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Adequacy of Hemodialysis

By: Rasha samir
Assisstant lecturer of nephrology
Mansoura university
rashasamirtaha@gmail.com

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Adequacy of Hemodialysis

  1. 1. Adequacy of haemodialysis By Rasha samir Assisstant lecturer of nephrology Mansoura university rashasamirtaha@gmail.com
  2. 2. Mrs A.A , a 49 year old housewife was brought to the emergency room with disturbed conscious level. The patient was known to be diabetic for 10 years, ESRD on HD for a couple of yrs. The patient received her last dialysis session one day before with no reported problems. The patient recieves three weekly sessions each lasting for 3 hours through a left forearm A-V fistula . The patient's husband reported that she was increasingly tired through the past few weeks. She became more weak and unable to perform her routine daily activities. Her appetite was increasingly poor with repeated complaints of nausea and vomiting .
  3. 3. On examination: • The patient was confused, GCS: 11, BL/Pr: 130/80, pulse: 87, regular, RR: 16, Temperature: 37.2. • The upper extremities showed scattered itching marks with left forearm A-V fistula with visible pseudoaneursms. • The patient was pale with puffy eyelids. Bilat oedema L.L was evident. • Neurological examination was unremarkable , no signs of lateralization or increased ICP.
  4. 4. The patient was resuscitated and the following investigations were done: • RBG: 110mg/dl. • CBC: HGB: 8.5g/dl, WBCs: 5600, PLT:170,000 • S.creatinine: 10mg/dl. • S.BUN: 100 mg/dl • LFTs: Normal • S.calcium: 7.5 mg/dl • S.phosphorus: 9.2 mg/dl • S. Sodium: 141 mmol/l • S.Potassuim: 6.3 mmol/l CT Brain showed no abnormalities
  5. 5. Do you think what is the most probable diagnosis? Why?
  6. 6. On examination: • The patient was confused, GCS: 11, BL/Pr: 130/80, pulse: 87, regular, RR: 16, Temperature: 37.2. • The upper extremities showed scattered itching marks with left forearm A-V fistula with visible pseudoaneursms. • The patient was pale with puffy eyelids. Bilat oedema L.L was evident. • Neurological examination was unremarkable , no signs of lateralization or increased ICP. The following investigations were done: • RBG: 110mg/dl. • CBC: HGB: 8.5g/dl, WBCs: 5600, PLT:170,000 • S.creatinine: 10mg/dl. • S.BUN: 100 mg/dl • LFTs: Normal • S.calcium: 7.5 mg/dl • S.phosphorus: 9.2 mg/dl • S. Sodium: 141 mmol/l • S.Potassuim: 6.3 mmol/l CT Brain showed no abnormalities
  7. 7. Hemodialysis through its progress allowed thousands of lives to continue and patients to prosper even after total loss of the kidneys
  8. 8. How to prove that the dialysis is adequate?
  9. 9. Adequacy is a measure of how well the dialysis is working NCDS (National Cooperative Dialysis Study in 1981 suggested that a minimal dose of dialysis is required. So the era of adequacy started.
  10. 10. How to evaluate adequacy of dialysis? Improved signs and symptoms of uremia • Tiredness, weakness • Nausea or poor appetite • Losing body weight • Malnutrition • Anemia Monitoring the patient's symptoms alone is also insufficient, since the combination of dialysis plus erythropoietin to correct anemia can eliminate most uremic symptoms although the patient may be underdialyzed
  11. 11. Laboratory evaluation following the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is insufficient because a low BUN can reflect inadequate nutrition rather than sufficient dialytic urea removal
  12. 12. To see whether dialysis is removing enough urea, • Two methods are generally used to assess dialysis adequacy: • Either OR • Both depends upon urea clearance • —normally once a month— URR Kt/v Clearance The ratio of removal rate to blood concentration of certain solute ( K is the sympol of clearance) Why UREA? An ideal clearance marker: • Accumulates in uremia; • Easily measured; and • Easily removed by the dialyzer.
  13. 13. As the dialyzer blood and dialysate flow rates increase, solute clearance increases, but at a diminishing rate. K depend on: Membrane specification including (pore size , Surface area).
  14. 14. URR • URR stands for urea reduction ratio. • The URR is one measure of how effectively a dialysis treatment removed waste products from the body • expressed as a percentage. • Blood is sampled at the start of dialysis and at the end. The levels of urea in the two blood samples are then compared.
  15. 15. What percentage is optimal? • Although no fixed percentage can be said to represent an adequate dialysis, patients generally live longer and have fewer hospitalizations if the URR is at least 60 percent. • Experts recommend a minimum URR of 65 percent. The URR may vary considerably from treatment to treatment. Therefore, a single value below 65 percent should not be of great concern, but a patient's average URR should exceed 65 percent. only once every 12 to 14 treatments, which is once a month.
