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Types of Tourism

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Types of Tourism

  1. 1. Types of Tourism
  2. 2. MASS TOURISM
  3. 3. • Mass Tourism is a type of tourism that involves group of many tourist (tens of thousands of people) going to the same resort/destination often at the same time of year. • It is the most popular type of tourism as it is often the cheapest way to holiday, and is often sold as a package deal. • A package deal is one in which all of the tourists needs are catered for by one company (Yatra.Com), these needs include travel/flights, activities, accommodation and sometimes food (CP, AP or MAP). • Mass Tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of people.
  4. 4. • There are many types of mass tourism, including skiing in the mountains, sunbathing on a beach, visiting a theme park (e.g. Euro Disney near Paris) or taking a cruise. • Governments and local people often support mass tourism because it generates a lot of income for local areas.
  5. 5. Mass tourism has both positive and negative impacts..!
  6. 6. Positive Negative Economic Impacts • Brings Money into local economy. • Creates jobs for local people. • Increases the income of industries that supply tourism e.g. Farming • A lot of the profit made from tourism is kept by the large travel companies rather than going to the local economy. Social Impacts • Lots of jobs means young people are more likely to stay in the area. • Improved roads, infrastructure and communications benefit local people. • Income from tourism can be reinvested in local community projects • The tourism jobs available to locals are often badly paid and are seasonal. • Traffic congestion caused by tourists can inconvenience local people. • The behaviour of some tourists can offend locals. Environmen tal Impacts • Income from tourism can be reinvested in protecting the environment. • Transporting lots of people long distances releases greenhouse gasses that cause global warming. • Tourism can increase litter and pollution. • Tourism can lead to the destruction of natural habitats
  7. 7. There are ways to reduce the negative impacts of mass tourism: • Improving Public transport encourages people to use it, which reduces traffic congestion and pollution. • Limiting the number of people visiting sensitive environments. • Providing lots of bins helps reduce litter.
  8. 8. There are ways to make sure tourism is maintained (areas that rely heavily on tourism need to make sure they keep coming): • Build new facilities or improve existing ones. • Reduce any tourist impacts. • Advertise and market the area to attract new tourists. • Improve transport infrastructure to make the area quick and easy to get to. • Offer new activities. • Make it cheaper to visit.
  9. 9. VISITING FRIENDS AND RELATIVES (VFR) • This includes visiting one’s relatives and friends for interpersonal reasons. • A large number of Americans visit European countries in order to see their families or because they feel they are visiting their homeland. • VFR is very common in India. Many people take time out of their busy schedules to visit their friends and relatives during school vacations or during major festivals and attend weddings and other rituals. • While visiting friends or relatives, people also visit tourist attractions in and around the city.
  10. 10. • In India, due to Leave Travel Concession (LTC) facility and travel allowances by private firms, many people are now visiting and travel native places in holidays. – Primary Activities • Socialising • Dining in • Home entertainment – Secondary Activities • Dining out • Physical recreation • Shopping • Sight-seeing • Urban entertainment
  11. 11. CULTURAL TOURISM • People are always curious to know more about foreign lands, their people, and their culture. • Culture is one of the most significant factors, which attracts tourist to a destination. • Culture in terms of tourism gives the tourist an insight into the: - Way of life or lifestyle of the people which one can experience. - Dress, jewellery, dance, music, architecture and painting and - Customs and beliefs, fairs and festivals and religion practised in the region.
  12. 12. • Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. • It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle.
  13. 13. • Cultural Tourism includes widening one’s knowledge about other places and people, their ways of life, their culture and includes journeys to places of art and heredity treasures, religious shrines and other civilizations, interest in religion, philosophy, history etc to participate in cultural events such as art festivals and celebrations-music, theatre, dance, folklore, festivals etc such as Ellora festival, Elephant festival, Khajuraho festival, Malaysia festival, Dubai festival etc.
  14. 14. Features of Cultural Tourism • Builds on and markets cultural strengths. • Emphasizes the quality and authenticity of the visitor’s experience. • Aims not simply to describe, but to convey meaning and understanding of broad contexts. • Meets the visitor’s demand for knowledge. • Conveys the richness and diversity of a place or culture. • It is active and involving for both visitors and host communities
  15. 15. • It can create new tourism product from people - it does not depend on high levels of new capital investment. • It recognizes the dynamic and changing nature of culture. • It develops visitor and site management programs. • It develops interpretation programs designed to inform, educate and interest visitors. • It can minimize the environmental degradation and cultural exploitation which accompany some forms of tourism. • It is carefully targeted to meet the interests of particular market segments
  16. 16. Cultural Tourism in India • Culture Tourism has a special place in India because of its past civilization as India has been considered the land of ancient history, heritage, and culture. • Historical and archaeological monuments continue to be the biggest draw in attracting international tourists. • This fact has been confirmed by a survey undertaken by the pacific area travel association (PATA). • The government of India has set up the Ministry of Tourism and Culture to boost cultural tourism in India.
  17. 17. • The ministry launched the ‘Incredible India!’ campaign and this has led to the growth of culture tourism in India. • The most popular states in India for cultural tourism are Kerala, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal.
  18. 18. RELIGIOUS TOURISM • Religious Tourism is also known as pilgrimage or spiritual tourism or faith tourism. • The evolution of tourism could also be attributed to journeys undertaken since ancient times to places considered as sacred. • People travelled singly or in groups for the purpose of spiritual benefit for to attain salvation or moksha. • Religious Tourism is a journey, undertaken for the sake of worship and or to pay respect to a site of special religious significance.
  19. 19. • In India, since time immemorial, tourism has been associated with places of religious significance. These destinations are scattered all over the country. • Varanasi in UP is amongst the oldest living cities in the world. It is also the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages. • Another important city of religious importance is Haridwar which is also known as the Gateway of the Gods. • Haridwar stands as the gateway to the four pilgrimages of Uttrakhand also known as the Char Dhams of Uttrakhand - Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath and Badrinath.
  20. 20. • Another important Indian Hindu pilgrimage is visiting the Char Dhams of India which were founded by Shankaracharya. • Rameshwaram, Puri, Dwarka and Badrinath. • Vaishnodevi Temple and Amarnath Caves in J&K, Mathura in U.P, the 12 Jyotirlingas, 52 Shaktipeeths, Balaji Temple at Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, Shri Sai Baba temple at Shirdi etc.
