  Farmers struggled a lot.  Rising price resulted in declining of consumers.  Gap between rich and poor widened.  Banks failed.  Gross National Product decreased, Unemployment increased.  Hardship, homelessness increased. – WORLD WIDE EFFECTS  AUSTRALIA  EAST ASIA  FRANCE  GERMANY  LATIN AMERICA  INDIA  USA • GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA – CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA – EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION ON USA • GREAT DEPRESSION IN INDIA – EVENTS RELATED TO GREAT DEPRESSION  Declaration of independence  Salt satyagraha
  3. 3. THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  4. 4. THE GREAT DEPRESSION The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II . The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the U.S., after the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929.
  5. 5. THE COMING OF DEPRESSION During the 1920s, many Americans enjoyed what seemed like an endless era of prosperity. But in 1929, the stock market crashed. World wars loans. Declining trade. Production fell, unemployment rose, and the economy went into a period of dramatic decline. Years after the Great Depression began, periodic contraction was seen as part of the business cycle. Economic historians usually attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of US stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930; but then a deflationary spiral started in 1931. Conditions were worse in farming areas, where commodity prices plunged, and in mining and logging areas, where unemployment was high and there were few other jobs.
  6. 6. THE BEGINNING The economic contraction that began with the Great Crash triggered the most severe economic downturn in the nation’s history— the Great Depression. In the beginning in mid-1930, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the US. The Great Depression lasted from 1929 until the United States entered World War II in 1941. The stock market crash of 1929 did not cause the Great Depression. Rather, both the Great Crash and the Depression were the result of deep underlying problems with the country’s economy.
  7. 7. Together, government and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. Consumers, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures
  8. 8. CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION Banks failure. Decline of international trade. Overproduction of agricultural goods. Over production of industrial goods. Unequal distribution of wealth. Decline of farming industry.
  9. 9. BANKING INDUSTRY COLLAPSED  Families lose savings in crash; banks have little cash left on reserve.  Banks lose money loaned to ‘buy on the margin’ (even people who did not invest lost out!).  People default on mortgages due to unemployment.  European nations could not repay their debts.  America would not forgive the loans.  Banks begin to fail.
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL TRADE DECLINED European demand for goods declines Factories producing more Personal income , tax, revenue, profits and prices dropped. International trade plunged by more than 50%. Interest rates dropped to low levels
  11. 11. Overproduction of Agricultural Goods American farmers had prospered during World War I Use profits to buy machines to produce more After World War I, demand drops surplus! Huge supply + Low demand = Low prices
  12. 12. Overproduction of Industrial Goods oTechnological advances change how Americans live and work oIn the Roaring 1920s: • Consumer demand is very high • Machine produce quality products quickly • Unrestricted capitalism oBy 1929, supply greatly exceeds demand!
  13. 13. FARMING INDUSTRY DECLINE  Farmers borrowed from bank to buy machinery  Foreclosed on mortgages and other debts  Banks closed due to defaults and stock market  Between 1929 and 1933 farmers’ income 50%  Farmers in dept.  One million families lose their farms by 1934  Many people too poor to buy goods to lift economy
  14. 14. UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH • Gap between the rich and poor widens in the 1920s • By 1929 some Americans have more wealth • Wages increased • The income of rich increased • Wealth does not trickle down • Consumers in debt ; Cannot afford products
  15. 15. EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor . Personal income , tax, revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many Countries. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternate sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as cash cropping, mining and logging suffered the most. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. In many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until after the end of World War II.
  16. 16. RESULTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION Nations economy crashed. Farmers struggled a lot. Rising price resulted in declining of consumers. Gap between rich and poor widened. Banks failed. Gross National Product decreased, Unemployme nt increased. Hardship, homelessness increased.
