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‫لألغنام‬ ‫المصرية‬ ‫الجمعية‬
‫الصحراوية‬ ‫والماعزوالحيوانات‬
EASGADA
‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬
‫تقديم‬
‫د‬...
‫والماعزوالحيوانات‬ ‫لألغنام‬ ‫المصرية‬ ‫الجمعية‬
‫الصحراوية‬
EASGADA
‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬
‫تقديم‬
‫د‬...
‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬
(‫أجندة‬)
‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫حلقات‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫هى‬ ‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬.
‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬...
‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬
‫سلسلة‬ ‫ضمن‬ ‫حلقة‬ ‫هى‬‫اللحم‬‫انتاج‬.
‫حلقات‬ ‫ستة‬ ‫حوالى‬ ‫السلسلة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫يشارك‬.
‫اللحم‬‫وانتاج‬...
‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬
‫المربى‬/ BreederCalfProducer
‫المسمن‬Fattener
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer
‫التج...
‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬
‫المربى‬/ BreederCalfProducer
‫المسمن‬Fattener
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer
‫التج...
‫اللحم‬ ‫أنتاج‬ ‫لكفاءة‬ ‫المحددة‬ ‫الصفات‬
‫للمشارك‬ ‫تبعا‬
7
‫المربى‬Breeder
‫المشاركين‬ ‫فى‬ ‫شخص‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫هو‬.
‫من‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫يوجد‬‫ات‬‫الصف‬‫ودخله‬ ‫مصاريفه‬ ‫فى‬ ‫تتحكم‬.
‫ت...
‫المربى‬Breeder
‫الوزنية‬ ‫األنتاجية‬ ‫على‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫عوامل‬:
*‫الميالد‬ ‫وزن‬.Birth weight
*‫الفطام‬ ‫وزن‬.Weaning weight
...
‫المربى‬Breeder
‫الفطام‬ ‫من‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬ ‫على‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫عوامل‬:
*‫التكوين‬:‫ال‬ ‫عن‬ ‫النظر‬ ‫بغض‬ ‫البعض‬ ‫بعض...
‫المربى‬Breeder
‫أن‬ ‫بفرض‬ ‫و‬* :‫بت‬ ‫ثا‬ ‫عددى‬ ‫تكوين‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫القطيع‬.
*‫األنتاج‬ ‫تكاليف‬ ‫اجمالى‬ ‫تمثل‬ ‫ية‬ ‫التغذ...
The Fattener ‫المسمن‬
‫المسمنه‬ ‫الرؤوس‬ ‫عدد‬Nf
‫المسمن‬ ‫أس‬‫ر‬‫ال‬ ‫وزن‬Wf
‫المسمنه‬ ‫الرؤوس‬ ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬Pf
...
‫المسمن‬The Fattener
‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫التغذيه‬ ‫تكاليف‬ ‫المجمل‬ ‫في‬ ‫هي‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫مصاريف‬‫لتي‬
‫علي‬ ‫تتوقف‬:
‫المستهلكه‬ ‫ال...
‫المسمن‬The Fattener
‫ريا‬ ‫صورة‬ ‫في‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫كفاءه‬ ‫عن‬ ‫التعبير‬ ‫عمليا‬ ‫يمكن‬‫ضية‬
‫التالى‬ ‫الشكل‬ ‫علي‬:
E = ( ...
‫المسمن‬The Fattener
‫ه‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يتضح‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫علي‬ ‫و‬‫ي‬:
‫الغذاء‬ ‫تحويل‬ ‫معدل‬Feed Conver...
‫المسمن‬The Fattener
‫نو‬ ‫هناك‬ ‫أن‬ ‫لنا‬ ‫يتضح‬ ‫السابقه‬ ‫المعادله‬ ‫فحص‬ ‫وعند‬‫من‬ ‫عا‬
‫المسمن‬ ‫و‬ ‫المربي‬ ‫من‬ ...
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫به‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الدور‬:
‫واألسواق‬ ‫المزارع‬ ‫من‬ ‫المسمنة‬ ‫الحيوا...
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer
‫علي‬ ‫تعتمد‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫مصروفات‬:
‫بحح‬ ‫للذ‬ ‫الجاهز‬ ‫الحيوان‬ ‫وزن‬Slaughter ...
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer
‫األسقاط‬ ‫سعر‬
Offal(‫رأس‬ ‫جلد‬-‫كوارع‬–‫الكرش‬-‫األمعاء‬-‫المعالق‬)
‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬...
‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Retailer
‫اآلتية‬ ‫باألعمال‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬:
‫الذبيحة‬ ‫تبريد‬–‫تقطيع‬ ‫لحين‬ ‫حرارتها‬ ‫د...
‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Retailer
‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬:
‫التشافي‬ ‫نسبة‬Boneless meet %
=‫العظام‬ ‫من‬ ‫خال...
‫اللحوم‬ ‫مصنع‬Meat Processor
‫تج‬ ‫من‬ ‫غالبا‬ ‫الثالثة‬ ‫الدرجة‬ ‫قطعيات‬ ‫بشراء‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مصنع‬‫ار‬
‫التجزئة‬....
‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer
‫السلسلة‬ ‫من‬ ‫األخير‬ ‫الطرف‬ ‫هو‬ ‫المستهلك‬.
‫الدولة‬ ‫لوضع‬ ‫تبعا‬ ‫المستهلك‬ ‫الي‬ ‫السو...
‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer
‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬:
‫وتشمل‬ ‫الطهي‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫للحم‬ ‫المظهرية‬ ‫الصفات‬:
‫ال...
‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer
‫وتشمل‬ ‫الطهي‬ ‫عند‬ ‫للحم‬ ‫المظهرية‬ ‫الصفات‬:
‫المطهي‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫لون‬.
‫المطهي‬ ‫الدهن‬ ‫لون...
‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer
‫المأكلية‬ ‫الصفات‬:
‫الطراوة‬Tenderness
‫العصارية‬Juiceness
‫النكهة‬Flavour
26
‫توصيات‬Recommendations
‫الي‬ ‫تحتاج‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫في‬ ‫المحلية‬ ‫األسواق‬:
‫الذبائح‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التعامل‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫تحديث‬.
‫للتدريج...
‫مرفقات‬APPENDICS
The following slides were selected from some
Lectures and Seminars held at:
“ EGYPTIAN ASSOCIATION OF ...
Nutrients for sheep and goats
29
Nutrients for sheep and goats
Water
Energy
Protein
Minerals
Vitamins
Roughage
(fiber)
Poor access to water
Poor nutrition of lactating dams leading to
low milk yields and poor rates of growth and
high death...
It is a waste of resources to improve the genetics
if the environment remains unchanged.
Express Breed Potential
Clean water essential for maximum
production
11-12 liters of water per day
Milk is approximately 90% water
Water
Water
The most essential nutrient
Intake (need) varies by . . .
Moisture in feed
Lactation (2-3 gal) > Gestation
>
Mai...
The mammary glands will attempt to obtain
nutrients from blood to produce quantity of
milk removed daily from the udder
...
Energy
Needed in the most amount.
Usually the most limiting
nutrient.
Excess is stored as fat.
Expressed as . . .
TDN...
Sources of Energy
High
Cereal grains (76-88%)
Corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, rye, oats
By-product feeds (76-90%)
Soy hull...
Sources of protein
Highest
Protein meals (46-52%)
Plant - soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut
meal
Fish meal (66%)
Ur...
Minerals
Required in small quantities
(grams)
Macro – salt, Ca, P, Mg, K, and S
Micro (trace) – Se, I, Cu, Fe, Mo,
Cr, ...
Vitamins
Ruminants have a dietary
requirement for Vitamin A, D, and
E.
Vitamin K and B-vitamins are
manufactured by the ...
Manufactured feeds
Blends of ingredients that
are formulated to supply all
(complete) or defined
portions (supplement) of...
Alternative feeds
Feed % DM % TDN % CP % Ca - % P
Beet pulp (wet) 17 76 11 .68 - .08
Bread by-product 68 91 14 .09 - .18
C...
Meet but don’t exceed animals requirements
Requirements based on weight, age, stage
and level of production
Animals tha...
Feed in groups according to nutritional
requirements, or
Feed individually at time of milking
May cost less to underfee...
Nutrient requirements depend on …
Size (weight)
Age
Stage and level of
production
Climate and
environment
Body condit...
Age
Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes
(132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate)
0.35
0.40
0.45
0...
Stage of production
Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs,
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
...
Start with forage
Pasture, weeds, browse, hay, silage
Feed supplements to provide
nutrients that the forage is
lacking.
...
Most variable part of feeding program
Quality varies by species, stage of growth
Goats and sheep will self select most
...
Have the ability to consume and utilize poor
quality roughage
They cannot produce high quality meat if
they are fed poor...
