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Acute Radiation Syndrome
By
Dr.Ayush Garg
ARS, or radiation sickness, occurs in humans after whole-body reception of
large doses of ionizing radiation delivered ove...
Early radiation responses are described as deterministic.
Deterministic radiation responses are those that exhibit increas...
ARS manifests itself in four major response stages:
Prodromal (initial stage)
Latent period
Manifest illness
Recovery
Prodromal Stage
It occurs within hours after a whole-body absorbed dose of 1 Gy (100 rads) or more.
The severity of the sy...
Normal Dose LD 50 Supralethal Dose
Neuromuscular Easy Fatigability
Apathy
Sweating
Fever
Headache
Hypotension
Easy Fatigab...
Latent Period
It occurs for about 1 week, during which no visible symptoms occur.
Actually, it is during this period that ...
Manifest Illness Stage
It is the period when symptoms that affect
•the hematopoietic,
•gastrointestinal, and
•cerebrovascu...
Former Russian spy, Alexander Litvinenko, 43, is the first known victim to be
poisoned with polonium-210 and to die from t...
About a third of Hiroshima's population was killed within a week of the bombing.
Many more have since died through radiati...
If after a whole-body sublethal dose such as 2 to 3 Gy (200 to 300 rads),
exposed persons pass through the first three sta...
Without effective physical monitoring devices, biologic criteria such as the
occurrence of nausea and vomiting played an i...
This included serial measurements of levels of lymphocytes and granulocytes in
the blood and a quantitative analysis of di...
Repair and Recovery
Because cells contain a repair mechanism inherent in their biochemistry (repair
enzymes), repair and r...
In the repair of sublethal damage, oxygenated cells receiving more nutrients have a
better prospect for recovery than do h...
Research has shown that repeated radiation injuries have a
cumulative effect. Hence a percentage (about 10%) of the radiat...
Syndrome is the medical term that means a collection of
symptoms. ARS is a collection of symptoms associated with
high-lev...
Hematopoietic
Syndrome
The hematopoietic form of ARS, or “bone marrow syndrome,” occurs when
human beings receive whole-body doses of ionizing ra...
For example, radiation doses ranging from 2.5 to 5 Gy (250 to 5000 rads)
produce a decrease in the number of bone marrow s...
For persons affected with hematopoietic syndrome, survival time shortens as
the radiation dose increases.
When death occur...
Relationship
between
early
changes in
peripheral
blood
lymphocyte
counts and
degree of
radiation
injury
Survival probability of patients with hematopoietic syndrome is enhanced
by intense supportive care and special hematologi...
Syndrome Dose Prodromal
Stage
Latent
Stage
Manifest Illness
Stage
Recovery
Hematopoietic
(Bone marrow)
2.5-5 Gy Symptoms
a...
Gastrointestinal
Syndrome
In human beings the gastrointestinal form of ARS appears at a threshold dose
of approximately 6 Gy (600 rads) and peaks af...
A few hours after the dose required to cause the gastrointestinal syndrome has
been received, the prodromal stage occurs.
...
Mechanism of Action
The small intestine is the most severely affected part of the gastrointestinal tract.
Because epitheli...
Syndrome Dose Prodromal
Stage
Latent Stage Manifest
Illness Stage
Recovery
Gastrointestinal
(GI)
> 10 Gy
(5-12Gy) • Sympto...
Cerebrovascular
Syndrome
The cerebrovascular form of the ARS results when the central nervous system
and cardiovascular system receive doses of 100...
Damaged blood vessels and
permeable capillaries permit fluid
to leak into the brain, causing an
increase in fluid content....
Because the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems are more
radiosensitive than the central nervous system,
they also ...
Syndrome Dose Prodromal
Stage
Latent Stage Manifest
Illness Stage
Recovery
Cardiovascular
(CV)/ Central
Nervous
System (CN...
LD 50/30
The term LD 50/30 signifies the whole-body dose of radiation that can be lethal
to 50% of the exposed population ...
When medical treatment is given promptly, the patient is supported through
initial symptoms, but the question of long-term...
Species LD50/60 (rad)
Pig 250
Dog 275
Human 350
Guinea pig 425
Monkey 475
Opossum 510
Mouse 620
Goldfish 700
Hamster 700
R...
Cutaneous Radiation
Syndrome (CRS)
The concept of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) was introduced
in recent years to des...
