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Dr. Seuss once said, “The more that you read, the more things you will know.
The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go.” (Geisel, 1978, pg 27) This
beloved author entered the minds and hearts of many young readers as well as their
parents. Through his creative, quirky writing he motivated his readers using an
endless variety of figurative language. He successfully encouraged children to acquire
proficient reading skills while being entertained at the same time. Since developing
the ability to be a capable reader is not an easy task, there are many strategies that can
be employed in order to achieve the result of quality pronunciation as well as
comprehension. Writers, such as Dr. Seuss, had a method to their madness.
Incorporated in their fictional writing, creative dialogue that would enable young
people, on the road to becoming good readers, to learn by sight, letter sound
decoding, analogy, and contextual guessing. “To read words by sight readers retrieve
information about the words stored in memory from previous experiences reading the
words” (Gaskins, I. W., Ehri, L. C., Cress, C., O'Hara, C., & Donnelly, K, 1996/1997,
pg 314). In the study to be detailed, I worked with one specific student, Macy
Hanson. I will describe, analyze, and reflect on her abilities to recognize a sight word
and to understand word families.
1. What are the age, grade level, and reading level of the student you taught?
Macy Hanson, age six, is entering first grade at a suburban elementary school in
Oakland County, Michigan, which is part of the Greater Detroit Metropolitan Area.
According to recent evaluations, upon exiting kindergarten, Macy’s reading level is early
and her independent reading level is at grade level.
2. What are relevant characteristics of the student, including race/ethnicity,
primary language and English proficiency, gender, disability status,
supplementary or special education services and supports?
Macy is a female Caucasian whose primary language is English. She does not have
any disabilities and therefore does not require special education services. She does
however, require speech services to work on specific sounds.
3. What assessment instruments did you select and why? What did they reveal
about the student’s reading strengths and needs? How did you use the
information obtained to plan your instruction?
For each lesson I completed with Macy, there were a sequence of steps put in place in
order to pre assess and post assess Macy’s comprehension. I Can Help, a Benchmark C
book with a seventy-two word count was a primary focus for the first lesson taught. The
objective of this lesson was to determine a sight word that Macy could improve. Prior to
reading the book, Macy took a “picture walk,” where she looked through the pages of the
book and made predictions. She found this activity to be reminiscent of one with which
she was already familiar. She then used her pointer finger to read the book aloud to me.
As she read, I made annotations in my copy of the same book indicating words she knew
as well as those requiring improvement. I noted words she asked for an appeal, words I
told, words she read correctly, words she read incorrectly, words that Macy sounded out,
as well as phrases that she re-read. I used the Running Record assessment technique in
order to determine the percentage of words Macy needed to improve as well as to learn
what words Macy could use assistance in decoding better. “As whole words morphemes
and print patterns become increasingly familiar, knowledge of these larger units of print
allows students to read efficiently and spend less and less attention on sounding words
out letter by letter” (Moats, L. C. (1998). Pgs 2-3). From this pre-assessment tool, using
the running record, it was determined that Macy had five errors, which in turn meant that
she read ninety-three percent of the words correct. From this pre-assessment it was
gathered that one of the words that Macy could improve upon was the word “help.” This
word was printed throughout the book and one in which Macy had trouble. This pre-
assessment revealed that focusing on the sight word “help” would assist in allowing
Macy to improve upon this word. Improvement in reading the word “help” would
increase her self-esteem as she would not get frustrated the next time her pointer finger
came to that specific word. The pre assessment revealed that Macy is a superior reader,
however when she comes across words that she has trouble, she has no problem asking
for assistance, however improvement could be made. This book was not very difficult
for her to read, however there were times where she had to sound out words as well as
times that she came across words where she required additional help. I used this the
information attained in the pre-assessment to determine a sight word for Macy to focus. I
created lessons that were kinesthetic and creative so that Macy was motivated and eager
to learn how to recognize and decode the word “help” without getting frustrated. In order
for Macy to become more familiar with the word “help,” she practiced the word three
different ways. First, Macy practiced the word help using her body to form the shapes of
the letters. She then practiced by forming letters out of play-dough. Finally, she practiced
the word ‘help” by spelling the word out using pieces of candy. During the post
assessment, Macy re-read the book I Can Read. Again, I made annotations in my copy
of the book, using Running Record symbols. It was determined that Macy only made one
error on a word. However she did read the word “help” correctly each time. Macy’s one
error was on the word cannot. She recited, “couldn’t” instead of the word that was
written. It was proven that after the lessons taught Macy was able to recognize the word
“help” and read it aloud in a correct fashion one-hundred percent of the time.
