2. Course Aim and objectives
To give participants an appreciation of
the research process
At the end of the module participants
will be able to:
Describe what research is and its
importance to their work places
3. Prepare a research proposal
Design research instruments
Collect data, analyze it and be able to
write research reports and
disseminate the findings.
4. NATURE AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH
Participants will be able to:-
Appreciate the characteristics of research
Describe the importance of research
Describe research process/scope of
Identification of research areas/topics
Describe the philosophies and types of
Describe basic approaches to research
Curiosity and inquisitiveness is a common
characteristic of every human being.
All of us are curious to know about our
selves, our organizations, our institutions, our
homes and families, our wives, our husbands
There are a number of questions we always
ask our selves of which some are not
answered well and thus necessitates
investigation, thus need for research .
6. Meaning of Research
Research simply means a search for
facts or answers to the questions we
It means seeking solutions to the
It is a purposive investigation. It is an
organized inquiry. It seeks to find
explanations to unexplained
phenomenon, to clarify the doubtful
facts and to correct the misconceived
7. It seeks to find explanations to
It is an advanced intellectual effort in pursuit
Organized, systematic, data-based critical
inquiry or investigation into a specific
problem, undertaken with the objective of
finding answers or solutions to it.
Scientific way of gathering (collecting
data), analyzing data, interpretation of
data and presentation of information
about a particular subject to clarify the
doubtful facts and to correct the
Another name for research is
9. Research is guided by a framework of
philosophies, procedures, methods
and techniques already tested for their
validity and reliability.
A research philosophy is a belief about
the way in which data about a
phenomenon should be gathered,
analyzed and used.
10. Ordinarily, the search for answers to
the questions we pose can be obtained
in two main ways:
1. Arbitrary, crude or rudimentary
methods. This involves imaginations,
opinion, blind belief or impression. This
method of gathering facts has incurable
weaknesses. It is subjective, the
findings will vary from one person to
another depending on his or her
11. 2. Scientific, logic, systematic
methods. This involves a
systematic rational approach to
seeking facts and it eliminates the
incurable effect of the above
method. This method is objective,
precise and it arrives at
conclusions on the basis of
verifiable facts or empirical
12. Why do we do research?
Generate and expand knowledge
Deal with problems, attitudes and opinions
Attempt to seek answers to questions.
Draw conclusions from data
Become “research literate.”
Because we live in a society that’s driven by
purpose of research is to reduce the level of
risk of a decision
Aids in forecasting and planning
Improve our critical thinking skills.
Learn how to critically evaluate
Learn how to conduct research in
case the need arises one day.
To understand human behaviour and
Others class discussion
14. Characteristics of Research
Research is Systematic; it starts with a
question that needs an answer or a
problem to be solved.
Research is Logical; it needs a plan
and a specific procedure to follow.
Research is Empirical; its findings
must be based on or supported by
carefully collected and analyzed data.
Research is Reductive; i.e. main
research problem is broken down into
more specific and manageable sub-
5. Research is Replicable; it can be
done again or repeated.
6. Research is Transmittable; study
findings can be applied in new
7. Research is Cyclical; it does not
16. What Research Is Not
Research is not mere information
Research is not mere transportation of
facts from one location to another.
Research is not merely rummaging for
Research is not a catchword used to
Research is a process through which
we attempt to achieve systematically
and with the support of data the
answer to a question, the resolution of
a problem, or a greater understanding
of a phenomenon.
18. RESEACH BEING SCIENTIFIC
Research is said to be scientific because
it involves the following :
Searching for new knowledge-
Systematic-it follows procedures
Empirical-evidence and truth about the
information you have
Carefully designed-not speculation
Based on expertise
Objective –can be interpreted
19. Types of Social Research
There are many kinds of social
Three dimensions are particularly
important these are;
◦ Basic research
◦ Applied research
◦ Evaluation research
20. Basic research
Basic research is designed to
understand the underlying principles
behind human behavior..
Basic research is sometimes called
pure research, fundamental research
and theory-based research.
It is the research for academicians.
It is not intended to solve a problem
but to extend a theory.
It is undertaken out of intellectual
It is not problem oriented. It aims at
extension of knowledge.
The findings enrich the storehouse of
Basic science investigations probe for
answers to questions such as:
◦ How did the universe begin?
◦ What are protons, neutrons, and electrons
Basic research lays down the foundation for
the applied science that follows.