Most text books itemize nutritional requirements
of goats in terms of energy, protein, vitamins,
minerals and water at dif...
Practical feeding recommendations
for pregnant and lactating females
Balance ration (proper way)
By hand (math)
Simulta...
Body condition scores can indicate if over or
underfeeding
A score of 3 to 3.5 is best for breeding
A score of 2 to 2.5...
Body condition scoring (BCS)
A valuable management tool that can be used to evaluate the feeding program and the
need for...
Body condition scoring
1 – emaciated
2 – thin
3 – average
4 – fat
+
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
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Meat Production Efficiency Dr Talaat Refaat تحسين كفاءة إنتاج اللحم

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Publié le

A Seminar was held at EGYPTIAN ASSOCIATION OF SHEEP, GOATS & DESERT ANIMALS. By Dr. Talaat Refaat about:
Increasing the Meat efficiency in general and focus on Small Ruminant.

Publié dans : Alimentation

Meat Production Efficiency Dr Talaat Refaat تحسين كفاءة إنتاج اللحم

  1. 1. ‫لألغنام‬ ‫المصرية‬ ‫الجمعية‬ ‫الصحراوية‬ ‫والماعزوالحيوانات‬ EASGADA ‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬ ‫تقديم‬ ‫د‬.‫م‬.‫رفعت‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫حرب‬ ‫طلعت‬ 13‫يوليو‬2005 1
  2. 2. ‫والماعزوالحيوانات‬ ‫لألغنام‬ ‫المصرية‬ ‫الجمعية‬ ‫الصحراوية‬ EASGADA ‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬ ‫تقديم‬ ‫د‬.‫م‬.‫رفعت‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫حرب‬ ‫طلعت‬ 13‫يوليو‬2005 2
  3. 3. ‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬ (‫أجندة‬) ‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫حلقات‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫هى‬ ‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬. ‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬. ‫مشارك‬ ‫كل‬ ‫لكفاءة‬ ‫المحددة‬ ‫الصفات‬. ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫لعناصرقياس‬ ‫تحليل‬. ‫الكفاءة‬ ‫تحسين‬ ‫عناصر‬ ‫من‬: *‫األنتخاب‬* .‫التزاوج‬* .‫الغذائى‬ ‫الدفع‬. *‫الهرمونى‬ ‫الدفع‬* .‫حديثة‬ ‫طرق‬. ‫توصيات‬. ‫محاضرات‬ ‫من‬ ‫منتقاة‬ ‫مرفقات‬ ‫عرض‬ ” Judith Moses, Small Ruminant Specialist, Farmer to Farmer Egypt” ‫قشة‬ ‫منا‬. 3
  4. 4. ‫األغنام‬ ‫تربية‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ‫ضمن‬ ‫حلقة‬ ‫هى‬‫اللحم‬‫انتاج‬. ‫حلقات‬ ‫ستة‬ ‫حوالى‬ ‫السلسلة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫يشارك‬. ‫اللحم‬‫وانتاج‬‫التال‬ ‫لألسباب‬ ‫معقدة‬ ‫و‬ ‫مركبة‬ ‫سلسلة‬‫يه‬: ‫العمليه‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫كثرة‬. ‫عدد‬ ‫كثرة‬‫ات‬‫الصف‬‫مشارك‬ ‫كل‬ ‫بها‬ ‫يهتم‬ ‫التى‬. ‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ‫اهداف‬ ‫تعارض‬. ‫منتهية‬ ‫صفات‬ ‫المقاسه‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫معظم‬.Terminal Traits 4
  5. 5. ‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ‫المربى‬/ BreederCalfProducer ‫المسمن‬Fattener ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer ‫التجزئه‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Retailer ‫اللحم‬ ‫مصنع‬Meat Processor ‫المستهلك‬Consumer 5
  6. 6. ‫اللحم‬ ‫انتاج‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ‫المربى‬/ BreederCalfProducer ‫المسمن‬Fattener ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer ‫التجزئه‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Retailer ‫اللحم‬ ‫مصنع‬Meat Processor ‫المستهلك‬Consumer 6
