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Justin Cormack
Cambridge, UK based engineer at Docker @justincormack
 
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Co-author of Docker in the Trenches: Successful Production Deployment
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Make it native
•  Install Docker and it is just there and working
•  Make everything work just like a Linux install
•  Make file notifications work
•  No Virtualbox
•  Get out of the way
•  Make the powerful simple
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People liked it!
•  30,000 signups on the first day!
•  70,000 by DockerCon
•  The team building it used it from the start
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Let’s Go Inside
7
justin 43426 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.hyperkit -A -m 2G -c 4 -u -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 31,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-vpnkit,u
justin 42732 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.osx.hyperkit.linux
justin 42728 com.docker.backend
justin 23338 com.docker.db --url=file:///Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/s40 --git /Users/justin/Library/Containers/c
justin 23337 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.osx.hyperkit.linux -watchdog fd:0
justin 23334 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.osx.hyperkit.linux -watchdog fd:0
root 3355 /Library/PrivilegedHelperTools/com.docker.vmnetd
justin 43684 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/Resources/bin/com.docker.frontend {"action":"vmstateevent","args":{"vmstate":"running"}}
justin 43683 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/Resources/bin/com.docker.frontend {"action":"vmstateevent","args":{"vmstate":"running"}}
justin 43425 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.driver.amd64-linux -db /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Da
justin 43424 com.docker.driver.amd64-linux -db /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/s40 -osxfs-volume /Users/justin/Libra
justin 43423 com.docker.slirp --db /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/s40 --socket fd:3 --port-control fd:4 --vsock-pat
justin 43422 com.docker.osxfs --address fd:3 --connect /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/@connect --volume-control fd:
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Hyperkit
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Hyperkit: A toolkit for embedding
hypervisor capabilities in your application
•  Only used on the Mac – Windows uses Hyper-V
•  Based on xhyve, which in turn is bsed on bhyve from FreeBSD
•  A hypervisor is just a single process per emulated CPU core
•  https://github.com/docker/hyperkit
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Hyperkit
•  Sparse block device, using qcow2 format
•  Virtio devices: network, block, 9p, socket, rng
•  Configure the amount of memory and CPU cores in the preferences
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Datakit
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Git database
•  Can do really interesting stuff – it is git for datastructures
•  Simple use cases here for storing configuration
•  Yes there is a git tree at
~/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/database
•  There is a filesystem view inside the VM using 9p
•  https://github.com/docker/datakit
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Plumbing
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VSock and HVSock
•  Socket families for communication with VMs, like Unix sockets
•  VSock originally developed by VMWare
•  HVSock developed by Microsoft, similar design, but different addressing
•  New socket families so not well supported yet, eg no Go support have to
use C bindings
•  Communication not over network, so works even if network issues
•  Used to transport the Docket socket to the VM not via https, and other
uses.
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Moby
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Alpine Linux is a security-oriented,
lightweight Linux distribution based on
musl libc and busybox.
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Stateless
•  Alpine was designed to boot from init ramdisk
•  Reboot and everything is back to the same state, except /var with
Docker state on it.
•  Configuration stored in the datakit database, currently mounted on
/Database
•  Phoenix like, just rebuild a new image, no upgrades
•  Only runs Docker and supporting infrastructure.
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No user serviceable parts?
•  Designed to “just work” and keep Docker runnning.
•  Database sets all the Docker and system config (UI coming soon)
•  Use privileged containers or capabilities to do other host changes, persist
with --restart always
•  eg install sysdig kernel module
•  root shell: docker run -it --privileged --pid=host
debian nsenter -t 1 -m -u -n -i sh
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Kernel
•  Currently stable 4.4.x series kernel with aufs, vsock and hvsock patches
•  No modules, everything built in for fast boot, but you can add modules
•  Supports aufs and overlay storage drivers (overlay2 soon)
•  Supports NFS, SMB, CRIU, many other things requested by users on the
forum
•   binfmt_misc set up so you can run arm and other binaries with qemu
emulation
•  config in /proc/config.gz patches in /etc/kernel-patches
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Userspace
•  Alpine 3.4
•  Docker, statically linked build with seccomp.
