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AMNION
AMNION
-It is a membrane that enclose amniotic cavity.
-Formation:
-It is formed at the 8th
day as a small cavity in
epibl...
-During 4th
week, expansion of amniotic cavity
leads to folding of the embryonic disc and amnio-
ectodermal junction will ...
8th
day of pregnancy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Endometrium
CytotrophoblastAmnioblast
Amniotic cavity
Epiblast Hypoblast
Dr. Sherif ...
9th
& 10th
days
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Cyto-
trophoblast
Amnioblast
Amniotic
cavity
Epiblast
Hypoblast
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
13th
daySecondary yolk
sac
Connecting stalk
Extra-
embryonic
coelom
(Chorionic
cavity)
Dr.Sherif Fahmy
Amniotic
cavity
Cho...
Amnion & Folding
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Definitive yolk sac
Vitelline duct
Midgut
Expansion of
Amniotic Cavity
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Extraembryonic coelom
(Chorionic Cavity)
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Decidua
parietalis
Decidua
capsularis
Uterine
cavity
Amniotic cavity
Fused decidua
parietalis and
capsula...
Amniotic fluid
- Normal volume is 1000 – 1500 cc clear
watery fluid at full term.
- Source: 1st
from amnioblast then from
...
Functions of amniotic fluid:
1- At early pregnancy:
1- Acts as water cushion that absorbs external
shocks.
2- Acts as heat...
3- During labor:
1- Protects against uterine contractions.
2- Formation of bag of water that gradually
dilate the cervix.
...
Abnormalities of amniotic fluid:
1- Polyhydramnios.
Causes:
1- No cause (35 %).
2- Maternal diabetes.
3- Congenital malfor...
UMBILICAL
CORD
Morphology of Umbilical Cord
It is the connection between placenta and
fetus.
• Length: 50 – 60 cm
• Diameter: 2 cm.
• Sha...
Fetal surface covered
with amnion
Umbilical cord
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Dr. Sherif Fahmy
Development of the Cord
1- Primitive umbilical ring.
2- Primitive umbilical cord.
3- Definitive umbilical cord.
Primitive Umbilical Ring
Expansion of amniotic cavity, leads to folding with
ventral shifting of amnio-ectodermal junction...
Expansion of amniotic cavity, leads to
elongation of umbilical cord.
Contents:
1- Yolk sac and vitelline duct.
2- Connecti...
 Return of intestinal loop to abdominal
cavity at 3rd
month.
 Obliteration of extra-embryonic part of
vitelline vessels ...
Development
1- Primitive umbilical ring
Embryonic disc with removed
ectoderm
Intra-
embryonic
ceolom
Connecting
stalk
Allantois
Umbilical
vessels
Definitive yolk
sac
Vitelline vessels
Vitelline duct
Primitive umbilical ring
2- Primitive umbilical cord
3-Definitive umbilical cord
• Abnormalities of Umbilical Cord
• 1- Short cord: leads to premature separation
of placenta.
• 2- Long cord: It may encir...
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)
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Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)

Amnion & Umbilical Cord

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Amnion & Umbilical Cord (General Embryology)