  7. 7. ‫اللحم‬ ‫أنتاج‬ ‫لكفاءة‬ ‫المحددة‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫للمشارك‬ ‫تبعا‬ 7
  8. 8. ‫المربى‬Breeder ‫المشاركين‬ ‫فى‬ ‫شخص‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫هو‬. ‫من‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫يوجد‬‫ات‬‫الصف‬‫ودخله‬ ‫مصاريفه‬ ‫فى‬ ‫تتحكم‬. ‫تقسيم‬ ‫يمكن‬‫ات‬‫الصف‬‫مجموعات‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫الى‬: ‫العددية‬ ‫األنتاجية‬ ‫على‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫عوامل‬: *‫لالخصاب‬ ‫الالزمة‬ ‫التلقيحات‬ ‫عدد‬. *‫الميالد‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫النفوق‬. *‫الوالدة‬ ‫سهولة‬. *‫الوالدتين‬ ‫بين‬ ‫الفترة‬. *‫الفطام‬ ‫الى‬ ‫الميالد‬ ‫من‬ ‫الوفيات‬ ‫معدل‬. *‫التوائم‬ ‫معدل‬. 8
  9. 9. ‫المربى‬Breeder ‫الوزنية‬ ‫األنتاجية‬ ‫على‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫عوامل‬: *‫الميالد‬ ‫وزن‬.Birth weight *‫الفطام‬ ‫وزن‬.Weaning weight *‫الفطام‬ ‫الى‬ ‫الميالد‬ ‫من‬ ‫النمو‬ ‫معدل‬.Growth rate ‫لل‬ ‫األمهات‬ ‫وانتاجية‬ ‫الميالد‬ ‫وزن‬ ‫على‬ ‫أساسية‬ ‫بدرجة‬ ‫يعتمد‬‫بن‬. 9
  10. 10. ‫المربى‬Breeder ‫الفطام‬ ‫من‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬ ‫على‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫عوامل‬: *‫التكوين‬:‫ال‬ ‫عن‬ ‫النظر‬ ‫بغض‬ ‫البعض‬ ‫بعضها‬ ‫الجسم‬ ‫مناطق‬ ‫نسبة‬‫حجم‬. Conformation *‫بالعضالت‬ ‫االمتالء‬Muscularity . 10
  11. 11. ‫المربى‬Breeder ‫أن‬ ‫بفرض‬ ‫و‬* :‫بت‬ ‫ثا‬ ‫عددى‬ ‫تكوين‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫القطيع‬. *‫األنتاج‬ ‫تكاليف‬ ‫اجمالى‬ ‫تمثل‬ ‫ية‬ ‫التغذ‬ ‫مصاريف‬. *‫للحيوان‬ ‫الحافظة‬ ‫االحتياجات‬( =‫الحيوان‬ ‫وزن‬)¾ ‫بسيطة‬ ‫رياضية‬ ‫صورة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫المربى‬ ‫ة‬ ‫كفاء‬ ‫عن‬ ‫التعبير‬ ‫يمكن‬: ‫المربى‬‫اءة‬‫كف‬=‫المربى‬‫دخل‬⁄‫المربى‬‫مصاريف‬ ‫المربى‬ ‫دخل‬=‫د‬(‫المفطومة‬ ‫الرؤوس‬ ‫عدد‬*‫الفطام‬ ‫وزن‬*‫كجم‬ ‫سعر‬) N w*wW*P w ‫المربى‬ ‫مصاريف‬=‫د‬(‫االمهات‬ ‫عدد‬*‫االم‬ ‫وزن‬+‫المستبدل‬ ‫عدد‬*‫وزنه‬) N d*Wd+Nr*W r 11
  12. 12. The Fattener ‫المسمن‬ ‫المسمنه‬ ‫الرؤوس‬ ‫عدد‬Nf ‫المسمن‬ ‫أس‬‫ر‬‫ال‬ ‫وزن‬Wf ‫المسمنه‬ ‫الرؤوس‬ ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬Pf ‫عدد‬‫الرؤوس‬‫المفطومه‬Nw ‫وزن‬‫أس‬‫ر‬‫ال‬‫المفطوم‬Ww ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬‫الرؤوس‬‫المفطومه‬Pw ‫المسمن‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬: ‫اللحم‬ ‫إنتاج‬ ‫سلسله‬ ‫في‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫به‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الدور‬: ‫يقو‬ ‫للتسمين‬ ‫المعده‬ ‫المفطومه‬ ‫الرؤوس‬ ‫من‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫يشتري‬ ‫المسمن‬‫م‬ ‫للذبح‬ ‫جاهزه‬ ‫حيوانات‬ ‫وبيعها‬ ‫معينه‬ ‫لفتره‬ ‫بتسمينها‬. ‫يعتمدعلي‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫دخل‬ ‫فإن‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫بناء‬ ‫و‬: 12
  13. 13. ‫المسمن‬The Fattener ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫التغذيه‬ ‫تكاليف‬ ‫المجمل‬ ‫في‬ ‫هي‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫مصاريف‬‫لتي‬ ‫علي‬ ‫تتوقف‬: ‫المستهلكه‬ ‫الغذائيه‬ ‫الوحدات‬ ‫عدد‬Nu ‫الغذائيه‬ ‫الوحده‬ ‫سعر‬Pu ‫التسمين‬ ‫أيام‬ ‫عدد‬Nt 13
  14. 14. ‫المسمن‬The Fattener ‫ريا‬ ‫صورة‬ ‫في‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫كفاءه‬ ‫عن‬ ‫التعبير‬ ‫عمليا‬ ‫يمكن‬‫ضية‬ ‫التالى‬ ‫الشكل‬ ‫علي‬: E = ( ( Nf *Wf *Pf ) - ( Nw*Ww*Pw ) ) / Nu * Pu * Nt 14