The second lesson I taught Macy dealt with word families. Word families are
groups of words that have the same rhyming endings. To pre-assess Macy’s rhyming
abilities I initially recited eight pair of words since word families have rhyming endings.
Four pair of words rhymed and four did not. Since Macy understood rhyme, “Words that
begin differently but then share a stressed vowel and all phonemes that come after it,”
(Scarborough, H. S., & Brady, S. A. (2002), pg. 305) and responded perfectly to the pre-
assessment when verbally quizzed on her knowledge of words with similar rhyming
endings, it was obvious that she understood the concept. This indicated that I could
proceed with the lesson on word families. This pre-assessment revealed that Macy
had a knowledge base of rhyme and could therefore begin to apply this knowledge to
more than one word family. As part of the second lesson, I read Macy an –op word
family book entitled, Bop, Bop, at the Bunny Hop. While reading the word family
book to her, Macy often read along with me, for she was confident and comfortable
practicing a skill she understood. Ultimately, Macy and I both realized that she could
apply rhyming to other word families as well. As I taught Macy this lesson, she
commented that word families “have the same letters at the end.” Following reading the
–op word family book, together we did an –op cheer that was found at the end of the
book. We also practiced some –op word family riddles such as “A horse can gallop, a
bird can fly, a bunny can hop.” Concluding the word family lesson a coloring post-
assessment was given. Macy completed a word family color by code worksheet that had
three different word families displayed. Examples were given of each of these three
word families and the directions included using three different colors to indicate three
different word family endings. The endings given were –op, -ip, and –ell. Macy
demonstrated a clear understanding of word families as she colored each word family the
correct color. This post assessment proved to be successful for not only did she
understand the –op word family, however she could identify other word families as well.
This lesson helped her gain a more clear understanding of word families and rhyme.
After Macy completed the coloring word family post assessment, she made a list on her
own, of six –op words that belonged in the same word family. She initiated this post
assessment, for she was excited that she understood the concept. The pre-assessment and
post assessment on word families were appropriate for Macy’s and determined that
comprehension of this topic was superb.
4. How does the current classroom climate promote independence, cooperation,
risk-taking, interest, and caring?
In order to create a comfortable classroom climate promoting independence,
cooperation, risk-taking, interest, and caring, I chose to involve Macy in learning
activities involving the aforementioned necessities for successful learning. Macy loves
playing “school” and has a desk in her bedroom. The desk provided a perfect learning
center for our two lessons together. Macy already possessed inherent learning
characteristics. She is motivated, creative, and loves to read. Playing the game of school
was natural for her, as she was already engaged.
In order to promote an independent environment, I suggested that Macy show me that
she could read on her own. After successfully completing this task, Macy completed her
assignments independently, without any assistance on my part. She asserted her
independence and ability to work on her own while completing pre assessments, lesson
activities, as well as post assessments. During the pre-assessment of reading the
Benchmark C book, I Can Read, Macy demonstrated that she could read independently
without a great deal of help. During the lesson, she had difficulty with the sight word
“help.” After completion of the pre-assessment, it was decided by Macy and me that this
would be the word of focus for the lesson. She practiced the word help on her own and
used her body to form the shapes of the letters. She also practiced by forming letters out
of play-dough as well as by spelling the word “help” out with pieces of candy. During the
post assessment Macy improved her independence by reading I Can Read for the second
time on her own. This time, she read the book without making any mistakes on the sight
word. During the pre-assessment and post assessment of learning word families Macy
also proved that she could perform certain tasks without any assistance whatsoever.
During the post assessment of learning word families, Macy colored by code categorizing
the word ending families by color. She sat at her desk, focused and independently
assessed her knowledge after learning about word families. Independence was a primary
focus of this activity as Macy is a studious girl who takes pride in completing tasks on
her own. However, she is also comfortable asking me for help when needed.
