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Hatchery management in Poultry (Fumigation)

HATCHERY MANAGEMENT

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Hatchery management in Poultry (Fumigation)

  1. 1. SUBMITTED BY, Dr. RAJWARDHAN. Jr. MVSc DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE VETERINARY COLLEGE, BANGLORE
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  Introduction  Selecting hatching eggs.  Handling and care of hatching eggs.  Cleaning and sanitization of hatching eggs.  Fumigation of incubators and fumigation chamber for eggs.  Generation of Formaldehyde gas.  Optimum conditions for incubation of eggs.  Incubation methods.  Factors affecting fertility.  Factors altering hatchability.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Enriched human food in the forms of eggs and meat.  Briolers – 42 days,  Layer – 72 weeks.  Life span – 7-8 years.
  4. 4. EXOTIC BREEDS LAYER STOCKS BROILER STOCKS Babcock, Asian-Agro, H and N, Hissex, Shavers, Pearls, Lohmann, De-kalb etc. Cobb, Hubbard, Pearlbro, Hybro, Kasila, Anak, Lohmann etc.
  5. 5. INDIA  In India - 400 Hatcheries.  Government Hatcheries – 160 and remaining are operating in private sector.  Technical person like Veterinarians and Hatcherymen – Practical knowledge of incubation and hatching
  6. 6. SELECTING HATCHING EGGS  Shell quality. ◦ Breeding, Nutrition and Weather. ◦ Strong shell > Thin shell. ◦ Cracked eggs – Candling.  Interior quality.
  7. 7. SELECTING HATCHING EGGS  Interior quality. ◦ Aircell, Albumen and Yolk quality. ◦ Aircell – 8mm. ◦ Rejected eggs :  Floating air cell,  Double yolk,  Off centered yolk,  Albumen with blood,  Meat spot.
  8. 8. CARE DURING SELECTION  Sex ratio – Fertile eggs.  Egg weight – 50-55gm,  Egg shape  Sound, clean, Smooth, thick shells.  High internal qualities.
  9. 9. HANDLING & CARE OF HATCHING EGGS  Optimum hatchability with healthy chicks.  All stages – Handling – Gently with care. Rough handling – Mortality.  Egg collection.  Moderatly soiled eggs.  Transportation.  Storage period - < 4 days – 18.3-20o C - 7 days – 15-16o C - Humidity – 75-80 %.
  10. 10. CLEANING & SANITIZATION OF HATCHING EGGS  Cleaning of soiled egg. ◦ Good yield. ◦ Mild dirty/Soiled eggs. ◦ Badly soiled eggs.  Sanitization.
  11. 11. SANITIZATION  Eggs and Equipments.  Chlorine dioxide spray (or) dip.  Ozone (O3) - 100 ppm  Quaternary ammonia.  Farmaldehyde gas.
  12. 12. FUMIGATION OF INCUBATORS & FUMIGATION CHAMBER FOR EGGS  Commercial formaldehyde.
  13. 13. GENERATION OF FORMALDYHYDE GAS 1. Potassium permanganate method. 2. Paraformaldehyde method. 3. Evaporation of formalin solution.
  14. 14.  Two parts (by volume) Formalin + One part (by weight) of KMnO4. 1. KMnO4 Method 1x • Single strength concentration • Normal 2x • Double strength concentration • In case of Outbreak 3x, 5x • Other concentration • Excessive microbe load
  15. 15. Fumigation levels per 2.83 m3 (100 ft3) Strength To produce formaldehyde gas mix together Formalin Pottassium permangana te (ml) (g) Single (1x) 40 20 Double (2x) 80 40 Triple (3x) 120 60 (5x) 200 100
  16. 16. Strength To produce equivalent amount formaldehyde gas Paraformaldehyde powder (g) Single (1x) 10 Double (2x) 20 Triple (3x) 30 (5x) 50 2. PARAFORMALDEHYDE METHOD
  17. 17.  A 40% formalin used in regulated quantities for fumigation of hatchers during piping and hatching period with slow release of gas. 3. EVAPORATION OF FORMALIN SOLUTION
  18. 18. Fumigation of Concentration of fumigant Fumigation time Neutraliser NH4OH Hatching eggs immediately after laying 3x 20 No Eggs in incubator (1st day only) 2x 20 No Incubator room 1x, 2x 30 No Chicks in hatcher 1x 30 Yes Hatchery between hatches 3x 30 No Hatching and chick room between hatches 3x 30 No Wash room 3x 30 No Chick boxes 3x 30 No Trucks 5x 20 Yes FUMIGATION OF HATCHERY COMPONENTS