  15. 15. ‫المسمن‬The Fattener ‫ه‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يتضح‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫علي‬ ‫و‬‫ي‬: ‫الغذاء‬ ‫تحويل‬ ‫معدل‬Feed Conversion Rate ‫النمو‬ ‫معدل‬Growth Rate ‫الذبح‬ ‫وزن‬Slaughter Weight ‫التكوين‬Conformation ‫بالعضالت‬ ‫االمتالء‬Muscularity 15
  16. 16. ‫المسمن‬The Fattener ‫نو‬ ‫هناك‬ ‫أن‬ ‫لنا‬ ‫يتضح‬ ‫السابقه‬ ‫المعادله‬ ‫فحص‬ ‫وعند‬‫من‬ ‫عا‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫و‬ ‫المربي‬ ‫من‬ ‫كل‬ ‫هدف‬ ‫بين‬ ‫التعارض‬. ‫المفط‬ ‫العجول‬ ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬ ‫رفع‬ ‫إلي‬ ‫يسعي‬ ‫فالمربي‬‫ومه‬ ‫دخله‬ ‫لزياده‬. ‫أ‬ ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬ ‫خفض‬ ‫إلي‬ ‫يسعي‬ ‫المسمن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫حين‬ ‫في‬‫جل‬ ‫مصروفاته‬ ‫خفض‬. 16
  17. 17. ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫به‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الدور‬: ‫واألسواق‬ ‫المزارع‬ ‫من‬ ‫المسمنة‬ ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫شراء‬. ‫لمدة‬ ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫تصويم‬24‫الذبح‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫ساعة‬. ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫وتجهيز‬ ‫ذبح‬. ‫األسقاط‬ ‫بيع‬. ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تجار‬ ‫الي‬ ‫أنصافها‬ ‫أو‬ ‫الذبائح‬ ‫بيع‬. 17
  18. 18. ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer ‫علي‬ ‫تعتمد‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫مصروفات‬: ‫بحح‬ ‫للذ‬ ‫الجاهز‬ ‫الحيوان‬ ‫وزن‬Slaughter Weight ‫المسمن‬ ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬Pf ‫علي‬ ‫يعتمد‬ ‫التاجر‬ ‫دخل‬: ‫بيحة‬ ‫الذ‬ ‫وزن‬Carcass Weight ‫بيحة‬ ‫الذ‬ ‫من‬ ‫الكجم‬ ‫سعر‬Pc ‫المتقدمة‬ ‫البلدان‬ ‫في‬: *‫بيحة‬ ‫الذ‬ ‫درجة‬Carcass Conformation Grade *‫بيحة‬ ‫الذ‬ ‫تدهن‬ ‫درجة‬Carcass Fatness Grade *‫بيحة‬ ‫الذ‬ ‫لون‬ ‫درجة‬Carcass color Grade 18
  19. 19. ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Whole Sealer ‫األسقاط‬ ‫سعر‬ Offal(‫رأس‬ ‫جلد‬-‫كوارع‬–‫الكرش‬-‫األمعاء‬-‫المعالق‬) ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫دخل‬ ‫تحدد‬ ‫التى‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫من‬ ‫صفة‬ ‫ويظهرلنا‬ ‫التصافي‬ ‫نسبة‬Dressing percentage Dp%=Carcass Weight /Slaughter Weight x100 ‫الجمل‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫كفاءة‬ ‫رفع‬ ‫الي‬ ‫يؤدي‬ ‫سوف‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫تحسين‬‫ة‬. ‫المحلية‬ ‫األسواق‬ ‫بخصوص‬ ‫توصية‬. 19
  20. 20. ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Retailer ‫اآلتية‬ ‫باألعمال‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬: ‫الذبيحة‬ ‫تبريد‬–‫تقطيع‬ ‫لحين‬ ‫حرارتها‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫خفض‬ ‫أي‬‫ها‬. ‫الزائد‬ ‫الدهن‬ ‫فصل‬. ‫الذبائح‬ ‫تشفية‬–‫منها‬ ‫العظام‬ ‫نزع‬ ‫أي‬. ‫المختلفة‬ ‫القطعيات‬ ‫فصل‬ (‫ممتازة‬ ‫أولي‬ ‫درجة‬–‫ثانية‬-‫ثالثة‬) ‫للمستهلك‬ ‫البيع‬. 20
  21. 21. ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬Meat Retailer ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬: ‫التشافي‬ ‫نسبة‬Boneless meet % =‫العظام‬ ‫من‬ ‫خالية‬ ‫الذبيحة‬ ‫وزن‬/‫الذبيحة‬ ‫وزن‬×100 ‫الممتازة‬ ‫القطعيات‬ ‫نسبة‬. =‫الممتازة‬ ‫القطعيات‬ ‫وزن‬/‫المشفي‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫وزن‬×100 ‫التبريد‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫الفقد‬ ‫الي‬ ‫باالضافة‬. ‫التجزئة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫كفاءة‬ ‫السابقة‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫وتحدد‬. 21