While Macy is an independent learner, she appreciates the opportunity to work
together while learning. During the lesson of learning word families, Macy enjoyed
responding aloud while I was reading Bop, Bop at the Bunny Hop. Macy was eager to
give the correct response when she knew the word as it pertained to word families. Also,
during the sight word lesson, while Macy read the book I Can Read to me, she would
ask for my help if she felt unsure. She felt comfortable asking for assistance if she did
not recognize a particular word. This proved our cooperation was a success.
Keeping Macy’s interest was never a problem, for I selected concepts, activities, and
materials that were grade level appropriate and involved a game of “school” that Macy
clearly loves. In creating these lessons, I was careful to make sure that Macy understood
each lesson clearly, and that she was never feeling overwhelmed. If I noticed that she
was feeling frustrated I made a point to let her know that learning a new concept is not
always easy and that it is ok to take risks. It is even ok to feel frustrated while learning a
new skill. The fact that she knew I would be there to help if needed made her feel more
comfortable at all times. Above all Macy knew that I cared a great deal about her
progress, therefore I created lessons and activities that would keep her attentiveness and
motivated to learn. This created a situation where, because Macy was interested in the
curriculum being taught, she was actively engaged in both of the lessons. “… Not all
students are motivated in multiple ways, but their motivation can vary depending on the
situation or context in the classroom or school....” (Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R.
(2002), pg 314). Macy was motivated to learn for the environment was one that was set
to be creative, welcoming, full of energy, and fun.”
5. What particular instructional challenges do the student, his/her instructional
context, and his/her schooling history present?
Macy, the student whom I have taught the sight word and word family lessons, is
entering first grade in the fall. Given that Macy is six years old and has completed
kindergarten, there are certain instructional challenges that were present. A key factor in
holding Macy’s attention was that she lacked ability to focus and concentrate for long
periods of time. She therefore required kinesthetic learning along with very precise
explanation of material being covered. Macy has not yet developed proficient speech and
language and therefore her pronunciation was slightly affected. Since Macy did not learn
word families prior to our working together on this lesson, at first she experienced
minimal difficulty in grasping the concept. Within a short time, Macy made a connection
with the rhyming words and hence comprehended fully word families. An instructional
challenge that slightly impeded Macy’s interest level was the fact that school is not in
session for her. Although this posed an instructional challenge, playing the game of
“school” allowed Macy to actively place herself in a school setting. Since Macy does
not have any learning disabilities, reads at grade level, and enjoys school, she welcomed
the new experience and opportunity to learn two new reading concepts.
6. What were your instructional goals for your lesson? Why were these goals
selected? How do they relate to the curriculum and the needs of this student?
The main instructional goals of each lesson taught were to improve Macy’s reading
comprehension and knowledge of sight words and word families. These goals were
selected because they were age appropriate and applied directly to the curriculum taught
at the first grade level. Two specific areas of Grade Level Content Expectations of focus
during the lessons taught were based on phonics and word recognition. The first lesson
taught to Macy focused on acquisition of a sight word in the context of a book. “We
realized that beginners can learn to read words by sight long before they are capable of
performing the mature form of sight word reading.” (Gaskins, I. W., Ehri, L. C., Cress,
C., O'Hara, C., & Donnelly, K. (1996/1997), pg 316). R.WS.01.05 states that students
will automatically recognize frequently encountered words in and out of context with the
number of words that can be read fluently increasing steadily across the school year.
This GLCE stated an objective to be met by Macy during the lesson in which she focused
on learning the word “help.” As a first grader, students come across a variety of words,
as Macy did, that require a little more attention to guarantee that these words are fully
understood. The second lesson taught to Macy focused on comprehension of word
families and application of onset and rimes. The article entitled, Toward A Common
Terminology for Talking About Speech and Reading: A Glossary of the "Phon" Words
and Related Terms, defines onset and rime as “Within a syllable, the portion preceding
the vowel is called the onset, and the remainder of the syllable is called the rime”
(Scarborough, H. S., & Brady, S. A. (2002), pg 305). Once Macy understood that word
families have the same letter at the end, she could apply this knowledge and
understanding when exposed to different examples of word families. R.WS.01.04 states
that students will use structural cues to recognize one-syllable words, blends, and
consonant digraphs including: letter-sound, onset and rimes, whole word chunks, word
families, digraphs th, ch,sh. This instructional goal was selected because she understood
the concept of rhyming. Developmentally, word families would be the next concept that
Macy could readily understand. While this was a new area of study for her, it would
enable her to have even more success as she enters first grade. Application of rhyming
words to that of word families helped Macy comprehend that word families have the
same ending. Aside from meeting the Grade Level Content Expectations, introducing
these lessons to her, will make a world of difference. They will serve as a means of
making her more successful academically.