When the basal cell
layer of the skin is
damaged by
radiation-
Inflammation Erythema
Dry or Moist
Desquamation
Also, hair ...
In Most Cases,
Healing Occurs
By
Regenerative
Means;
However, Very
Large Skin
Doses Can Cause
1.Permanent
Hair Loss,
2.Dam...
Treatment
Isolate
Antibiotics for infection
Fresh platelets transfusion
Growth factors transfusion(GCSF)
Bone marrow trans...
Take Home Message
The prodromal syndrome varies in time of onset, severity, and duration.
At doses close to the dose that ...
The hematopoietic syndrome results from total-body exposure to 2.5 to 5 Gy
(250-500 rad). The radiation sterilizes some or...
In primates, the LD50 can be raised by a factor of 2 by appropriate treatment,
including careful nursing and antibiotics, ...
Acute radiation syndrome
Acute radiation syndrome
Acute radiation syndrome
Acute radiation syndrome
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Acute radiation syndrome

Acute Radiation Syndrome

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Acute radiation syndrome

  1. 1. Acute Radiation Syndrome By Dr.Ayush Garg
  2. 2. ARS, or radiation sickness, occurs in humans after whole-body reception of large doses of ionizing radiation delivered over a short period of time. Data from epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to cause this syndrome have been obtained from 1. Atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 2. The Marshall Islanders who were subjected to high levels of fallout during an atomic bomb test in 1954, 3. Nuclear radiation accident victims such as those injured in the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, and 4. Radiation therapy patients.
  3. 3. Early radiation responses are described as deterministic. Deterministic radiation responses are those that exhibit increasing severity with increasing radiation dose. Furthermore, there is usually a dose threshold.
  4. 4. ARS manifests itself in four major response stages: Prodromal (initial stage) Latent period Manifest illness Recovery
  5. 5. Prodromal Stage It occurs within hours after a whole-body absorbed dose of 1 Gy (100 rads) or more. The severity of the symptoms is dose-related; the higher the dose, the more severe the symptoms. The length of time involved for this stage to run its course may be hours or a few days LD50 The LD50 is the dose necessary to kill 50% of the exposed population. The LD50/60 is the dose necessary to kill 50% of the exposed population in 60 days.
  6. 6. Normal Dose LD 50 Supralethal Dose Neuromuscular Easy Fatigability Apathy Sweating Fever Headache Hypotension Easy Fatigability Fever Hypotension Gastro-intestinal Anorexia Nausea Vomiting Diarrhoea Intestinal Cramps Salivation Fluid Loss Dehydration Weight Loss Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting, Immediate diarrhoea
  7. 7. Latent Period It occurs for about 1 week, during which no visible symptoms occur. Actually, it is during this period that either recovery or lethal effects begin. Toward the end of the first week, the next stage commences.
  8. 8. Manifest Illness Stage It is the period when symptoms that affect •the hematopoietic, •gastrointestinal, and •cerebrovascular systems become visible. In severe high-dose cases, emaciated human beings eventually die.
  9. 9. Former Russian spy, Alexander Litvinenko, 43, is the first known victim to be poisoned with polonium-210 and to die from the resulting radiation sickness. He died on Nov. 23, three weeks after he fell ill in London.
  10. 10. About a third of Hiroshima's population was killed within a week of the bombing. Many more have since died through radiation sickness In a nuclear explosion ,ARS may be accompanied by flash burns,as pictured above,due to thermal radiation.
  11. 11. If after a whole-body sublethal dose such as 2 to 3 Gy (200 to 300 rads), exposed persons pass through the first three stages but show less severe symptoms than those seen after super-lethal doses of 6 to 10 Gy (600 to 1000 rads), recovery may occur in about 3 months. However, those who recover may show some signs of radiation damage and experience late effects.
  12. 12. Without effective physical monitoring devices, biologic criteria such as the occurrence of nausea and vomiting played an important role in the identification of radiation casualties during the first 2 days after the nuclear disaster. ARS caused the hospitalization of at least 203 people. A determination of the lapse of time from the incidental exposure of the victims to the onset of nausea and/or vomitting completed the biologic criteria. Dose assessment was determined from biologic dosimetry. Chernobyl and ARS
  13. 13. This included serial measurements of levels of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the blood and a quantitative analysis of dicentric chromosomes (chromosomes having two centromeres) in blood and hematopoietic cells coming from bone marrow. The data were compared with doses and effects from earlier radiation mishaps. Thirty people at Chernobyl experienced the acute radiation syndrome and died. A number of minor late effects have been observed.