•  Reasonable set of utility programs, not just base system, eg Kubernetes
had some requirements which were added
•  You can install new packages, again they will not persist over a reboot,
but we use this to debug Docker sometimes
•  Some diagnostics code, setup code, file sharing, time synchronisation, ...
•  Will be open sourced when a bit more stable, after GA.
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VPNKit
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Come to Mindy Preston's talk tomorrow at
14:25 Ballroom 6C for more about VPNkit
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VPNkit
•  https://github.com/docker/vpnkit
•  Currently being used on Mac, being tested for Windows
•  Take the ethernet traffic from the Linux VM
•  Reconstruct it as application traffic on OSX
•  So socket(); ... listen() ... send() in Linux is
reconstructed from ethernet traffic as the same series of calls on OSX.
•  No OS interfaces needed, complete control, appears just like another
application so works with VPN, firewall.
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VPNkit
•  VPNkit uses the network stack from the Mirage unikernel
•  Mirage is a set of low level system libraries
•  Written in OCaml, a functional programming language
•  Easy to repurpose for completely different use cases
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OSXfs
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OSXfs
•  Currently only being used on the Mac, SMB used in Windows
•  Uses FUSE on the Linux side to get the system calls
•  Transports these over VSock
•  Converts into OSX filesystem calls.
•  Listens for filesystem notifications in OSX and replays events in Linux.
27
OSXfs
•  As you may see it is somewhat similar model to VPNkit but more
complex
•  Filesystems are more different that network stacks
•  Filesystem notifications are quite different as not very standard
•  eg OSX does not provide read notifications, but Linux does.
•  Soon will be able to specify which parts of the filesystem to share.
28
Windows file sharing
•  Uses a SMB mount from Linux to Windows
•  SMB protocol supports filesystem notifications but Linux does not
unfortunately
•  Will have to solve this by adding notification support or porting OSXfs
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User Interface
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User interface
•  Minimal at the moment but more plans for the future
•  Native code: Swift on OSX, C# on Windows
•  Communicates through database for configuration.
•  Plans to integrate Kitematic or similar graphical interface later
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Design
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Why doesnt X
work?
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--net=host
•  With VPNkit, when you --publish a port in a container, we use a
custom userland proxy
•  This communicates through the /port 9p filesystem to the Mac
•  The Mac opens a listening socket on the host, so you can connect to your
container on localhost:nnn
•  This is also used for docker service in Swarm mode
•  But listening to a port with --net=host does not notify Docker so we
cannot easily intercept it
36
I cannot connect to container ports
•  On OSX there is no direct routing to the Linux VM, and so neither can you
reach the machines on a bridge network
•  If you want to debug, do it from another container, or docker run --
net=container:name
•  You need to do this for overlay networks anyway, so good idea to get
used to this.
37
Unix socket between host and container
doesn‘t work
•  Well yes, they are different computers...
•  But we do plan to make it work via osxfs and transparently proxying over
VSock for you
•  In the mean time, make do with a TCP socket or run everything in
containers.
38
Sound and Vision
•  X Windows, RDP, VNC, or HTTP graphical interfaces can be made to work
•  Audio should be possible too.
•  Quite a few people want this, please help out!
39
Roadmap
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Stability first,features second
•  Stability and bug fixing priorities for GA
•  People are using it every day for their work. Including us.
•  Features driven by what you want
•  More components will be open sourced.
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Thanks
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The team,many are here at DockerCon
Many many more people at Docker who
contributed
A very long list of contributors to open
source projects,especially bhyve,xhyve,
Mirage,Alpine Linux
43
Questions?