  21. 21. For Muslims • A visit to Mecca is sacred. • The Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti’s dargah at Ajmer, Haji Ali at Mumbai etc.
  22. 22. For the Christians • A visit to Jerusalem and Bethlehem is considered very auspicious. • Rome is recognized as the holy city for the tombs of St Peter and St Paul. • In India, the Church of Basilica of Bom Jesus at Goa and the church at Velankanni, TN are considered holy.
  23. 23. For Buddhist • Sarnath, Bodhgaya, Rajgir, Sravasti and Nalanda places connected with events of the life of Buddha.
  24. 24. For Jain • Dilwara Temples at Mount Abu, Girnar Temples in Gujarat, Shravanbelagola are auspicious places.
  25. 25. • The Golden Temple at Amritsar in Punjab is the most sacred place for Sikhs.
  26. 26. BUSINESS TOURISM • Travel is not always undertaken for pleasure or leisure. • The business traveller's main motive for travel is work. • He/She visits a particular destination for various reasons pertaining to his or her work such as attending a business meeting, conference, convention, trade fair, selling products, meetings clients etc. • About 80-85% or all air travel is business related. • Business Travel recognized as the most important segment for revenues for the hotel industry.
  27. 27. • More than 50% of occupancy of a large majority of hotels in many countries comes from the business travel segment. • The business traveller is the lifeline of the tourism industry. • According to the Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Association of India, 60 % of all guests in the Indian hotel industry comprises of business guests. • The airline and hotel industry have recognized the monetary worth of business travellers.
  28. 28. • A business traveller looks for the best and not the cheapest, as he/she is not worried about the cost, for most travel expenses of the business traveller are borne by his/her company, which he/she is representing. • Sometimes a business traveller decides his/her trip at the last minute. • Unlike the leisure traveller, the business traveller does not choose his/her destination. • Business trips are also shorter in duration.
  29. 29. Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE) • Business Tourism involves meetings, conferences and conventions where information is exchanged, lavish events are organized to launch new products, incentive travel is offered or motivate or reward staffs, exhibitions are organized to promote corporations etc. • This is popularly called Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions/Expositions or MICE Tourism. • The four most important aspects of Business Tourism.
  30. 30. • Meetings: - Coming together of a number of people in one place, to confer or carry out a particular activity or discussion. • Incentives: - It is a tool for motivating people involved in an organization success – Employees, Dealers, Distributors, Sales people, consultants, & last but not least, even key customers, it is also means of rewarding them for a job well done or excellent sale results”
  31. 31. • Conventions: - Conventions are generally largely meetings with some form of exposition or trade show. - A number of Associations have one or more conventions per year. - These conventions raise a large part of the association budget. • Exhibitions: - Events at which products & services are displayed. - An exhibitions may simply be a few table - top booths designed to display goods & services.
  32. 32. Importance of MICE Tourism • Economic growth of the region as a whole gets a boost. • Development of better infrastructure, mainly in transportation, accommodation and air services. • The elements of relaxation, shopping and sightseeing are usually included in MICE trips. • Hence, most MICE travelers can be converted into leisure travelers who would spend money on sightseeing and shopping. • It is quite common for delegates to bring along a companion.
  33. 33. • MICE events increase awareness of the host country, create employment and income. • MICE tourism strengthens the brand value and profile of the country as an international tourist destination.
  34. 34. MICE Destinations..
  35. 35. MICE Tourism in India • India ranks a distant 28 in the MICE chart and gets just 0.92% of total 10,000 conferences and meetings held globally every year. • MICE is new trend of tourism in India and growing at the rate of 15 to 29% annually. • India is fast gaining its pace in the competition to become an ideal MICE destination. • With the advanced technology and facilities, warm hospitality, personalized services coupled with immense natural beauty and rich cultural heritage, the goal seems to be not very far.
  36. 36. • In terms of infrastructure, India provides an impressive combination of accommodation and other conference support facilities to hold a successful Conference. • India is combination of old world charm and tradition interlaced with modern cosmopolitan sophistication. • India offers an educated manpower base where fluency in English and other official international languages can be expected. • The India Convention Promotion Bureau (ICPB) sponsored by the Ministry of Tourism, the Government of India aims at promoting India as a competent and credible MICE destination.
  37. 37. Delhi • The capital city New Delhi has been the favorite MICE destination. • The numerous charm of the city varies from ancient monuments to excellent shopping options making the business meeting and conference here an absolute pleasure. • The Ashok, New Delhi, has been hosting meetings and conventions on the international scale for more than four decades and favorite venue for the top businessmen and government officials. • Other venues of the capital are Pragati Maidan, the Habitat World Convention Centre, Vigyan Bhawan and a number of hotels with excellent convention facilities including Taj Palace, Maurya Sheraton, Le Meridien, etc.
  38. 38. NOIDA • Situated on the outskirt of New Delhi, Noida is fast growing as one of the most modern cities of India. • The city flaunts a number of venues catering multiple opportunities of business tourism. • Expo Centre is a smart venue to hold exhibitions, conferences, seminars and banquets. • India Expo Centre in Greater Noida is another centre offering an impressive international business environment ideal for product launches, seminars, dealer meets, exhibitions and corporate functions.
  39. 39. Hyderabad • The pearl city Hyderabad is fast becoming an information and technology hub of India. • Studded with numerous heritage monuments, the heritage city Hyderabad has come up with a sophisticated business venue, Hyderabad International Convention Centre – HICC. • The centre has already hosted a number of prestigious international and national meets in a short period of time and has been appreciated by the organizers
  40. 40. Cochin • Rich with the lustrous beaches and emerald backwaters, Kerala is an ideal leisure destination. • After fascinating the whole world with its breathtaking beauty, Kerala now finds itself as an inevitable destination in the business tourism itinerary. • Le Meridien, Cochin boasts of a number of well equipped conference and banquet halls. • Ayurveda is the major attraction here amongst the business delegates and their family.
  41. 41. Mice Industry
  42. 42. HEALTH TOURISM • People have been travelling for centuries to improve and rebuild their health and stamina. • Health Tourism refers to travel to facilities and destinations for obtaining health-care services or health- related benefits. • It is a rapidly-growing practice of traveling to another country to obtain health care. • People all over the world are seeking good health through the various techniques offered by yoga and the other alternative therapies.