  14. 14. Repair and Recovery Because cells contain a repair mechanism inherent in their biochemistry (repair enzymes), repair and recovery may occur when cells are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation. After irradiation, surviving cells begin to repopulate. This permits an organ that has sustained functional damage as a result of radiation exposure to regain some or most of its functional ability. However, the amount of functional damage sustained determines the organ's potential for recovery.
  15. 15. In the repair of sublethal damage, oxygenated cells receiving more nutrients have a better prospect for recovery than do hypoxic (poorly oxygenated) cells receiving less nutrients. If both oxygenated and hypoxic cells receive a comparable dose of low-LET radiation, the oxygenated cells are more severely damaged but those that survive repair themselves and recover from the injury. Even though they are less severely damaged, the hypoxic cells do not repair and recover as efficiently
  16. 16. Research has shown that repeated radiation injuries have a cumulative effect. Hence a percentage (about 10%) of the radiation- induced damage is irreparable, whereas the remaining 90% may be repaired over time. When the processes of repair and repopulation work together, they aid in healing the body from radiation injury and promote recovery.
  17. 17. Syndrome is the medical term that means a collection of symptoms. ARS is a collection of symptoms associated with high-level radiation exposure. Three separate dose-related syndromes occur as part of the total-body syndrome: 1. Hematopoietic Syndrome 2. Gastrointestinal Syndrome 3. Cerebrovascular Syndrome
  18. 18. Hematopoietic Syndrome
  19. 19. The hematopoietic form of ARS, or “bone marrow syndrome,” occurs when human beings receive whole-body doses of ionizing radiation ranging from 2.5 to 5 Gy (250 to 500 rads). The hematopoietic system manufactures the corpuscular elements of the blood and is the most radiosensitive vital organ system in humans. Radiation exposure causes the number of: 1. Red Cells 2. White Cells 3. Platelets In the circulating blood to decrease. Dose levels that cause this syndrome also may damage cells in other organ systems, causing the affected organ or organ system to fail. The patient initially experiences mild symptoms of the prodromal syndrome, which appear in a matter of a few hours and may persist for several days.
  20. 20. For example, radiation doses ranging from 2.5 to 5 Gy (250 to 5000 rads) produce a decrease in the number of bone marrow stem cells. When the cells of the lymphatic system are damaged, the body loses some of its ability to combat infection. Because the number of platelets also decreases with loss of bone marrow function, the body loses a corresponding amount of its blood- clotting ability. This makes the body more susceptible to hemorrhage
  21. 21. For persons affected with hematopoietic syndrome, survival time shortens as the radiation dose increases. When death occurs, it is a consequence of bone marrow destruction. Death may occur 6 to 8 weeks after irradiation in some sensitive human subjects who receive a whole-body dose exceeding 2 Gy (200 rads). As the whole-body dose increases from 2.5 to 5 Gy (250 to 500 rads), irradiated individuals die sooner. If the radiation exposure is not lethal, perhaps in the range of 1 to 2 Gy (100 to 200 rads), bone marrow cells will eventually repopulate to a level adequate to support life in most individuals. Many of these people recover 3 weeks to 6 months after irradiation.
  22. 22. Relationship between early changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and degree of radiation injury
  23. 23. Survival probability of patients with hematopoietic syndrome is enhanced by intense supportive care and special hematologic procedures. The actual dose of radiation received and the irradiated person's general state of health at the time of irradiation determine the possibility of recovery. When death occurs in exposed individuals, it results from bone marrow destruction. The severe reduction of blood cells causes anemia and permits exposed individuals to become susceptible to infection. This results in death of those individuals.
  24. 24. Syndrome Dose Prodromal Stage Latent Stage Manifest Illness Stage Recovery Hematopoietic (Bone marrow) 2.5-5 Gy Symptoms are anorexia, nausea and vomiting. • Onset occurs 1 hour to 2 days after exposure. • Stage lasts for minutes to days. • Stem cells in bone marrow are dying, although patient may appear and feel well. • Stage lasts 1 to 6 weeks. • Symptoms are anorexia, fever, and malaise. • Drop in all blood cell counts occurs for several weeks. • Primary cause of death is infection and hemorrhage. • Survival decreases with increasing dose. • Most deaths occur within 1-2 months after exposure. In most cases, bone marrow cells will begin to repopulate the marrow. • There should be full recovery for a large percentage of individuals from a few weeks up to two years after exposure • The LD50/60 is about 2.5 to 5 Gy (250 to 500 rads).