  19. 19. 1. Temperature 2. Humidity 3. Ventillation 4. Turning of eggs 5. Setting of eggs OPTIMUM CONDITION FOR INCUBATION OF EGGS
  20. 20. Species Chicken Average incubation period (days) 20-21 Temperature OC (OF) 37.7 (99.7) 36.7 (98.3) Duration of Incubation (days) (Phase 1 & 2) 1. 1- 18 days 2. 19-21 days (H*) RH percent 60 70 Turning required Yes No OPTIMUM CONDITIONS FOR INCUBATION OF EGGS (H* - Actual Hatching period during which chicks are hatched out)
  21. 21. TEMPERATURE
  22. 22. INCUBATION METHODS  Natural incubation method  Artificial incubation method.
  23. 23. FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY  Major role in production of day old chicks.  The number of chicks hatched out from number of eggs is also directly depends on fertility.  Expressed in Percentage (%).  Union of sperm and ovum.  Site : Infundibulum, within 15 minutes of
  24. 24. 1. Heavy breeds. 2. Semen 3. Sex ratio 4. Age of bird 5. Preferential mating 6. Lighting condition 7. Laying condition 8. Temperature 9. Deficiency FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY
  25. 25. FACTORS ALTERING HATCHABILITY  Hatchability : No. of chicks produced from eggs. • Total egg set • 85-87 %. • Fertile eggs • 90-95 %.
  26. 26. 1. Breed. 2. Inbreeding. 3. Nutrition and Management. 4. Temperature. 5. Laying stage. 6. Abnormal shape of egg. 7. Faulty preincubation storage. 8. Temperature and humidity in incubator and hatcher. 9. O2 and CO2 levels in incubator. 10. Reverse setting of eggs. 11. Faulty turning. 12. Use of separate setter and hatcher with optimum temperature and humidity. FACTORS ALTERING HATCHABILITY
  27. 27. • Solid waste management • Liquid waste management HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT
  28. 28.  Solid hatchery waste – Empty shells, Infertile eggs, Dead embryos, late hatchings and dead chickens and a viscous liquid from egg and decaying tissue.  Waste water - comes from the water used to wash down incubators, HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION
  29. 29. 1. Power generation. 2. Rendering. 3. Autoclaved or Extruded. 4. Boiling. 5. Ensiling. 6. Enzymes or sodium hydroxide treatment. 7. Composting. 8. Anaerobic digestion. HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT SOLID WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM
  30. 30. 1. Anaerobic digestion. 2. Integrated aquaculture method. HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM
  31. 31.  Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging .  Alternatively inclined screens and the use of a belt or filter press can separate the components of the waste.  Flexible multi-layer filters can be used to separate liquid wastes from solid wastes. HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCLUSIONS
  32. 32. Shells can be separated from the hatchery waste as follows  A powerful suction vacuum  vibrating or shaking device and a cyclone forced-air separator HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCLUSIONS
  33. 33. Products that can be developed from shell include  Increase the mineral content of compost  Spread around plants to deter slugs and snails  Mixed with garden soil for use as a fertilizer  Mixed with seeds for use as a feed for aviary birds  Added to cement to increase its strength  Used by artists to make mosaics HACHERY WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCLUSIONS

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