  43. 43. Wellness Tourism • Wellness is generally used to mean a healthy balance of the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being. • Wellness tourism is travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological, or spiritual activities. Health Tourism Wellness Tourism Medical Tourism
  44. 44. • Wellness tourism puts your health and well-being at the very center of your travel experience...! • Trips organized around the principle of wellness tourism should include healthy food, exercise, spa treatments, and opportunities to experience or expand your spirituality and creativity. • Wellness travellers pursue diverse services, including physical fitness and sports; beauty treatments; healthy diet and weight management; relaxation and stress relief; meditation; yoga; and health-related education. • Wellness travellers may seek procedures or treatments using conventional, alternative, complementary, herbal, or homeopathic medicine.
  45. 45. Wellness Tourism….. Spas in India provide specialized treatments and therapies like: • Ayurveda, • Yoga, • Meditation and • Other relaxing massages to heal the mind and body.
  46. 46. The luxury spas in India are : Ananda in the Himalayas, Uttarakhand Udai Vilas in Udaipur, Rajvilas in Jaipur, Wildflower Hall in Shimla, Park Hyatt Sereno Spa in Goa, Oberoi Amar Vilas, Agra
  47. 47. Medical Tourism • The most recent trend in privatisation of health services is Medical Tourism, which gaining prominence in developing countries. • The movement of people for the purpose of Medical treatment is called Medical Tourism. • Such services typically include elective procedures as well as complex specialized surgeries such as Joint Replacement (knee/hip), Cancer and Brain Treatment, Cardiac Surgery, Dental Surgery and Cosmetic Surgeries. • The concept of Medical Tourism is not a new one. The first recorded instance of Medical Tourism dates back thousands of years back with Greek.
  48. 48. • Epidauria became the original travel destination for Medical Tourism. • The factors that have led to the recent increase in popularity of medical travel includes: - The high cost of health care or wait times for procedures in industrialized nations. - Improvements in technology and standards of care. - E.g. the time spent waiting for a procedure such a hip replacement can be a year or more in Britain and Canada; however, in Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, Cuba, Colombia, Philippines or India, a patient could feasibly have an operation the day after their arrival.
  49. 49. • Medical tourists can come from anywhere in the world, including Europe, the UK, Middle East, Japan, US and Canada. - This is because of their large populations, comparatively high wealth, the high expense of health care or lack of health care options locally, and high expectations of their populations with respect to health care. • Though many countries are boosting in Medical Tourism like Greece, South Africa, Jordan, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Costa Rica, Singapore etc.
  50. 50. Medical tourism
  51. 51. Asia • The current estimated of 1.32 million medical tourists come to Asia from all corner’s of the world including US and Europe. • Asia continues to be the top medical destination in medical travel. • Asian medical destinations continue to offer more and better medical procedures and care than most other medical destinations. • Several hospitals in Asia have carved such outstanding reputations for themselves that medical tourism has become a major money-spinner. • In countries such as Singapore and Thailand, government agencies have been set up to help market their expertise globally.
  52. 52. • The Indian government has removed many visa restrictions and introduced a visa-on-arrival scheme for medical tourists from selected countries; this allows foreign nationals to stay in India for 30 days for medical reasons and can even get a visa of up to 1 year depending upon treatment requirements. • Special medical travel agencies have sprung up around the world, and top Asian hospitals routinely have special “international” desks and services to assist overseas patients with everything from doctors’ appointments to accommodation.
  53. 53. • There are three major hubs and three minor hubs that should be considered for Medical Tourism in the world. Three major hubs are: 1. Thailand 2. Singapore and 3. India 1. Thailand: - • Thailand is the largest Medical Tourism hub in total volume and in both high-end and low-end procedures. • Thailand’s two largest Medical Tourism targets are the Bumrungrad and Bangkok Hospital, which annually treat 4, 00, 000 approx foreign patients.
  54. 54. • Thailand’s prices are about 20% higher than India’s on average, with the main advantages being a better tourist experience overall and more bundling of services. • Thailand has more experienced doctors, better equipment and lower prices. • Thailand regular medical tourists, who fly to Thailand annually for a comprehensive physical exam, dental work and any minor procedure along with a week on the beach at Phuket is cheaper and more enjoyable option than staying at home.
  55. 55. • Thailand accounts for maximum share of the Asia medical tourism market, being followed by India and Singapore.
  56. 56. Thailand
  57. 57. Singapore: • Singapore has a well–deserved reputation as a high- tech, clean and orderly city-state. • With medical costs about half those of the US, Singapore is considerably more expensive than India or Thailand and in line with the minor hubs. • The quality of medical facilities is on par with the main medical centres in Thailand and India. • The Singaporean government has recently made a significant effort to expand its biotechnology sector, mostly with large financial grants to lure researchers from other countries.
  58. 58. singapore
  59. 59. India • India is an ideal stop for medical treatment because it has world class hospitals, state-of-the-art technology, competent doctors, professional management, top quality nursing and paramedical staff. • All this is on offer at comparatively lower prices making it economical to the tourists as well. • India deals with a higher proportion of major and minor surgeries. • In India, the cost of treatment is between one sixth to one tenth of the cost incurred in the USA or Europe. • Visitors from western countries find medical treatment in India cost-effective and less time consuming as compared to their own homeland.
  60. 60. • For instance, the heart surgery that costs about Rs. 20 lakhs abroad would cost Rs. 2 lakh (approx) even if it is performed in the topmost hospitals in India. • Some hospitals are far out of the reach of most Indians and cater specifically to foreign tourists for very specific needs – for example some centres will focus strongly on heart surgery while others deal with join replacements.
  61. 61. • India is a good choice for major surgery. • The travellers can choose from various systems of alternative medicine too, such as acupuncture, aroma therapy, meditation, ayurveda, unani medicine, mud therapy, physico therapy, reiki etc. • In addition most hotels and resorts in India have their own spas and ayurvedic centres that further encourage such alternative form of tourism. • To ensure standardization in health care it is necessary that hospitals offering medical tourism need accreditation from the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and National Accreditation Board for Hospitals (NABH).
  62. 62. india
  63. 63. • South Korea stands at the fourth spot in the year 2016 and is likely to almost double its market share by the year 2022, while Malaysia is holding the last spot in the year 2016. The Top 5 Countries covered are: • India (64 Countries Covered) • Malaysia (20 Countries Covered) • Singapore(16 Countries Covered) • Thailand (15 Countries Covered) • South Korea (14 Countries Covered)
  64. 64. Three minor hubs are: • South Africa • Costa Rica and • Hungary
  65. 65. 1. South Africa: • The hospitals are a first world standards. • The majority of SA Medical tourists are after cosmetic surgery, with breast augmentations as the number one procedure. • SA prices hover around 40-60% of those in the US, making them one of the more expensive Medical Tourism hubs. • Recently, however, crime has become a major problem in SA cities and many hotels not allow guests out at night except in a hotel car, which further limits exposure to the local culture.