  25. 25. Gastrointestinal Syndrome
  26. 26. In human beings the gastrointestinal form of ARS appears at a threshold dose of approximately 6 Gy (600 rads) and peaks after a dose of 10 Gy (1000 rads). Without medical support to sustain life, exposed persons receiving doses of 6 to 10 Gy (600 to 1000 rads) may die 3 to 10 days after being exposed. Even if medical support is provided, the exposed person will live only a few days longer. Survival time does not change with dose in this syndrome.
  27. 27. A few hours after the dose required to cause the gastrointestinal syndrome has been received, the prodromal stage occurs. This is followed by a latent period, which lasts as long as 5 days. During this time the symptoms disappear. The manifest illness stage follows this period of false calm. Again, the human subject experiences severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Other symptoms are discussed later. Death occurs primarily because of catastrophic damage to the epithelial cells that line the gastrointestinal tract. Such severe damage to these cells results in the death of the exposed person within 3 to 10 days of irradiation, as a result of infection, fluid loss, or electrolytic imbalance.
  28. 28. Mechanism of Action The small intestine is the most severely affected part of the gastrointestinal tract. Because epithelial cells function as an essential biologic barrier, their breakdown leaves the body vulnerable to infection (mostly from its own intestinal bacteria), dehydration, and severe diarrhoea. Some epithelial cells regenerate before death occurs. However, because of the large number of epithelial cells damaged by the radiation, death may occur before cell regeneration is accomplished. The workers and firefighters at Chernobyl are examples of humans who died as a result of gastrointestinal syndrome.
  29. 29. Syndrome Dose Prodromal Stage Latent Stage Manifest Illness Stage Recovery Gastrointestinal (GI) > 10 Gy (5-12Gy) • Symptoms are anorexia, severe nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhoea. • Onset occurs within a few hours after exposure. • Stage lasts about 2 days. Stem cells in bone marrow and cells lining GI tract are dying, although patient may appear and feel well. • Stage lasts less than 1 week. Symptoms are malaise, anorexia, severe diarrhoea, fever, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance. • Death is due to infection, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance. • Death occurs within 3-12 days of exposure. • The LD100‡ is about 10 Gy (1000 rads).
  30. 30. Cerebrovascular Syndrome
  31. 31. The cerebrovascular form of the ARS results when the central nervous system and cardiovascular system receive doses of 100 Gy (10000 rads) or more of ionizing radiation. A dose of this magnitude can cause death within a few hours to 2 or 3 days after exposure. After irradiation the prodromal stage begins. Symptoms discussed later. A latent period lasting up to 12 hours follows. During this time, symptoms lessen or disappear. After the latent period the manifest illness stage occurs. During this period the prodromal syndrome recurs with increased severity, and other symptoms appear.
  32. 32. Damaged blood vessels and permeable capillaries permit fluid to leak into the brain, causing an increase in fluid content. This creates an increase in intracranial pressure It causes more tissue damage. The final result of this damage is failure of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems which causes death in a matter of minutes. Mechanism of Action
  33. 33. Because the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems are more radiosensitive than the central nervous system, they also are severely damaged and fail to function after a dose of this magnitude. However, because death occurs quickly, the consequences of the failure of these two systems are not demonstrated
  34. 34. Syndrome Dose Prodromal Stage Latent Stage Manifest Illness Stage Recovery Cardiovascular (CV)/ Central Nervous System (CNS) 100Gy Total body dose of X- Rays or total Neurons Symptoms are extreme nervousness and confusion; severe nausea, vomiting, and watery diarrhoea; loss of consciousness; and burning sensations of the skin. • Onset occurs within minutes of exposure. • Stage lasts for minutes to hours. Patient may return to partial functionality. • Stage may last for hours but often is less. Symptoms are return of watery diarrhoea, convulsions, and coma. • Onset occurs 5 to 6 hours after exposure. • Death occurs within 24-48 hours of exposure. • No recovery is expected.