  22. 22. ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مصنع‬Meat Processor ‫تج‬ ‫من‬ ‫غالبا‬ ‫الثالثة‬ ‫الدرجة‬ ‫قطعيات‬ ‫بشراء‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مصنع‬‫ار‬ ‫التجزئة‬. ‫مص‬ ‫لحوم‬ ‫صورة‬ ‫في‬ ‫واعدادها‬ ‫وفرمها‬ ‫الذبائح‬ ‫تقليم‬ ‫نواتج‬ ‫وكذلك‬‫نعة‬ (‫برجر‬ ‫بيف‬–‫سجق‬.....‫الخ‬.) ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مصنع‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫من‬: ‫بالماء‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫ارتباط‬ ‫قدرة‬Water Holding Capacity ‫ب‬ ‫تمتاز‬ ‫التي‬ ‫فاللحوم‬WHC‫وزنها‬ ‫من‬ ‫محدودة‬ ‫كميات‬ ‫تفقد‬ ‫عالية‬ ‫واالعداد‬ ‫الفرم‬ ‫أثناء‬. ‫والدهن‬ ‫الرطوبة‬ ‫ناحية‬ ‫من‬ ‫وخاصة‬ ‫للحم‬ ‫الكيماوي‬ ‫التكوين‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫بدرجة‬ ‫تحدد‬ ‫نها‬ ‫أل‬ ‫اللحوم‬ ‫لمصنع‬ ‫جدا‬ ‫المهمة‬ ‫العوامل‬ ‫من‬ ‫التصنيع‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫الفقد‬ ‫قيمة‬. 22
  23. 23. ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer ‫السلسلة‬ ‫من‬ ‫األخير‬ ‫الطرف‬ ‫هو‬ ‫المستهلك‬. ‫الدولة‬ ‫لوضع‬ ‫تبعا‬ ‫المستهلك‬ ‫الي‬ ‫السوق‬ ‫نظرة‬ ‫تختلف‬ (‫متقدمة‬–‫نامية‬–‫متخلفة‬). ‫المستهلك‬ ‫تعتبر‬ ‫أمريكا‬‫السوق‬‫سيد‬. ‫تعتبره‬ ‫أوروبا‬‫السوق‬‫ملك‬. ‫تعتبره‬ ‫اليابان‬‫السوق‬‫اله‬‫يعبد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يجب‬ ‫الذي‬. ‫أن‬ ‫حين‬ ‫في‬‫النامية‬ ‫البلدان‬‫ش‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫أخري‬ ‫نظرة‬ ‫اليه‬ ‫تنظر‬‫أنا‬. ‫إليه‬ ‫تنظر‬ ‫وال‬‫المتخلفة‬ ‫المجتمعات‬‫بالمرة‬. 23
  24. 24. ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الصفات‬: ‫وتشمل‬ ‫الطهي‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫للحم‬ ‫المظهرية‬ ‫الصفات‬: ‫الطازج‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫لون‬Meet Color ‫الدهن‬ ‫لون‬Fat Color ‫بالدهن‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫تعريق‬ ‫درجة‬Marbiling 24
  25. 25. ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer ‫وتشمل‬ ‫الطهي‬ ‫عند‬ ‫للحم‬ ‫المظهرية‬ ‫الصفات‬: ‫المطهي‬ ‫اللحم‬ ‫لون‬. ‫المطهي‬ ‫الدهن‬ ‫لون‬. ‫الطهي‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫الفقد‬.Cooking Loss 25
  26. 26. ‫اللحوم‬ ‫مستهلك‬Consumer ‫المأكلية‬ ‫الصفات‬: ‫الطراوة‬Tenderness ‫العصارية‬Juiceness ‫النكهة‬Flavour 26
  27. 27. ‫توصيات‬Recommendations ‫الي‬ ‫تحتاج‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫في‬ ‫المحلية‬ ‫األسواق‬: ‫الذبائح‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التعامل‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫تحديث‬. ‫للتدريج‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫انشاء‬. ‫الذبيحة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫الذبيحة‬ ‫من‬ ‫كجم‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫سعر‬ ‫وضع‬ ‫العالمية‬ ‫األسواق‬ ‫في‬ ‫متبع‬ ‫هو‬ ‫كما‬ ‫ولونها‬ ‫وتدهنها‬. ‫كثيرا‬ ‫يفيد‬ ‫قد‬ ‫األسقاط‬ ‫في‬ ‫للتعامل‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫وضع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬‫رفع‬ ‫في‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫تاجر‬ ‫كفاءة‬. 27