  16. 16. O Gotch later used a mechanistic analysis of these data and showed that the Kt/V of urea was an important measure of clinical outcome O The Kt/V is mathematically related to the URR and is in fact derived from it, except that the Kt/V also takes into account extra urea removed during dialysis along with excess fluid so the Kt/V is more accurate than the URR , primarily because the Kt/V also considers the amount of urea removed with excess fluid. O The correction of total urea removal for volume of distribution is important because, in a large patient, a given degree of urea loss represents a lower rate of removal of the total body burden of urea (and presumably of other small uremic toxins). Kt/V came to life depending on urea clearance in 1985
  17. 17. The patient who loses 3 kg will have a higher Kt/V, even though both have the same URR Consider two patients with the same URR and the same postdialysis weight, one with a weight loss of 1 kg during the treatment and the other with a weight loss of 3 kg. compare URR to Kt/v
  18. 18. Delivered KT/V: OUsing one of the following formulas: (a) 2.2-3.3 x (R-0.3-UF/W) [bedside]. (b) kt/v= -In (R -0.008*t)+[(4 - 3.5 R)x (UF/ W)]. OR= BUN before – BUN after. OUF/W= wt removed during Dx /post Dx weight.
  19. 19. Computer model • Computer software packages can be purchased separately or as an integral component of dialysis machine. • When supplied with simple clinical information these programs will perform the necessary computations & print Kt/V, PCR & other data. • Used for two goals: 1- Calculation of the delivered kt/v. 2- Prediction of the delivered kt/v.
  20. 20. Drawing Samples for Measuring Urea Clearance • Predialysis and postdialysis samples must be drawn at the same dialysis session. • Draw predialysis blood from the arterial needle before administering any saline or heparin. • With central lines: if heparin and/or saline is used, withdraw at least 10 cc of blood before drawing the blood sample. The blood withdrawn may then be returned to the patient. • The postdialysis [urea] blood sample must not be diluted by either recirculation or saline.
  21. 21. Significant recirculation should be suspected when there is an inadequate reduction in the postdialysis (BUN), which should be less than 40 percent of the predialysis value Conventional methods of measuring recirculation in HD access include a three site method performed during dialysis, and a two site technique at the end of a HD treatment. (BUN) is measured in these samples, and the results entered into the formula to calculate the percent recirculation.
  22. 22. SAMPLING OF KT/V &URR • Pre-sample: After insertion of the needle. • Post sample : A. To prevent rebound ; sequestration of urea from other tissues into blood to reach equilibrium less than 2 min after ending, B. To prevent recirculation ; blood pump is slowed to 30 ml/min for one minute and a sample is taken from art. line.
  23. 23. :Example Kt = 250 mL/min multiplied by 180 minutes Kt = 45,000 mL = 45 liters Vd=60% of body weight If the patient weighs 90 kilograms (kg), V will be 54 liters. V = 90 kg multiplied by .60 = 54 liters. Kt/V = 45/ 54= 0.8 Contacting Mrs A' nephrologist, he informed that she uses a dialyzer with a clearance (K) of 250 mL/min and her dialysis session lasts for 180 minutes (3 hours) and she weighs a 90 kg. What is her Kt/V?
  24. 24. A single low value is not always of concern, the average Kt/V should be at 1.2 (based on single pool dialysis model) The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) group has adopted the Kt/V of 1.2 as the standard for dialysis adequacy.
  25. 25. What can we do to improve patients Kt/V? If a patient's average Kt/V— usually the average of three measurements—is consistently below 1.2, the patient and the nephrologist need to discuss ways to improve it. What would you suggest? ?
  26. 26. Which of the following are items to assess when solute clearance per session in HD is marginal? Adequacy of blood flow from access Dialyzer surface area Dialysate flow rate Time on dialysis Blood pump speed Pre-dialysis potassium level Pre-dialysis Na level Dialysate pathway stagnation All of the following need to be assessed to see if the clearance is good for HD session except pre-dialysis K and Na levels which have no clearance related benefits
  27. 27. UREA KINETIC MODELLING • Urea kinetic modeling is a method for verifying that the amount of dialysis prescribed (the prescribed Kt/V) equals the amount of dialysis delivered (the effective Kt/V). • It allows for variations in dialysis time, use of larger, high efficiency, high-flux dialyzers, and optimization of dietary protein needs. ?
  28. 28. As the dialyzer blood and dialysate flow rates increase, solute clearance increases, but at a diminishing rate. K depend on: Membrane specification including (pore size , Surface area). Good flow rate may be difficult to achieve because of vascular access problems.