•  @justincormack
•  justin.cormack@docker.com
•   docker run -d -P justincormack/dockercon2016
 
44

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Docker for Mac and Windows: The Insider's Guide by Justin Cormack

  • 1.
  • 2. Justin Cormack Cambridge, UK based engineer at Docker @justincormack   2
  • 3. Co-author of Docker in the Trenches: Successful Production Deployment 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. Make it native •  Install Docker and it is just there and working •  Make everything work just like a Linux install •  Make file notifications work •  No Virtualbox •  Get out of the way •  Make the powerful simple 5
  • 6. People liked it! •  30,000 signups on the first day! •  70,000 by DockerCon •  The team building it used it from the start 6
  • 8. justin 43426 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.hyperkit -A -m 2G -c 4 -u -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 31,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-vpnkit,u justin 42732 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.osx.hyperkit.linux justin 42728 com.docker.backend justin 23338 com.docker.db --url=file:///Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/s40 --git /Users/justin/Library/Containers/c justin 23337 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.osx.hyperkit.linux -watchdog fd:0 justin 23334 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.osx.hyperkit.linux -watchdog fd:0 root 3355 /Library/PrivilegedHelperTools/com.docker.vmnetd justin 43684 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/Resources/bin/com.docker.frontend {"action":"vmstateevent","args":{"vmstate":"running"}} justin 43683 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/Resources/bin/com.docker.frontend {"action":"vmstateevent","args":{"vmstate":"running"}} justin 43425 /Applications/Docker.app/Contents/MacOS/com.docker.driver.amd64-linux -db /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Da justin 43424 com.docker.driver.amd64-linux -db /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/s40 -osxfs-volume /Users/justin/Libra justin 43423 com.docker.slirp --db /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/s40 --socket fd:3 --port-control fd:4 --vsock-pat justin 43422 com.docker.osxfs --address fd:3 --connect /Users/justin/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/@connect --volume-control fd: 8
  • 10. Hyperkit: A toolkit for embedding hypervisor capabilities in your application •  Only used on the Mac – Windows uses Hyper-V •  Based on xhyve, which in turn is bsed on bhyve from FreeBSD •  A hypervisor is just a single process per emulated CPU core •  https://github.com/docker/hyperkit 10
  • 11. Hyperkit •  Sparse block device, using qcow2 format •  Virtio devices: network, block, 9p, socket, rng •  Configure the amount of memory and CPU cores in the preferences 11
  • 13. Git database •  Can do really interesting stuff – it is git for datastructures •  Simple use cases here for storing configuration •  Yes there is a git tree at ~/Library/Containers/com.docker.docker/Data/database •  There is a filesystem view inside the VM using 9p •  https://github.com/docker/datakit 13
  • 15. VSock and HVSock •  Socket families for communication with VMs, like Unix sockets •  VSock originally developed by VMWare •  HVSock developed by Microsoft, similar design, but different addressing •  New socket families so not well supported yet, eg no Go support have to use C bindings •  Communication not over network, so works even if network issues •  Used to transport the Docket socket to the VM not via https, and other uses. 15
  • 17. Alpine Linux is a security-oriented, lightweight Linux distribution based on musl libc and busybox. 17
  • 18. Stateless •  Alpine was designed to boot from init ramdisk •  Reboot and everything is back to the same state, except /var with Docker state on it. •  Configuration stored in the datakit database, currently mounted on /Database •  Phoenix like, just rebuild a new image, no upgrades •  Only runs Docker and supporting infrastructure. 18
  • 19. No user serviceable parts? •  Designed to “just work” and keep Docker runnning. •  Database sets all the Docker and system config (UI coming soon) •  Use privileged containers or capabilities to do other host changes, persist with --restart always •  eg install sysdig kernel module •  root shell: docker run -it --privileged --pid=host debian nsenter -t 1 -m -u -n -i sh 19