  28. 28. ‫مرفقات‬APPENDICS The following slides were selected from some Lectures and Seminars held at: “ EGYPTIAN ASSOCIATION OF SHEEP, GOATS & DESERT ANIMALS” Some of the slides were presented by : Judith Moses, Small Ruminant Specialist, Farmer to Farmer Egypt. ‫تم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫المحاضرات‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫من‬ ‫منتقاة‬ ‫التالية‬ ‫المرفقات‬‫إ‬‫لقاؤها‬ ‫بمقرالجمعية‬‫والماعزوالحيوانات‬ ‫لألغنام‬ ‫المصرية‬‫الصحر‬‫اوية‬. 28
  29. 29. Nutrients for sheep and goats 29
  30. 30. Nutrients for sheep and goats Water Energy Protein Minerals Vitamins Roughage (fiber)
  31. 31. Poor access to water Poor nutrition of lactating dams leading to low milk yields and poor rates of growth and high death loss Poor quality of feeds for kids at weaning causing a sharp drop in weight and deaths Common Nutrition Problems
  32. 32. It is a waste of resources to improve the genetics if the environment remains unchanged. Express Breed Potential
  33. 33. Clean water essential for maximum production 11-12 liters of water per day Milk is approximately 90% water Water
  34. 34. Water The most essential nutrient Intake (need) varies by . . . Moisture in feed Lactation (2-3 gal) > Gestation > Maintenance (1/2 to 1 gal) Late Gestation > Mid and early gestation Triplets, twins > single Sheep > goats Milk type sheep and goats > meat type
  35. 35. The mammary glands will attempt to obtain nutrients from blood to produce quantity of milk removed daily from the udder If feed intake is low the nutrients will be taken from fat stores Milk production factors
  36. 36. Energy Needed in the most amount. Usually the most limiting nutrient. Excess is stored as fat. Expressed as . . . TDN – total digestible nutrients (%) ME – metabolizable energy (mcal) NE for maintenance, growth, lactation, and fiber production (mcal)
  37. 37. Sources of Energy High Cereal grains (76-88%) Corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, rye, oats By-product feeds (76-90%) Soy hulls, distiler’s grains, corn gluten, wheat middlings Moderate Corn silage (65-72%) Haylage (50-60% Good quality pasture (60-70%) Good quality hay (50-60%) Low Low quality hay (40-50%) Low quality pasture (< 50%) Straw (40-48%) By-products (<40%) cottonseed hulls, peanut hulls, oat hulls
  38. 38. Sources of protein Highest Protein meals (46-52%) Plant - soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal Fish meal (66%) Urea (NPN) (288%) Moderate Alfalfa and other legume hays (13-21%) Low Grass hay (10-12%) Cereal grains (8-14%) Lowest Poor quality hay (<10%) Straw (3-5%)
  39. 39. Minerals Required in small quantities (grams) Macro – salt, Ca, P, Mg, K, and S Micro (trace) – Se, I, Cu, Fe, Mo, Cr, F, Zn, and Mn Balance of minerals is important. Example: Ca:P Many interactions. Example: Cu-Mo-S Sources: Hay, pasture, grain Mineral mixes, blocks, tubs
  40. 40. Vitamins Ruminants have a dietary requirement for Vitamin A, D, and E. Vitamin K and B-vitamins are manufactured by the rumen. No dietary requirement for Vitamin C or D. Sources of vitamins Natural sources Vitamin packs Mineral mixes, blocks, tubs
  41. 41. Manufactured feeds Blends of ingredients that are formulated to supply all (complete) or defined portions (supplement) of the requirements of targeted animal). Complete feeds Protein supplements or balancers Mineral mixes, blocks, tubs Use properly! More expensive, but convenient and properly balanced.