  1. 1. AMNION
  2. 2. AMNION -It is a membrane that enclose amniotic cavity. -Formation: -It is formed at the 8th day as a small cavity in epiblast cells with formation of amnioblasts. -So, floor of the cavity is epiblast while the roof is formed from amnioblasts. -By the 12th day it becomes separated from cytotrophoblasts by primary mesoderm (Extraembryonic). -Amnio-ectodermal junction is at the margin of oval embryonic disc at the 3rd week.Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  3. 3. -During 4th week, expansion of amniotic cavity leads to folding of the embryonic disc and amnio- ectodermal junction will be present at primitive umbilical ring. -At 3rd month amnion comes in contact with chorion to form amnio-chorionic membrane with obliteration of chorionic cavity. -By the end of 3rd month, uterine cavity is obliterated due to expansion of amniotic cavity. -Finally, the amniotic cavity surrounds the fetus and forms a tubular sheath around the umbilical cord. Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  4. 4. 8th day of pregnancy Dr. Sherif Fahmy Endometrium CytotrophoblastAmnioblast Amniotic cavity Epiblast Hypoblast Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  5. 5. 9th & 10th days Dr. Sherif Fahmy Cyto- trophoblast Amnioblast Amniotic cavity Epiblast Hypoblast Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  6. 6. 13th daySecondary yolk sac Connecting stalk Extra- embryonic coelom (Chorionic cavity) Dr.Sherif Fahmy Amniotic cavity Chorionic Vesicle
  7. 7. Amnion & Folding
  8. 8. Dr. Sherif Fahmy Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  9. 9. Dr. Sherif Fahmy Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  10. 10. Definitive yolk sac Vitelline duct Midgut
  11. 11. Expansion of Amniotic Cavity
  12. 12. Dr. Sherif Fahmy Extraembryonic coelom (Chorionic Cavity) Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  13. 13. Dr. Sherif Fahmy Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  14. 14. Dr. Sherif Fahmy Decidua parietalis Decidua capsularis Uterine cavity Amniotic cavity Fused decidua parietalis and capsularis Amniotic cavity Chorionic cavity Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  15. 15. Amniotic fluid - Normal volume is 1000 – 1500 cc clear watery fluid at full term. - Source: 1st from amnioblast then from kidney. - If the volume is less than 500 cc it is called oligohydramnios. -If the volume is more than 2000 cc is called polyhydramnios. Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  16. 16. Functions of amniotic fluid: 1- At early pregnancy: 1- Acts as water cushion that absorbs external shocks. 2- Acts as heat insulator. 3- Prevents adhesion of embryo to wall of uterus. 4- Prevents adhesion of fetal parts. 2- At late pregnancy: 1- A space for accumulated urine. 2- Allows fetal movements to help body muscles to develop. 3- Help suckling training and development of gut muscles. Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  17. 17. 3- During labor: 1- Protects against uterine contractions. 2- Formation of bag of water that gradually dilate the cervix. 3- Sterile amniotic washes vagina before passage of baby. 4- Rupture of amniotic sac is a sign of start of delivery. Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  18. 18. Abnormalities of amniotic fluid: 1- Polyhydramnios. Causes: 1- No cause (35 %). 2- Maternal diabetes. 3- Congenital malformation e.g. anencephaly and esophageal atresia. 2- Oligohydramnios. Cause: -Renal agenesis. Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  19. 19. UMBILICAL CORD
  20. 20. Morphology of Umbilical Cord It is the connection between placenta and fetus. • Length: 50 – 60 cm • Diameter: 2 cm. • Shape: Tortous, showing false notes. • Contents: 2 umbilical arteries, one umbilical vein embedded in wharton’s jelly and surrounded by amniotic membrane. • Attachments: It is attached to fetal surface of placenta near its center, the other attachment is to ventral aspect of fetal abdominal wall. • Functions: – It contains umbilical vessels that connect the fetus to the placenta.
  21. 21. Fetal surface covered with amnion Umbilical cord Dr. Sherif Fahmy Dr. Sherif Fahmy
  22. 22. Development of the Cord 1- Primitive umbilical ring. 2- Primitive umbilical cord. 3- Definitive umbilical cord.
  23. 23. Primitive Umbilical Ring Expansion of amniotic cavity, leads to folding with ventral shifting of amnio-ectodermal junction and formation of primitive umbilical ring. Contents: Connecting stalk containing allantois and umbilical vessels. Vitelline duct and vitelline vessels. Connection between intra-embryonic and extra- embryonic coelom.
  24. 24. Expansion of amniotic cavity, leads to elongation of umbilical cord. Contents: 1- Yolk sac and vitelline duct. 2- Connecting stalk with remnant of allantois. 3- Umbilical and vitelline vessels. 4- Intestinal loop in its proximal part. Primitive umbilical cord
  25. 25.  Return of intestinal loop to abdominal cavity at 3rd month.  Obliteration of extra-embryonic part of vitelline vessels and one umbilical vein with persistence of other vein and 2 umbilical arteries.  Degeneration of vitelline duct and allantois  Transformation of mesoderm of connecting stalk into wharton’s jelly. Definitive Umbilical Cord
  26. 26. Development
  27. 27. 1- Primitive umbilical ring
  28. 28. Embryonic disc with removed ectoderm Intra- embryonic ceolom
  29. 29. Connecting stalk Allantois Umbilical vessels Definitive yolk sac Vitelline vessels Vitelline duct Primitive umbilical ring
  30. 30. 2- Primitive umbilical cord
  31. 31. 3-Definitive umbilical cord
  32. 32. • Abnormalities of Umbilical Cord • 1- Short cord: leads to premature separation of placenta. • 2- Long cord: It may encircle neck of fetus and may form true knots. • 3- Congenital umbilical hernia (omphalocele): the cord contains coils of intestine. • 4- Presence of one umbilical artery. • 5- Abnormal attachment of the cord: –Marginal attachment (battledore) –Through membranes (velamentous).

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