  29. 29. At any given blood flow rate, a dialysate flow rate increase will increase the clearance A Slowing the dialysate flow rate to 300ml/min ( to save on dialysate concentrate costs) will cause a reduction in dialyzer clearance compared to dialysate flow rate of 500ml/min b At the blood flow rate used in clinical practise, increasing the dialysate flow rate above 800ml/min usually results in only a small increase in dialyzer clearance c Assume baseline Qb=400ml/min and baseline Qd=500.increasing the dialysate flow rate by 20% would have much smaller effect than increasing blood flow rate by 20% d Usually the dialysate flow rate is 500 to 800ml/min. which one of the following statements with regard to the effect of dialysate flow rate on dialyser clearance is false? Dialysate flow rate
  30. 30. Dialyzer properties High efficiency versus low efficiency dialyzers Efficiency is a measure of urea clearance. High efficiency dialyzer has larger surface area and wider bores compared to low efficiency and hence higher urea clearance. Dialyzer efficiency is described as K0A measured ml/min. High efficiency dialyzers have K0A> 700ml/min. High flux versus low flux dialyzers Flux is a measure of ultrafiltration capacity described by ultrafiltration coefficient Kuf. Low flux< 10 ml/hr/mmHg. High flux >20ml/hr/mmHg. High flux dialyzers have large pores that can help remove bigger molecules as beta-2-microglobulin
  31. 31. The URR of patients in the unit will go up substantiallya Despite the use of big dialyzer, the predialysis beta-2-microglobulin levels of the patients in the unit will not go down b Both (a) and (b)c The new big dialyzers did not improve the URR or beta-2-microglobulin clearance d Mrs A' nephrologist, reported that he is planning to switch the whole unit to new dialyzers with K0A of 1200ml/min and surface area of 2.0 m2.Do you think which statement would be true?
  32. 32. Neither the F5 nor F50 are high-efficiency dialyzersa The F8 will remove similar amounts of urea as the F50, since F50 is a high flux dialyzer and the F8 is a low flux dialyzer b The F50 and F80 are high flux dialyzersc Urea clearance with the F8 and F80 will be similar but beta-2-microglobulin clearance will be markedly different d If these dialyzers are available, regrding their properties, which statement is false? FluxSurf. Ar.(M2)K0A ureaDialyzer low0.9550F5 low1.8800F8 High0.9650F50 High1.8850F80
  33. 33. Regarding use of high flux dialyzers, which of the following statements is most correct? Low-flux dialyzers are now obsoletea There is no evidence that outcome with use of low-flux dialyzers is worse than with high-flux dialyzers b There is some evidence that high-flux dialyzers may be beneficial in terms of survival, but this remains controversial. c High-flux dialyzers have been shown to be of benefit in non- randomized trials, and this benefit is probably due to the fact that such membranes are more biocompatible d
  34. 34. Dialyzer surface area You have two dialyzers in your unit. One is small, cheap dialyzer, with a surface area of 0.6m2, and hence a relatively low k0A of 400ml/min. The other is expensive , 2m2 dialyzer with a K0A of 1000ml/min. the same two patients: patient 1(Qb=200) and patient 2 (Qb=500) both are on the cheap dialyzer now. Which one of the following is true? In the two patients the clearance will increase proportionately in the same amount after switching to the large dialyzer. a The increase in clearance in patient 1 on changing to the large dialyzer will be negligible and in any case will never exceed the K0A of 400ml/min. b There will be little benefit in patient 1 on swithcing dialyzer unless the dialysate flow rate is increased. c The increase in clearance will be substantial in both patients, but the benefit will be lower in the patient in whom Qb is only 200ml/min. d
  35. 35. Increase Time on Dialysis The other way to improve the Kt in Kt/V is to increase t by dialyzing for a longer period. If the Kt/V is 0.8 and the goal is 1.2, K is not changed in a 3 hourly session. how much time you need to add to achieve the goal • 1.2/0.8 = 1.5, • so 1.5 times more Kt is needed. • This means the length of the session needs to increase by 33 percent. If the inadequate sessions lasted 3 hours, they should be increased to 4.5 hrs.
  36. 36. Residual renal function(Kr) • Has insignificant effect on urea clearance during HD. with Kr needs less kt/v. • Reducing dose of Dx is not a good idea: • But has a significant effect on lowering predialysis BUN. • Every 1 ml/min of Kr offers a kt/v of 0.13. • Consequently patients Residual kidney functions deteriorates after HD. Consider the Kr a BOUNDS for the patient. Interdialytic urine collection. BUN after and just before next Dx. Kr = urine volume x urine urea nitrogen. Id time/min mean BUN TOTAL Kt/V = Kt/V + Kr x 5.5 v
  37. 37. A well-designed, randomized study found no benefit of a single-pool Kt/V target of 1.65 compared with 1.25 Kt/v is a measure of adequate not optimal dialysis
  38. 38. In recent literature, adequacy of dialysis is sometimes confused with adequacy of other aspects of patient management. So it is important to distinguish adequacy of the dialysis from adequacy of patient care. Dialysis-dependent patients require a number of treatments independent of or only partially dependent on the dialysis itself, including management of anemia, nutrition, metabolic bone disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease . Total kidney replacement requires more than just dialysis, but a minimum amount of dialysis is still required to optimize both duration and QOL. Kt/V is only one component of dialysis adequacy.
  39. 39. Thank you

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