  66. 66. 2. Costa Rica: • CRs main selling point is that it doesn’t require a Trans- Pacific flight for US tourists to get there. • As with many smaller hubs, the focus is on cosmetic surgery and dental work. • Prices are approximately 40-50 % of the US.
  67. 67. 3. Hungary: • Like Costa Rica, Hungary offers cheap but reliable dental and cosmetic surgery. • The major draw is the Hungary is convenient to European tourist by air or train. • Price are 40-50% of the US, though almost all patients that go there are Europeans with heavily state-supported health care systems.
  68. 68. ALTERNATIVE TOURISM • Alternative Tourism is a combination of tourist products or individual tourist services. • In simple words, it can be described as people touring places and things other than usual tourist attractions. • Thus, it involves uncrowded locations and non-peak holiday seasons. • It is characterized by individual activities and tourists’ desire to experience local culture and environment.
  69. 69. • Alternative Tourism aims at seeking a transition from impersonal, traditional mass tourism to establishing cordial rapport between visitors and the local hosts. • These tourists normally avoid the services that are used by tourists such as accommodation, transport, and other services. • They prefer to use or share the services of the local people. • Their main motive is to experience and get an insight into their way of living.
  70. 70. Alternative Tourism
  71. 71. • Alternative Tourism is nowadays regarded as a key to sustainable development. • While mass tourism can have a negative impact on a destination, alternative tourism promotes a balanced growth form, more in line with local environmental and sociocultural concerns. • Many of the western travellers have expressed their dissatisfaction towards the sun based holidays. • In fact many of the tourists are looking for a change.
  72. 72. A Quick Comparison between Mass and Alternative Tourism Mass Tourism Alternative Tourism large groups singles, families, friends traditional recent trend fixed program spontaneous decisions focus on “sights” focus on “experiences” little or no background research careful preparation and research desire for souvenirs desire for memories / knowledge purchase items while there bring items to give away may involve loud social activities quiet, low impact snapshots and postcards photography and painting no language preparation learn local language
  73. 73. MASS NATURAL CULTURAL EVENTS OTHERS
  74. 74. • The tourists want tour packages comprising of wildlife, cultural sites, local tribes, whitewater rafting etc. • This interest in alternative tourism has, thus, led to the emergence of travel agents and tour operators who specialized in these different interests of the tourists. • Alternative tourism is not a type of tourism but is rather a guiding principle involving ecotourism, heritage tourism, cultural tourism etc.
  75. 75. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM • Sustainable Tourism is defined as “tourism that respects both local people and the traveller, cultural heritage and the environment”. • It seeks to provide people with an exciting and educational holiday that is also of benefit to the people of the host country. • It is tourism that truly benefits those who are on the receiving end and that does not exploit and degrade the environment in which they live and from which they must earn a living after the last tourist has flown back home.
  76. 76. • ST is tourism dev that avoids damage to the environment, economy and cultures of the locations where it takes place. • ST is a form of tourism that follows the principles of sustainability. • ST development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. - UNWTO, 1995 (Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry).
  77. 77. • ST is responsible tourism intending to generate employment and income along with alleviating any deeper impact on environment and local culture. • When we refer to “ST” activities we mean any activity that can be carried out in the same or similar way for an indefinite future (sustainable in time) in three main aspects: a. Environmentally: The activity minimizes any damage to the environment, i.e plants, animals, water, soils, energy use etc and provides a benefit to the environment through protection and conservation. b. Socially and culturally: The activity does not harm, and may revitalize, the social structure or culture of the community where it is located.
  78. 78. c. Economically: The activity can sustain itself economically; it continues to contribute to the economic well being of the local community through local ownership, employment, buying local etc. A sustainable business should benefit its owners, its employees, and neighbours. • When we take these three aspects into account, this is called the “triple bottom-line”. Sometimes it is referred to as “doing well by doing good”. • In 2004 the World Tourism Organization added: ”Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary.”
  79. 79. Principles of Sustainable Tourism 1. Using resources sustainably: • The conservation and sustainable use of resources (natural, social, cultural is crucial and makes long term business sense). 2. Reducing over consumption and waste: • Reduction of over-consumption and waste avoids the costs of restoring long-term environmental damage and contributes to the quality of tourism. 3. Maintaining Biodiversity: • Maintaining and promoting natural, social and cultural diversity is essential for long – term ST and creates a resilient base for the industry.
  80. 80. 4. Integrating tourism into planning: • Tourism dev which is integrated into a national and local strategic planning framework and which under takes environmental impact assessments; increase the long-term viability of tourism. 5. Supporting local economies: • Tourism that supports a wide range of local economic activities and which takes environmental costs and values into account both protects these economies and avoids environmental damage. 6. Involving local communities: • The full involvement of local communities in the tourism sector not only benefits them and the environment but also improves the quality of the tourism project.
  81. 81. 7. Training Staff: • Staff training which integrates ST into world practices, along with recruitment of a personnel at all levels, improves the quality of tourism product. 8. Marketing Tourism Responsibility: • Marketing that provides tourist with full and responsible information increases respect for the natural, social and cultural environments of destination areas and enhances customer satisfaction. 9. Undertaking Research: • On going research and monitoring by the industry using effective data collection and analysis is essential to help solve problems and bring benefits to destinations, the industry and customers.
  82. 82. Why sustainable Tourism
  83. 83. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM • Responsible tourism is like sustainable tourism, however as often the word sustainability is often overused and not understood, responsible tourism has been adopted as a term used by industry. • Responsible tourism is any form of tourism that can be consumed in a more responsible way. • Travel that takes into consideration the natural, socio- cultural, economic and political contexts of a dest. in the search to increase benefits and minimize negative impacts.
  84. 84. Guidelines: • Protect the Environment: Its flora, fauna and landscapes. • Respect Local Cultures: Traditions, religions and built heritage. • Benefit Local Communities: Both economically and socially. • Conserve Natural Resources: From office to destination. • Minimise pollution – through noise, waste disposal and congestion.