  35. 35. LD 50/30 The term LD 50/30 signifies the whole-body dose of radiation that can be lethal to 50% of the exposed population within 30 days. This is a quantitative measurement that is fairly precise when applied to experimental animals. Humans exposed to substantial whole-body doses of ionizing radiation, however, take longer to recover than do laboratory animals. Hence, the LD 50 for humans may require more than 30 days for its full expression. The LD 50/30 for adult humans is estimated to be 3.0 to 4.0 Gy (300 to 400 rads) without medical support. For x-rays and gamma rays, this is equal to an equivalent dose of 3.0 to 4.0 Sv (300 to 400 rem). Whole-body doses greater than 6 Gy (600 rads) may cause the death of the entire population in 30 days without medical support. With medical support, human beings have tolerated doses as high as 8.5 Gy (850 rads)
  36. 36. When medical treatment is given promptly, the patient is supported through initial symptoms, but the question of long-term survival may simply be delayed. Thus survival over a 60-day period may be a more relevant indicator of outcome for humans than survival over a 30-day period. This is the reason that LD 50/60 for humans may be more accurate. Regardless of treatment, whole-body equivalent doses of greater than 12 Gy (1200 rads) are considered fatal.
  37. 37. Species LD50/60 (rad) Pig 250 Dog 275 Human 350 Guinea pig 425 Monkey 475 Opossum 510 Mouse 620 Goldfish 700 Hamster 700 Rat 710 Rabbit 725 Gerbil 1050 Turtle 1500 Armadillo 2000 Newt 3000 Cockroach 10,000
  38. 38. Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome (CRS) The concept of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) was introduced in recent years to describe the complex pathological syndrome that results from acute radiation exposure to the skin. ARS usually will be accompanied by some skin damage. It is also possible to receive a damaging dose to the skin without symptoms of ARS, especially with acute exposures to beta radiation or X-rays. Sometimes this occurs when radioactive materials contaminate a patient’s skin or clothes.
  39. 39. When the basal cell layer of the skin is damaged by radiation- Inflammation Erythema Dry or Moist Desquamation Also, hair follicles may be damaged, causing epilation. Within a few hours after irradiation, a transient and inconsistent erythema (associated with itching) can occur. Then, a latent phase may occur and last from a few days up to several weeks, when these are visible- Intense Reddening Blistering Ulceration of the irradiated site Mechanism of Action
  40. 40. In Most Cases, Healing Occurs By Regenerative Means; However, Very Large Skin Doses Can Cause 1.Permanent Hair Loss, 2.Damaged Sebaceous And Sweat Glands 3.Atrophy 4.Fibrosis 5.Decreased Or Increased Skin Pigmentation And Ulceration or Necrosis of the exposed tissue
  41. 41. Treatment Isolate Antibiotics for infection Fresh platelets transfusion Growth factors transfusion(GCSF) Bone marrow transplantation Don’t give blood prophylactically Hydration Parenteral Nutrition
  42. 42. Take Home Message The prodromal syndrome varies in time of onset, severity, and duration. At doses close to the dose that would be lethal to 50% of the population (LD50), the principal symptoms of the prodromal syndrome are anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and easy fatigability. Immediate diarrhoea, fever, or hypotension indicate a supralethal exposure. The cerebrovascular syndrome results from a total-body exposure to about 100 Gy (10,000 rad) of γ-rays and in humans results in death in 24 to 48 hours. The cause of death may be changes in permeability of small blood vessels in the brain. The gastrointestinal syndrome results from a total-body exposure to about 10 Gy (1,000 rad). Death occurs in about 5 to 10 days in humans because of depopulation of the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
  43. 43. The hematopoietic syndrome results from total-body exposure to 2.5 to 5 Gy (250-500 rad). The radiation sterilizes some or all of the mitotically active precursor cells. Symptoms result from lack of circulating blood elements 3 or more weeks later. The LD50 for humans is about 3 to 4 Gy (300-400 rad) for young adults without medical intervention. It may be less for the very young or the old. Some people who would otherwise die from the hematopoietic syndrome may be saved by antibiotics, platelet infusions, or bone-marrow transplants.
  44. 44. In primates, the LD50 can be raised by a factor of 2 by appropriate treatment, including careful nursing and antibiotics, and the same may be assumed for humans. The dose window over which bone-marrow transplants may be useful is narrow, namely, 8 to 10 Gy (800-1,000 rad). Heavily irradiated survivors of accidents in the nuclear industry have been followed for many years; their medical history mirrors that of any aging population. An expected higher incidence of shortened lifespan, early malignancies after a short latency, and rapidly progressing cataracts has not been observed. That is not to say that heavily irradiated individuals are not at increased risk, but an excess cancer incidence can be observed only by a careful study of a large population.

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