  17. 17. THE NATION’S SICK ECONOMY As the 1920s advanced, serious problems threatened the economy while Important industries struggled, including :  Agriculture  Railroads  Textiles  Steel  Mining  Automobiles  Housing  Consumer goods
  18. 18. FARMERS STRUGGLE ◊ No industry suffered as much as agriculture ◊ During World War I European demand for American crops soared ◊ After the war demand plummeted ◊ Farmers increased production sending prices further downward
  19. 19. CONSUMER SPENDING DOWN ‼ By the late 1920s, American consumers were buying less ‼ Rising prices, stagnant wages and overbuying on credit were to blame ‼ Most people did not have the money to buy the flood of goods factories
  20. 20. GAP BETWEEN RICH & POOR ‡ The gap between rich and poor widened ‡ The wealthiest 1% saw their income rise 75% ‡ The rest of the population saw an increase of only 9% ‡ More than 70% of American families earned less than $2500 per year
  21. 21. FINANCIAL COLLAPSE ◊ After the crash, many Americans panicked and withdrew their money from banks ◊ Banks had invested in the Stock Market and lost money ◊ In 1929- 600 banks fail ◊ By 1933 – 11,000 of the 25,000 banks nationwide had collapsed
  22. 22. GNP DROPS, UNEMPLOYMENT SOARS † Between 1928-1932, the U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) – the total output of a nation’s goods & services – fell nearly 50% from $104 billion to $59 billion † 90,000 businesses went bankrupt † Unemployment leaped from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933
  23. 23. HARDSHIPS, HOMELESSNESS INCREASED The Great Depression brought hardship, homelessness, and hunger to millions Across the country, people lost their jobs, and their homes Some built makeshifts shacks out of scrap material
  24. 24. WORLD WIDE EFFECTS AUSTRALIA EAST ASIA FRANCE GERMANY LATIN AMERICA INDIA USA
  25. 25. AUSTRALIA ¤ Australia's extreme dependence on agricultural and industrial exports meant it was one of the hardest-hit countries in the Western world ¤ Falling export demand and commodity prices placed massive downward pressures on wages ¤ Further, unemployment reached a record high of almost 32% in 1932 ¤ After 1932, an increase in wool and meat prices led to a gradual recovery
  26. 26. East Asia  The Great Depression in East Asia was of minor impact  The Japanese economy shrank by 8% 1929–31  The invasion and subjugation of Manchuria into a Japanese puppet-state in September 1931, thus providing Japan with raw materials and energy, the Japanese economy was able to recover by 1932 and continued to grow.
  27. 27. FRANCE  The Depression began to affect France from about 1931  France's relatively high degree of self-sufficiency meant the damage was considerably less than in nations like Germany  Hardship and unemployment were high enough to lead to rioting and the rise of the socialist Popular Front.
  28. 28. Germany † Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the depression, as American loans to help rebuild the German economy stopped. † Unemployment soared, especially in larger cities, and the political system veered toward extremism. † Hitler's Nazi Party came to power in January 1933. In 1934 the economy was still not balanced enough for Germany to work on its own.
  29. 29. LATIN AMERICA  Because of high levels of United States investment in Latin American economies, they were severely damaged by the Depression  Chile, Bolivia and Peru were particularly badly affected  One result of the Depression in this area was the rise of fascist movements.
  30. 30. INDIA ‡ Decline of international trade resulted the obtaining of low revenue. ‡ Indian gold reserves sold off. ‡ Uninhibited increase in land rent. ‡ Value of the agricultural produce came down to alarming levels. ‡ Heavy losses resulted the farmers to sell off their valuables in order to pay the land rent and other taxes. ‡ This resulted the farmers in dept.
  31. 31. USA § About 13 million people became unemployed § In the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it § From 1929 to 1932, about 5,000 banks went out of business. § Many people suffered from diseases.
  32. 32. GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA
  33. 33. GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA The Great Depression began in August of 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession . Although the country spent two months with declining GDP, it was not until the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 that the effects of a declining economy were felt, and a major worldwide economic downturn ensued. The market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation , plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement. include numerous factors, especially high consumer debt, ill-regulated markets that permitted overoptimistic loans by banks and investors, and the lack of high- growth new industries, all interacting to create a downward economic spiral of reduced spending, falling confidence, and lowered production. Industries that suffered the most included construction, agriculture as dust-bowl conditions persisted in the agricultural heartland, shipping, mining, and logging as well as durable goods like automobiles and appliances that could be postponed. The Depression caused major political changes in America. The Depression also resulted in an increase of emigration of people to other countries for the first time in American history.
  34. 34. CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION IN USA Banks began to fail in October 1930 (one year after the crash) when farmers defaulted on loans. There was no federal deposit insurance during that time as bank failures were considered quite common. This caused the money supply to shrink and the economy to contract and a significant decrease in aggregate investment. The decreased money supply further aggravated price deflation, putting further pressure on already struggling businesses High interest rates needed to be maintained, in order to attract international investors who bought foreign assets with gold. However, the high interest also inhibited domestic business borrowing. All this resulted in the introduction of the Great Depression.
  35. 35. EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESION ON USA 13 million people became unemployed. Many people belonged to families with no regular full-time wage earner. Industrial production fell by nearly 45% between 1929 and 1932. Homebuilding dropped by 80% between the years 1929 and 1932. About 11,000 of the US’ banks had failed. U.S. GDP fell around 30%, the stock market lost almost 90% of its value. The unemployment rate fell down to about 3%. In 1933, 25% of all workers and 37% of all nonfarm workers were unemployed. Over one million families lost their farms between 1930 and 1934. Corporate profits had dropped from $10 billion in 1929 to $1 billion in 1932. Between 1929 and 1932, the income of the average American family was reduced by 40%. About nine million savings accounts had been wiped out between 1930 and 1933. Over 273,000 families had been evicted from their homes in There were two million homeless people migrating around the country. Over 60% of Americans were categorized as poor by the federal government in 1933. In the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it. Many people became ill with diseases such as tuberculosis.