  • 20. Kernel •  Currently stable 4.4.x series kernel with aufs, vsock and hvsock patches •  No modules, everything built in for fast boot, but you can add modules •  Supports aufs and overlay storage drivers (overlay2 soon) •  Supports NFS, SMB, CRIU, many other things requested by users on the forum •   binfmt_misc set up so you can run arm and other binaries with qemu emulation •  config in /proc/config.gz patches in /etc/kernel-patches 20
  • 21. Userspace •  Alpine 3.4 •  Docker, statically linked build with seccomp. •  Reasonable set of utility programs, not just base system, eg Kubernetes had some requirements which were added •  You can install new packages, again they will not persist over a reboot, but we use this to debug Docker sometimes •  Some diagnostics code, setup code, file sharing, time synchronisation, ... •  Will be open sourced when a bit more stable, after GA. 21
  • 23. Come to Mindy Preston's talk tomorrow at 14:25 Ballroom 6C for more about VPNkit 23
  • 24. VPNkit •  https://github.com/docker/vpnkit •  Currently being used on Mac, being tested for Windows •  Take the ethernet traffic from the Linux VM •  Reconstruct it as application traffic on OSX •  So socket(); ... listen() ... send() in Linux is reconstructed from ethernet traffic as the same series of calls on OSX. •  No OS interfaces needed, complete control, appears just like another application so works with VPN, firewall. 24
  • 25. VPNkit •  VPNkit uses the network stack from the Mirage unikernel •  Mirage is a set of low level system libraries •  Written in OCaml, a functional programming language •  Easy to repurpose for completely different use cases 25
  • 27. OSXfs •  Currently only being used on the Mac, SMB used in Windows •  Uses FUSE on the Linux side to get the system calls •  Transports these over VSock •  Converts into OSX filesystem calls. •  Listens for filesystem notifications in OSX and replays events in Linux. 27
  • 28. OSXfs •  As you may see it is somewhat similar model to VPNkit but more complex •  Filesystems are more different that network stacks •  Filesystem notifications are quite different as not very standard •  eg OSX does not provide read notifications, but Linux does. •  Soon will be able to specify which parts of the filesystem to share. 28
  • 29. Windows file sharing •  Uses a SMB mount from Linux to Windows •  SMB protocol supports filesystem notifications but Linux does not unfortunately •  Will have to solve this by adding notification support or porting OSXfs 29
  • 31. User interface •  Minimal at the moment but more plans for the future •  Native code: Swift on OSX, C# on Windows •  Communicates through database for configuration. •  Plans to integrate Kitematic or similar graphical interface later 31
  • 33.
  • 34. 34
  • 36. --net=host •  With VPNkit, when you --publish a port in a container, we use a custom userland proxy •  This communicates through the /port 9p filesystem to the Mac •  The Mac opens a listening socket on the host, so you can connect to your container on localhost:nnn •  This is also used for docker service in Swarm mode •  But listening to a port with --net=host does not notify Docker so we cannot easily intercept it 36
  • 37. I cannot connect to container ports •  On OSX there is no direct routing to the Linux VM, and so neither can you reach the machines on a bridge network •  If you want to debug, do it from another container, or docker run -- net=container:name •  You need to do this for overlay networks anyway, so good idea to get used to this. 37
  • 38. Unix socket between host and container doesn‘t work •  Well yes, they are different computers... •  But we do plan to make it work via osxfs and transparently proxying over VSock for you •  In the mean time, make do with a TCP socket or run everything in containers. 38
  • 39. Sound and Vision •  X Windows, RDP, VNC, or HTTP graphical interfaces can be made to work •  Audio should be possible too. •  Quite a few people want this, please help out! 39
  • 41. Stability first,features second •  Stability and bug fixing priorities for GA •  People are using it every day for their work. Including us. •  Features driven by what you want •  More components will be open sourced. 41
  • 43. The team,many are here at DockerCon Many many more people at Docker who contributed A very long list of contributors to open source projects,especially bhyve,xhyve, Mirage,Alpine Linux 43