  85. 85. TRUST MANTRA • T -Travel to eco friendly destinations largely. • R -Recreation with responsibility. • U -Use only reusable items. • S -Support the effort through possible means. • T -Try and teach Responsible tourism.
  86. 86. SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM • Specialised tourism involves group or individual tours by people who wish to develop certain interests and visit sites and places connected with a specific subject. • Generally speaking, the people concerned exercise the same profession or have a common hobby. ,World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 1985 • Special Interest Tourism (SIT) is the provision of customised tourism activities that caters to the specific interests of groups and individuals.
  87. 87. SIT consists of four main experiences: - Rewarding - Enriching - Adventuresome Experiences - Learning Experiences.
  88. 88. Classification of Special Interest Tourism: • Active: Sports, cycling, hiking, skiing, sailing • Social: Youth tours, clubbing, singles trips • Educational: Cooking, language schools • Discovery: Antarctic exploring, Galapagos expeditions • Hobbies: Wine tasting, garden tours, flower shows • Challenge/excitement: Climbing Everest, trekking • Relaxation: Cruising, canal boats, camping • Health & Therapy: Spa holiday to Thailand, medical tours
  89. 89. NATURAL AREA TOURISM • Tourism in natural settings.
  90. 90. Natural Area Tourism is characterised as: • Tourism in the Env. : - E.g. Adventure Tourism. • Tourism about the Env. : - E.g. NBT and WT. • Tourism for the Env. : - Ecotourism. Mass Alternative Adv WT NBT ET IN About For Tourism Sustainability Tourism’s Env. Relationship
  91. 91. Natural – Based Tourism • Tourism about the env. • Occurs in natural settings but has the added emphasis of fostering, understanding and conservation of the natural environment. • In which viewing nature is the primary objective. • This focus is usually upon the study and/or observation of the abiotic (non-living) part of the env. - E.g. The rocks and landforms. • The biotic (living) component of it. – E.g. Flora and Flora.
  92. 92. • It is a form of tourism underpinned by the ecocentric philosophy so that the natural environment provides the platform for environmental understanding and conservation. • NBT also embraces the sustainable approach and fosters “Responsible Tourism”. • It differs from Wildlife tourism; NBT has a broader focus than purely viewing wildlife. • In NBT the whole landscape and surrounds is the primary focus for tours and it is more holistic in its embrace of the env.
  93. 93. WILDLIFE TOURISM • Wildlife tourism can be broadly defined as trips to destinations with the main purpose of visit being to observe the local fauna. • This therefore implies that wildlife tourism includes other niche markets such as bird, tiger, rhino watching etc.
  94. 94. ECO-TOURISM • Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a type of tourism that appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious individuals. • Eco-Tourism is considered the fastest growing market in the tourism industry, according to the UNWTO with an annual growth rate of 5% worldwide and representing 6% of the world gross domestic product.
  95. 95. • It is a purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the cultural and natural history of env., taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing economic opportunities that make conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people. • The Intl. Eco-Tourism Society (TIES, 1990) defines “Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people”.
  96. 96. In short, Ecotourism can be conceptualized as any Tourism Programme that is: • Natural Based. • Ecologically Sustainable. • Where education and interpretation is a major component and where local people are benefited. • If it does not satisfy anyone of these components then it cannot be called real ecotourism venture.
  97. 97. Some basic Do’s and Don’ts of Eco-Tourism are: Do’s • Carry back all non-degradable litter such as empty bottles, tins, plastic bags etc. • These must not litter the environment or be buried. They must be disposed in municipal dustbins only. • Observe the sanctity of holy sites, temples and local cultures. • Cut noise pollution. Do not blare aloud radios, tape recorders or other electronic entertainment equipment in nature resorts, sanctuaries and wildlife parks.
  98. 98. • In case temporary toilets are set-up near campsites, after defecation, cover with mud or sand. Make sure that the spot is at least 30 meters away from the water source. • Respect people's privacy while taking photographs. Ask for prior permission before taking a photograph. Don'ts • Do not take away flora and fauna in the forms of cuttings, seeds or roots. It is illegal, especially in the Himalayas. • The environment is really delicate in this region and the bio-diversity of diversity of the region has to be protected at all costs.
  99. 99. • Do not use pollutants such as detergent, in streams or springs while washing and bathing. • Do not use wood as fuel to cook food at the campsite. • Do not leave cigarettes butts or make open fires in the forests. • Do not consume aerated drinks, alcohol, drugs or any other intoxicant and throw bottles in the wild. • Do not tempt the locals, especially children by offering them foodstuff or sweets. Respect local traditions.
  100. 100. • Polythene and plastics are non biodegradable and unhealthy for the environment and must not be used and littered. • Staying on trails, packing up your trash, and remaining set distances away from wildlife are a few ways to minimize your impact in sensitive areas. • Seek out and support locally owned businesses. Support local businesses during your eco-travels to ensure maximum community and conservation benefit from your spending.
  101. 101. Eco-Tourism in India • Ecotourism developments have already begun in India but still there are miles to go and plenty of resources are yet to be tapped. Many states are also working for it. E.g. Kerala • Tourism Deptt., Govt. of Kerala has taken steps to give focused attention to ecotourism in the state. • A separate ecotourism wing has been created to give policy support for the development of ecotourism destination in the state.
  102. 102. • Accordingly, a project for the first planned ecotourism destination (Thenmala Ecotourism Project) has been formulated in and around Shenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary with cooperation of deptt. Such as forest, Irrigation and Tourism. • A separate society, the Thenmala Ecotourism Promotion Society (TEPS) has been constitute. • The major objectives of this project are: - To develop Thenmala dam and its surroundings as a major tourist destination. - To promote Ecotourism on the basis of sound principles of ecological sustainability in the surrounding areas.
  103. 103. • To have a well planned tourism destination with emphasis on sustainable tourism development so as to become a model for other destination development programmes. Thenmala • Thenmala is the first Eco-Tourism destination in India. • Located about 72 kms from Thiruvananthapuram. • Thenmala is a small village at the foothills of Western Ghats and predominantly a forest area and having the radius of 50 kms.
  104. 104. • The famous Shenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary is the most important ecotourism resources of Thenmala Ecotourism. • Thenmala: “Then + Mala”. i.e in local language “Then” means honey and “Mala” means hillock. i.e. it means honey hills. Attractions: There are total four zones. They are: • Cultural Zone. - This zone accommodates various activities, which favors Eco-friendly general tourism.