  42. 42. Alternative feeds Feed % DM % TDN % CP % Ca - % P Beet pulp (wet) 17 76 11 .68 - .08 Bread by-product 68 91 14 .09 - .18 Corn stalks 80 59 5 .35 - .19 Grain screenings 90 65 14 .25 - .34 Kelp (dried) 91 32 7 2.72 - .31 Poultry litter (dried) 87 64 25 3.0 – 2.5 Potatoes, cull 21 80 10 .03 - .24 Pumpkins, cull 10 85 16 .24 - .43 Soybean hulls 90 77 12 .55 - .17 Whole cottonseed 91 95 23 .14 - .64 Whole soybeans 88 93 40 .27 - .64
  43. 43. Meet but don’t exceed animals requirements Requirements based on weight, age, stage and level of production Animals that have to walk further for feed have higher nutritional needs Accurate animal weights are important Feed balanced rations
  44. 44. Feed in groups according to nutritional requirements, or Feed individually at time of milking May cost less to underfeed an animal but will lose more money as a result of poorer performance and health. Divide into production groups
  45. 45. Nutrient requirements depend on … Size (weight) Age Stage and level of production Climate and environment Body condition
  46. 46. Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate) 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 Lbs.perday Crude protein (CP) Ewe lamb Mature ewe Ewe lambs and doelings have difficulty competing for feeder space. Ewe lambs require a higher percent of protein in their diets. NRC, 1985
  47. 47. Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs, 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Lbs.perday Crude protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Lactation NRC, 1985
  48. 48. Start with forage Pasture, weeds, browse, hay, silage Feed supplements to provide nutrients that the forage is lacking. Feed supplement(s) to provide a more nutrient- dense diet. Feed supplement(s) to improve health and performance. Feed supplements to save money.
  49. 49. Most variable part of feeding program Quality varies by species, stage of growth Goats and sheep will self select most nutritional part of plant Ruminants digest systems are designed to eat tough plant material Forage nutrition value
  50. 50. Have the ability to consume and utilize poor quality roughage They cannot produce high quality meat if they are fed poor feed Adult animals can utilize poor quality better than young animals Young animals require a higher quality ration to grow proper Sheep and Goats
  51. 51. Most text books itemize nutritional requirements of goats in terms of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and water at different stages of life. Then formulate rations composed of several different feeds. This implies that farmers are able to follow “demand-driven” feeding. Rather “supply-driven” is more likely. Feeding with what they have available. Nutritional Requirements
  52. 52. Practical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating females Balance ration (proper way) By hand (math) Simultaneous equations (Algebra) Pearson Square Use computer program http://www.sheepandgoat.com/software.html#ration Use spreadsheet http://www.sheepandgoat.com/spreadsheets/RationEvaluator2004.xls Web-based ration balancing http://www.luresext.edu/goats/research/nutr_calc.htm
  53. 53. Body condition scores can indicate if over or underfeeding A score of 3 to 3.5 is best for breeding A score of 2 to 2.5 is normal at end of lactation Flushing with concentrates will raise the body score for breeding season Goat and hair sheep fatten from the inside out. Body condition scoring
  54. 54. Body condition scoring (BCS) A valuable management tool that can be used to evaluate the feeding program and the need for changes. Body condition is a better indicator of condition than weight. The most important times to body condition score are breeding, late gestation, and weaning. Body condition scoring estimates fat and muscle on a scale of 1 to 5. Half scores are commonly used. The cattle system (1-9) can also be used. 1 BCS equals 13% of the live weight of a female in moderate condition (3-3.5). Exact score is not important as the relative scores and the differences between scores.
  55. 55. Body condition scoring 1 – emaciated 2 – thin 3 – average 4 – fat +

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