If basic work is done first, then applied
23. Applied research.
Applied research is designed to solve
a particular problem in a particular
It is referred to as useful research
its emphasis is on solving a practical
The emphasis is not on theory but
solving a problem.
applied researchers may investigate
◦ improve agricultural crop production
◦ Improve participants understanding of
◦ improve performance of pupils in primary
• Applied research may lead to the
development of a theory.
25. Evaluation Research
Evaluation involves determining the
worth, merit, or quality of an
It is sometimes called impact
research, assessment research or
social accountability research.
its interest is in assessing the impact
of an intervention
27. Research process/scope of
1. Select your topic ( identification of
2. Refine your topic (review of existing
3. Identify objectives
4. Choose approach (methodology)
5. Explore your topic (gather Data )
6. Analyze the Data
7. Write the report
29. Consulting the professionals in the
area of your interest
Daily problems confronted
Note books where you keep your
30. QUALITIES OF AGOOD
It should meet the specification of the
It should fit within the available
It should be researchable
Should enable you access
It should be in a new area that has not
It should enable you get solutions to
your research problem, etc.
31. Philosophy of research and types of
Philosophy of research. Research is
guided by number of philosophies
some of which include:
(i) Epistemology: It is the branch of
philosophy concerned with the nature
and scope of knowledge and is also
referred to as "theory of knowledge"
32. It questions what knowledge is and
how it can be acquired, and the extent
to which knowledge pertinent to any
given subject or entity can be
Much of the debate in this field has
focused on analyzing the nature of
knowledge and how it relates to
connected notions such as truth, belief
33. Basic epistemological questions are
To what extent can knowledge exist
By what process does knowledge
How does one separate fact from
What constitutes meaningful
statement about reality
34. (ii) Axiology: Axiology is the branch of
philosophy that examines values of the
researcher and the extent to which such
values enter into the research process.
It is the science of human values that
enables us to identify the internal
valuing systems that influence our
perceptions, decisions and actions - to
clearly understand "why" we do what
35. Three questions
Can theory be value free?
To what extent does the practice of
inquiry influence that which is studied?
To what extent should scholarship
attempt to achieve social change?
37. Types Of Research(By methodology)
1. Quantitative research
A type of research that describes
phenomena in numbers and measures
instead of using words.
data is expressed in numbers and analyzed
using statistical methods.
Quantitative research is positivism in
Key elements of positivism
An objective truth exits
Truth revealed through use of
Researcher is independent from what
Deductive reasoning ( Moving from generalized
principles that are known to be true to a true and specific
39. 2. Qualitative Research
It is a type of research in which phenomena
are described in words instead of numbers.
Its used in a situation were the data to be
collected may not be represented
Such data can not be analyzed statistically
It is called Interpretivisim in nature
Elements of Interpretivisim
Individuals construct own version of
reality-no objective reality
Aim of research is to understand and
interpret how individuals make sense
of that constructed reality
Researcher has influence on the
context in which they study
Inductive reasoning (moving from specific instances
to a generalized conclusion)
41. Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Difference Quantitative Qualitative
Approach Scientific and formal. Scientific and neutral.
Data Reduced to scores Presented in a narrative
Knowledge Concrete, conceptual and
precise. Can be tested
contextual and best
expressed by the owners
process of Inquiry Linear, experimental.
“ how much, how many”.
Uses a random sample.
Cyclic and sophisticated.
patterns of occurrences
“why, who, when”.
Uses non random samples
42. Mode of Analysis Statistical. Interpretative.
View of Reality Objective, singular &
independent of the
Subjective & multiple as
seen by the researcher
Relationship of the
independent of that being
Interacts with that being
Role of Value Free of biased biased
Role of Research •Deductive: cause-effect.
• Inductive: mutual,
• Particularization of
43. Why Individuals think research is
Individuals are ill-prepared.
Individuals have the wrong perceptions about
what research is.
Individuals have difficulty in formulating a
Individuals have not undergone a creative
Individuals do not read widely enough.
Individuals do not know how to use the Web for
research (or CD-ROMs and the library as well!)
Individuals& their supervisors do not themselves
fully understand the research process and how to
best explain it.
The research process therefore
should be understood as one of
ongoing planning, searching,
discovery, reflection, synthesis,
revision, and learning
END OF PRESENTATION,
QUESTIONS, COMMENTS ARE