  105. 105. Restaurant, Shop court, Amphitheatre etc help the tourists understand the Kerala’s cuisines, crafts, arts, natural wealth, culture etc. - An open air Musical dancing foundation is another major attraction here.
  106. 106. Leisure Zone: - This zone caters to the needs of tourist exploring the inherent qualities of the zone-the drastic level changes, favorable views etc. - The boardwalk and the sway bridge explore potential view points. - The Sculpture Garden is the main attraction of this zone. The theme of the garden is MAN and NATURE. It endeavors to depict the relationship of Man and his culture with Nature, in the serene backdrop of green forest.
  107. 107. • Adventure Zone - The activities in this zone favor adventure tourism. - The attractions in this area are the elevated walkway, the mountain biking, rock climbing, river crossing, nature trails, resting spots, short trekking etc. Other Activities: • Boating (Battery powered road vehicles) in the Schenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary and one can view animals like elephants, unique scenic beauty and lush evergreen forests etc. • Deer rehabilitation center. • Palaruvi Falls • Trekking.
  108. 108. RURAL TOURISM • Rural Tourism is essentially an activity which takes place in the country side. • Tourism that showcases the rural life, art culture and heritage at rural location, thereby benefiting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and locals for a more enriching tourism exp. Can be termed as R.T. • In developed countries, this has resulted in a new style of tourism of visiting village settings to experience and live a relaxed and healthy lifestyle.
  109. 109. • The stresses of Urban lifestyles have led to a ‘counter-urbanization’ syndrome. This has lead to growing interest in the rural areas. Besides, there are other factors are: - Increasing levels of awareness. - Growing interest in heritage and culture and improved accessibility. - Environmental consciousness.
  110. 110. • It is multi-faceted and may entail Farm/Agriculture Tourism, Cultural Tourism, Nature Tourism, Adv. Tourism and Eco-Tourism. • Rural Tourism has certain typical characteristics like: - - The locations are sparsely populated; it is predominantly in natural env. - It meshes with seasonality and local events and is based on preservation of culture, heritage and traditions.
  111. 111. Rural Tourism in India • Rural Tourism is definitely useful for a country like India, where almost 74% of the popu. resides in its 7 million villages. • Rural India has much to offer to the world. • Rich traditions of arts, crafts and culture rural India can emerge as important tourist spots. • Thousand of foreign tourists visit rural area in Rajasthan, Gujarat and South India every year. • The tenth Plan has identified tourism as one of the major sources of generating employment and promoting sustainable livelihoods.
  112. 112. • The Union Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with UNDP has launched the Tourism Project linked to the existing rural tourism scheme of the government. • UNDP has committed $ 2.5 million for the project. • UNDP will help in areas of: - - Capacity Building - Involvement of NGOs - Local Communities and Artisans. - Forge Strong Community – private and public partnerships.
  113. 113. • The govt. has decided to develop necessary infra. for facilitating Rural Tourism. • So far the govt. has identified 31 villages across the country as tourist spots. Sl. No. Village/District State 1 - Pochampalli in Nalgonda - Srikalahasti in Chittor Andhra Pradesh 2 - Durgapur in Golaghat - Sulakuchi Kamrup Assam 3 - Nepura in Nalanda Bihar
  114. 114. 4 - Chitrakota and Nagarnar in Bastar Chhattishgarh 5 - Hodka in Kachh Gujarat 6 - Jyotisar in Kurukshetra Haryana 7 - Naggar in Kullu Himachal Pradesh 8 - Banavasi in Uttar Kannada Karnataka 9 - Aranmulla in Pathanamthitta - Kumbalanghi in Kochi Kerala 10 - Chaugan in Mandla - Pranpur in Ashok Nagar Madhya Pradesh 11 - Sulibhanjankhultabad in Aurangabad Maharashtra
  115. 115. 12 - Pipili and Raghurajpur in Puri Orissa 13 - Rajasansi in Amritsar Punjab 14 - Neemrana in Alwar - Samode in Jaipur - Haldighati in Rafamand Rajasthan 15 - Lachen in Mangan Sikkim 16 - Karaikudi in Sivaganga - Kazhugumalai in Thoothukudi Tamil Nadu 17 - Kamlasagar in West Tripura 18 - Bhaguwala in Saharanpur Uttar Pradesh 19 - Jageshwar in Almora - Mana in Chamoli Uttranchal 20 - Ballabhpur Danga in Birbhum - Mukutmanipur in Bankura West Bengal
  116. 116. FARM TOURISM • Temporary movement onto a farm of people looking to enjoy a rural env. as part of their leisure, pleasure, recreation and business activities. • Includes accommodation, attraction etc. • Can contribute to the overall income, cash flow and profitability of farm based business. • Alternative source of income from the produce you sell from the farm (milk, cattle, poultry etc)
  117. 117. Adv: • Independence • Possible financial rewards • Personal satisfaction • Control of direction • Contact with a wide range of people. Dis. Adv: • High level of responsibility. • High financial risk • Long working hours • Lack of time away • Close contact with people who may have different attitudes, habits and beliefs. • Need to be friendly all the time. • Pressure on self and family relationship.
  118. 118. GOLF TOURISM • Golf is a sport in which a player, using several types of clubs, has the objective of getting a ball into each hole on the golf course in the lowest number of strokes. • Golf is one of the few ball games that do not use a standardized playing area; rather, the game is played on golf “courses”, each one of which has a unique design and typically consists of either 9 or 18 separate holes. • Golf is defined in the Rules of Golf as “playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with Rules”.
  119. 119. Golf Tourism in India • In India one can play golf almost anywhere like hills, metropolitan cities and in small towns, by lakes and forests or surrounded by tea estates, out in the desert. • India was the first country outside of Great Britain to take up the game of golf. • The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829 is the oldest golf club in India and first outside Great Britain. • With the growing influence of the British in the Indian empire, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of new Golf Club in India.
  120. 120. • Wherever land was available and grass grew, golf found a new home. Some e.g. Nowdefunct Royal Bombay Golf Club in 1842, the Banglore Golf Club in 1876 and the Shillong Golf Club incorporated a Golf Course in 1886. • Then the course was opened in the USA and Europe in 1888. • Till the 50s, Golf Clubs in India were affiliated to the Royal Calcutta Golf club, which followed the rules of St. Andrews in Scotland. • In Dec 1955, a group of Golfer got together to form the Indian Golf Union as the controlling body for the game.
