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Experiences of Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programming in Zimbabwe

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This presentation summarizes the experiences of UNICEF-supported urban water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) program in Zimbabwe.

Experiences of Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programming in Zimbabwe

  1. 1. Experiences of Urban WASH Programming in Zimbabwe Presentation made at UNICEF ESAR WASHNet Meeting, 29 April to 04 May 2013, Zambia by Dr. Murtaza Malik Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Manager, UNICEF Zimbabwe
  2. 2. Outline • UNICEF Involvement • Overview of urban WASH interventions • Challenges and measures to address them
  3. 3. Background • Economic meltdown (2000 – onward): > hyper inflation in 2008 – Lack of investment in O&M of WASH infrastructure – Skills flight – Capacity shortages in public and private sector ->Severe decline in WASH services
  4. 4. The Situation
  5. 5. The Situation
  6. 6. The Situation
  7. 7. The Situation
  8. 8. UNICEF Involvement 1. 2008/09 Cholera outbreak 2. Urban driven • 98,531 cases • 4,300 deaths 3. UNICEF involvement in urban WASH: • Initial involvement as a provider of last resort • Emergency response – 2008/09 • Emergency Rehabilitation and Cholera Risk Reduction – 2009/2013 - US$ 40 m • Recovery phase – Small Towns WASH Programe -2013/15 – US$ 30 m – 14 towns • Donors: AusAid, DfID, ECHO, UNOCHA, Korea
  9. 9. Implementation 1. Government • Ministries of Water/Local Government, ZINWA, local authorities 2. NGOs – initially hardware and software, subsequently software 3. Consulting firms – design, tenders, quality assurance 4. Contractors – hardware 5. Dedicated urban WASH team
  10. 10. Urban WASH Interventions 1. Water treatment chemicals – almost all urban centers > 4 million beneficiaries (2009-12) 2. Borehole drilling (2009/2012)
  11. 11. Urban WASH Interventions 3. Rapid assessments to identify quick-win interventions 4. Quick-win hardware interventions to rehabilitate water and sewage infrastructure (increase operational capacity and reliability) - > 1.5 million beneficiaries. Before 3. Befi (Before Raw water pumping station in Shurugwi Town - before (left) and after (right)
  12. 12. Urban WASH Interventions 4. Quick-win hardware interventions to rehabilitate water and sewage infrastructure Chemical dosing station - before (left) and after (right)
  13. 13. Urban WASH Interventions 4. Quick-win hardware interventions to rehabilitate water and sewage infrastructure Filter units at water treatment plant in Chipinge - before (left) and after (right)
  14. 14. Urban WASH Interventions 5. Sector coordination 6. Capacity building for O&M 7. Software interventions - hygiene promotion, cost recovery, customer care and citizen’s participation 8. Emergency preparedness and response 9. Strategic planning 10. Support for strengthening WASH policy and regulatory framework
  15. 15. Challenges and the Corresponding Measures to address them • Funding gaps – prioritization / phased approach/quick-wins • Need to fast-track rehab works – direct procurement of low- cost/high impact equipment (sewer rods, chlorinators, lab equipment), engagement of NGOs and contractors for rehab works • Procurement – close coordination with supply section, prioritization of supplies with long lead time
  16. 16. Challenges and the Corresponding Measures to address them • Contracting – Building internal capacities – Contractual guidelines for rehab works (electrical and mechanical works) – FIDIC / World Bank – Process delays – engagement of senior management – Limited local capacities – building the capacities of local contractors – Unpredictability of nature and scope of rehab works – provision of adequate contingency sums in the BoQs
  17. 17. Challenges and the Corresponding Measures to address them • Exit from support for water treatment chemicals – responsible phase-out through development of a phase-out strategy • Cost recovery / sustainability – follow up programmes • Borehole drilling in urban areas – capacity building of urban councils in O&M • Emergency response- stand-by PCAs/contracts, pre-positioning of NFIs • Power supply – advocacy for dedicated power lines for water treatment plants/ PPP • Complex operating environment – putting in place robust M&E systems
  18. 18. References • Clarissa Brocklehurst, Murtaza Malik, Kiwe Sebunya and Peter Salama (2013), ‘Engineering in the time of cholera: overcoming institutional and political challenges to rebuild Zimbabwe's water and sanitation infrastructure in the aftermath of the 2008 cholera epidemic’, Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 3 (2), available at http://washdev.iwaponline.com/content/3/2/222.

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