  36. 36. GREAT DEPRESSION IN INDIA
  37. 37. GREAT DEPRESSION IN INDIA The Great Depression of 1929 had a very severe impact on India, which was then under the rule of the British Raj . The Government of British India adopted a protective trade policy which, though beneficial to the United Kingdom, caused great damage to the Indian economy. During the period 1929–1937, exports and imports fell drastically crippling seaborne international trade. The railways and the agricultural sector were the most affected. The international financial crisis combined with detrimental policies adopted by the Government of India resulted in soaring prices of commodities. High prices along with the stringent taxes prevalent in British India had a dreadful impact on most Indians. The discontent of farmers manifested itself in rebellions and riots. The Salt Satyagraha of 1930 was None of the measures undertaken as a response to heavy taxation during the Great Depression. The Great Depression and the economic policies of the Government of British India worsened already deteriorating Indo- British relations. When the first general elections were held according to the Government of India Act 1935 , anti-British feelings resulted in the pro-independence Indian National Congress winning in most provinces with a very high percentage of the vote share.
  38. 38. EVENTS RELATED TO THE GREAT DEPRESSION IN INDIA Declaration of independence Salt satyagraha
  39. 39. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE On December 31, 1929, at a session of the Indian National Congress held on the banks of the river Ravi in Lahore, Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the tricolor and declared that complete independence from British rule would, henceforth, be the goal of the Congress. This was a remarkable shift of policy for the Indian National Congress as it had, till now, been a staunch advocate of dominion status. This declaration also triggered the
  40. 40. SALT SATYAGRAHA The Salt Satyagraha formed the highpoint of the Civil Disobedience Movement. While the heavy salt tax was always a burden to the poor peasant, the widespread poverty during the Great Depression made it even more difficult for the commoner to procure salt. In response to this tax, between March 12, 1930 and April 5, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi marched with over 30,000 followers to the coastal town of Dandi in Gujarat , where they illegally manufactured salt and defied the Government monopoly on salt. Subsequently, similar satyagrahas were organized at Dharasana and Vedaranyam. The Government responded with a massive roundup, but by then, the march and the media coverage had radically molded international opinion.
  41. 41. BIBILOIGRAPHY  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_India  http://www.flexiguru.com/expert/what-is-the-effect-of-the-great-depression- on-the-indian-economy--915  http://www.rupe-india.org/47/depression.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression  http://www.history.com/topics/great-depression  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_the_United_States  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=the+great+depression+IN+USA&biw=1 137&bih=666&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=Lr75U72_BoG_uA Si94GYBg&ved=0CC0QsAQ  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=the+great+depression+IN+USA&biw=1 137&bih=666&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=Lr75U72_BoG_uA Si94GYBg&ved=0CC0QsAQ#q=the+great+depression+IN+INDIA&tbm=isch  http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/depression/context.html
  42. 42.  https://www.google.co.in/search?site=&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1137& bih=666&q=GREAT+DEPRESSION&oq=GREAT+DEPRESSION&gs_l=img.3..0l1 0.2696.6496.0.7351.16.12.0.0.0.0.626.968.3- 1j0j1.2.0....0...1ac.1.52.img..14.2.967.FJByJD04WjQ&gws_rd=ssl  http://www.slideshare.net/multimedialearningllc/causes-of-great-depression  http://www.slideshare.net/drs412/great-depression-9801577?related=1  http://www.slideshare.net/Rajes1990/bge-24240346?related=1  https://www.google.co.in/search?site=&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1137& bih=714&q=salt+satyagraha&oq=salt+satyagraha&gs_l=img.3...2140.8617. 0.9062.17.15.0.0.0.0.1035.1670.5- 1j0j1.2.0....0...1ac.1.52.img..16.1.634.CGxnwStObD4&gws_rd=ssl#q=declar ation+of+independence+india&tbm=isch&imgdii=_  https://www.google.co.in/search?site=&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1137& bih=714&q=salt+satyagraha&oq=salt+satyagraha&gs_l=img.3...2140.8617. 0.9062.17.15.0.0.0.0.1035.1670.5- 1j0j1.2.0....0...1ac.1.52.img..16.1.634.CGxnwStObD4&gws_rd=ssl#facrc=0% 3Bsatyagraha%20movement&imgdii=_&imgrc=_
  43. 43. THANK YOU

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