  121. 121. • The Indian Golf Union has also set up another body called the Professional Golfer Association of India (PGAI). • The most imp annual event in the calendar of the Indian Golf Union is the Indian Open Golf Championship, which first played in DEL in 1964 and won by the Australian Golfer, Peter Thompson. • The IGU is now affiliated to World Amateur Golf Council and has done a great deal to promote golfing in the country.
  122. 122. • In 1957, it started its first training camp at the Royal in Calcutta, where assistant professional and caddies were bought from all over the country and trained to teach golf. • In year 1958 is a landmark in the history of Indian Championship was moved away from the Royal Calcutta Golf Club to be played alternately at DEL, BOM and CCU. • 1982, DEL was chosen to host the first ever Golf Competition for the Asian Games.
  123. 123. • The Hero Honda India Open is the oldest International Golf Tournament in Indian which was played in 1964 at DEL. • The Hero Honda Indian Open Tournament of 2005 was first Golf Tournament which was broadcasted live on television. What makes Golfing in India exciting? • Not only does it have the oldest Golf Club in the world outside Great Britain but also the highest at Gulmarg (2,700 meters) in Kashmir. • There are Golf Courses in the mountains, plains, deserts and at beach resorts.
  124. 124. • The environment of each course is unique in its culture and history, highlighting all that makes India is through its Golf Courses. • Most of India’s courses are well connected by road, rail and air and have excellent accommodation facilities. Famous Golf Courses of India are: - The Chandigarh Golf Club: - • Located in Sector 6 of the city is a pleasure to be at. • The sprawling 132 acres of land all surrounded with thick mango, jamun, eucalyptus and kikar orchards. • It was founded in 1966, open rounded the year and has 18 holes.
  125. 125. The Shimla Golf Club: - • Located at a distance of 23 kms from the British summer capital at Naldhera. The Delhi Golf Club: - • Oldest Golf Club in Delhi, established by the British in 1931. • DGC is perhaps the only one in the world, dotted with ancient monument. • DGC is also a sanctuary for over 300 species of birds and 200 varieties of tree. • The other two courses within the city are Army Golf Course in Dhaula Kuan and Qutab Golf Course (maintained by Delhi Development Authority) is the only public Golf Course in the country.
  126. 126. The Calcutta Golf Club: - • The tital of “Royal” was bestowed on it when the Royal couple of King Geroge V and Queen Mary visited Calcutta in 1911. • The Course comprises of variety if vegetation and water tanks. The Gyamkhana Club Golf Course: - • Is located in Gindy, Chennai and was brought into being is 1886. • The course lies inside the Gindy racecourse.
  127. 127. The Gyamkhana Club: - • Located in Ootacamund (Ooty) at a height of 7,600 feet. The Bangalore Golf Club: - • Established in 1876 is a great golfing venue with the well maintained greens. Bombay Presidency Golf Club: - • Has 110 acre and founded in 1827. • Was redesigned by Peter Thompson to International Standard. Major itinerary of Golf Tour: - DEL – IXC – Shimla – DEL – CCU – MAA – Ooty – BLR - BOM.
  128. 128. ACCESSIBLE TOURISM
  129. 129. • Able to access or reach. • Intended as the set of services and facilities capable of allowing persons with specific needs to enjoy a holiday and their leisure time with no particular barriers or probs. • Individuals with specific needs could be: - Elderly people - Disabled Individuals and - People with particular diets or allergy probs.
  130. 130. • The definition of tourist covers a large category of people. The most relevant probs that emerged are: - The availability of health facilities and personnel. - The accessibility of means of transport. - The accessibility to service.
  131. 131. • “Persons with disabilities" includes all persons who, owing to the environment being encountered, suffer a limitation in their relational ability and have special needs during travel, in accommodations, and other tourism services, particularly individuals with physical, sensory and intellectual disabilities or other medical conditions requiring special care, such as elderly persons and others in need of temporary assistance (UNWTO, Dakar, 2005).
  132. 132. • In nut shell, accessible tourism is about making travel and tourism easy for all people (irrespective of their age, gender or physical status), it is a set of services and facilities for individuals with specific needs that may include the disabled, elderly people, pregnant women, and people with temporary disabilities.
  133. 133. DISABILITY COUNTRIES • United States 19.4 • New Zealand 20.0 • Canada 18.5 • Australia 20.0 • Brazil 14.5 • United Kingdom 12.2 • Spain 15.0 • Austria 14.4 • Sweden 12.1 • México 2.3 • Netherlands 11.6 • Germany 8.4 • India 2.1 • China 5.0 • Italy 5.0 • Egypt 4.4 (http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DISABILITY/Resources/Data/MontPrevalence.pdf )
  134. 134. Accessible Tourism
  135. 135. Qutab Complex
  136. 136. DARK TOURISM • One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as “DARK" tourism. • Tourism that involves travelling to places associated with death and suffering. • This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps.
  137. 137. DOOM TOURISM • Also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. • Tourism market where tourists explicitly seek vanishing landscapes or seascapes, and/or disappearing natural and/or social heritage”. • Identified by travel trade magazine Travel Age West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times, this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise.
  138. 138. PHOTOGRAPHIC TOURISM • Photographic Holidays evolve out of the past time or hobby of taking photography. • Shared interest of photography unites members of a tour group, photography trips are exchanged, tour guides offer expert advice. • Tourist Profile - varied level of photography experts, beginners to experts • Age Group- 17- 80 yrs, individuals in upper range with more disposable income and time • More men than women
  139. 139. • Limited number of tourists • High ratio of tour guides to tourists is essential in managing the tour • Marketing and advertising is limited to periodic magazines and specialist magazines Types of Photography Holidays.. • Photography safari • Guided photo • Technical tuitions • Photographic workshops • Inclusion of professional photographers as team leaders
  140. 140. A Photographic Code of Conduct Appropriate Photography • Be sensitive to the situation in which the photograph is being taken • Be aware of cultural values • Avoid religious ceremonies, taking pictures in temples and other private situations • Be aware of the intrusion of flashes in some circumstances Seek Permission It is polite to ask before taking someone’s picture. Remember to say thank you Respect People’s wishes • If someone objects, don’t take the photograph • Some people believe that the camera steals the soul Research the Local Do’s and Dont’s • Read up about the local culture prior to travelling, especially attitudes towards photography • In Asia it is rude to touch someone on the head or step over their legs to get your photograph
  141. 141. SPACE TOURISM
  142. 142. VIRTUAL TOURISM
  143. 143. ADVENTURE TOURISM
  144. 144. SPORTS TOURISM
  145. 145. SEX TOURISM
  146. 146. LGBT TOURISM
  147. 147. TEA TOURISM
  148. 148. CBT should: • Recognize, support and promote community ownership of tourism. • Involve community members from the start in every aspect; • Promote community pride; • Improve the quality of life; • Ensure environmental sustainability; • Preserve the unique character and culture of the local area; • Foster cross-cultural learning; • Respect cultural differences and human dignity; • Distribute benefits fairly among community members; • Contribute a fixed percentage of income to community projects.
  149. 149. Ecotourism CBT 1. Objectives: Responsible management of natural attractions, local culture and the unique qualities of the destination Responsible management of the environment, natural resources, social system and culture in response to the needs of the community. 2. Ownership Unspecified Community 3. Tourism Management Unspecified Community 4. Tourism Linkages Emphasizes tourism and the environment Emphasizes holistic development
  150. 150. CBT Short Visits 1. Duration of visit: Adequate time for understanding, through observation, activities and discussion. Short time for observation; Little or no time for visitors to participate in local activities. Little or no exchange with the local people increase cross-cultural understanding. 2. Participation in Community Activities: High Low 3. Learning and Cultural Exchange: High Low 4. Pricing and Income: Set by the community The community has little control except in the case of tours that come for the purpose of purchasing local products from the “One Tambon One Product” scheme 5. Tourist Understanding of the Community: Possible through meaningful observation, conversation and interaction with the community members as the result of the program design. Only possible through an outside resource person who has knowledge of the local community and acts as an ‘expert’ intermediary.
  151. 151. CBT Homestay 1. Definition: Learning comes from the whole community Learning comes mostly from the host family. 2. Accommodation: Many types can be arranged including tents, cabins, homestays or guesthouses Accommodation in the home of the host family. 3. Learning Process: Possible through interaction with many types of people including host families, local guides and groups that organize activities in the community. Depends on the enthusiasm of both visitors and the host family. 4. Community Benefits: Community members of different status can benefit by taking various roles in tourism management such as resource persons, guided, hosts. Part of the profits is contributed to community projects. Often only wealthier households have a chance to provide accommodation and will collect benefits for themselves, except in the case that there are rules ensuring part of the profits are contributed to community projects.
  152. 152. PRO-POOR TOURISM
  153. 153. • We prefer the term poverty alleviation tourism over “Pro Poor Tourism” a clumsy term with noble sentiments. • Pro-Poor Tourism is tourism that results in increased net benefits for poor people. • PPT is not a specific product or niche sector but an approach to tourism development and management. • It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses and poor people, so that tourism’s contribution to poverty reduction is increased and poor people are able to participate more effectively in product development.
  154. 154. • Links with many different types of ‘the poor’ need to be considered: staff, neighboring communities, land- holders, producers of food, fuel and other suppliers, operators of micro tourism businesses, craft-makers, other users of tourism infrastructure (roads) and resources (water) etc. • There are many types of pro poor tourism strategies, ranging from increasing local employment to building mechanism for consultation. • Any type of company can be involved in pro-poor tourism-a small lodge, an urban hotel, a tour operator, an infrastructure developer. • The critical factor is not the type of company or the type of tourism, but that an increase in the net benefits that go to poor people can be demonstrated.
  155. 155. Key principles and strategies • Pro-poor strategies need to be complemented by the dev of wider tourism infrastructure. • Pro-poor principles apply to any tourism segment, though specific strategies will vary between, for example, mass tourism and wildlife tourism. • Focus on expanding benefits, not just minimizing costs to the poor. • Involve business in development initiatives and be commercially realistic. • Do not expect all the poor to benefit equally, particularly the poorest 20%. Some will lose.
  156. 156. The 7 approaches for Poverty reduction through Tourism:- • The first way is simply through the employment of the poor in tourism enterprises. • The second way is through the supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor. • The third way is through direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor. • Fourthly, there is the process of supporting the establishment of tourism enterprises by the poor.
  157. 157. • The fifth way in which tourism can address poverty is through a tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting poverty reduction programmes. • The sixth way is about voluntary giving by tourism enterprises and tourists. • Finally, poor communities can benefit from investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism.
  158. 158. Increase economic benefits Enhance non- financial livelihood impacts Enhance participation and partnership 1. Boost local employment, wages 2. Boost local enterprise opportunities 3. Create collective income sources – fees, revenue shares 1. Capacity building, training 2. Mitigate environmental impacts 3. Address competing use of natural resources 4. Improve social, cultural impacts 5. Increase local access to infrastructure and 1. Create more supportive policy/planning framework 2. Increase participation of the poor in decision- making 3. Build pro-poor partnerships with private sector 4. Increase flows of Types of PPT strategies……
  159. 159. Combining National and Local Strategies • A range of strategies are needed to promote Pro-Poor Tourism, at the Local Destination, National/Policy level and the Intl. level. • A dest. focus is ideal for practical measures to maximize benefits for the poor within a specific area. • Pro-active initiatives can bring govt, communities, NGOs and business together to stimulate economic linkages, local participation and partnerships. • However, practical action usually needs to be accompanied by a supportive policy framework.
  160. 160. • National/policy-level interventions may be needed on issues ranging from planning and policy objectives, licensing and registration system, tenure laws, tourism training, business incentives/regulation and infrastructural dev. • Development of pro-poor tourism requires a strong planning framework and government commitment. If this exists, small changes in rules can have a significant effect on implementation and impacts.
  161. 161. How is PPT different from other forms of Tourism? PPT and the sustainable tourism agenda: • The principles of ST have been widely adopted by the tourism industry. • There is considerable overlap, and many ST initiatives include constructive Pro-Poor elements. • ST focuses mainly on main stream dests, which are mainly in the North while PPT focuses on the South, where the poor are. • In ST, environmental concerns dominate. Socail or local benefits are usually one of the several elements of sustainability. Poverty is the core focus of PPT.
  162. 162. • Where ST does include social concerns, practical guidance is often weak. PPT also overlaps with both Ecotourism and Community Based Tourism. • Ecotourism initiatives may provide benefits to people but they are mainly concerned with the env. • CBT initiatives aim to increase local people’s involvement in tourism but PPT involves more than a community focus.

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