7. Did your reading instruction make a meaningful contribution to the student’s
overall reading progress? How do you know?
My reading instruction definitely made a meaningful contribution to the student’s
overall reading progress. After spending much time on teaching Macy the sight word
“help” and also educating her extensively on various word families, especially those with
–op endings, I have given Macy new knowledge to take with her on her journey through
first grade. Through the pre-assessments, and actual lesson instructions, Macy fully
understood and was able to apply the information to successfully complete post-
assessments with expertise. On Macy’s post assessment during sight word recognition,
she did not make any mistakes when she read the word “help.” She demonstrated her
knowledge of recognizing the word when writing the word “help” in creative ways
during the lesson, and applied her understanding. She took her comprehension of
recognizing the sight word outside of the text to application of recognizing the word in
the book. When completing the color-coded word family post assessment, Macy colored
each word family the correct corresponding color. She did not hesitate as she sat
diligently coloring in the lines of each word family object. Macy scored one-hundred
percent on her coloring post assessment. Concluding the lesson on word families, when
asked what a word family was, Macy responded with a correct statement. She stated,
“Word families have the same letters at the end of the word and rhyme.” Through verbal
and written assessment it was concluded that Macy understood the concept of word
8. What did you do to support the student’s success during the lesson and why?
Were your efforts beneficial; why? Some particular elements you might want to
In order to support Macy’s success during the sight word and word family lessons my
efforts were beneficial for I used a variety of teaching methods in order to motivate and
create a quality learning environment. Methods such as using explicit instruction,
continuously giving feedback throughout my teaching, and creation of developmental
lessons aided in Macy’s retention of knowledge and comprehension.
(a) your teaching method (e.g., direct instruction, strategy instruction, reciprocal
teaching, peer-mediated learning) and justification for it;
The teaching method in which I employed primary consisted of explicit
instruction. Since I did not teach these lessons to a group of students, explicit instruction
was necessary. Throughout each lesson I precisely, using simple language, told Macy
exactly what we were going to do as we performed each task. Macy was told the purpose
for each lesson, therefore giving her a better understanding of what was about to occur.
During the sight word pre-assessment, Macy was instructed to read the book, I Can
Help. Upon completion, it was determined that “help” would be the word of study. I
then instructed Macy, through various lessons, to complete each activity. Following the
lessons on learning the sight word, Macy re-read the book for her post-assessment. She
improved her reading skills and recited the word “help” correctly each time she saw the
I also guided Macy through the word family lesson. For her pre-assessment I read
rhyming and non-rhyming word pairs to her. The goal of this pre-assessment was to
determine whether Macy understood rhyme, therefore would be able to comprehend the
concept of word families. Macy would respond, saying “yes” or “no” indicating that she
understood which word pairs rhymed and which did not. Following the pre-assessment I
read Macy the –op word family book, for she scored one-hundred percent correct on
comprehension of rhyming words. Prior to completing the post assessment, I gave her
directions so that she could independently and accurately complete the coloring
worksheet. Throughout the word family lesson, explicit instruction was given.
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is defined by Vanderbilt University professors
Douglas Fuchs and Lynn Fuchs as, “Whereby children work together to support each
other’s learning,” (Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005) pg 34) require more than one student
in a classroom, and therefore could not be implemented. During this type of instruction,
“…subgroups of children in the same classroom can operate on different levels of
curricula and use different instructional procedures. Teachers, in effect, can oversee many
lessons simultaneously and address a broader range of students’ educational
needs….”(Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005) pg 34). This method of instruction was not
possible to implement during the teaching of one specific student. If I were given the
opportunity to teach these lessons to a group of students in a classroom situation, Peer
Assisted Learning Strategies would be another teaching method to consider.
(b) use of modeling, cues, prompts, teaching aids, and feedback; and
Through my explicit instruction, I modeled, used teaching aids, and also gave
Macy feedback throughout each of the lessons. During the sight word lessons, I modeled
ways in which Macy could form the letter sequence of “help.” She then used her own
creativity to form the letters spelling the word. I modeled the letters using my body as
well as by molding play-dough. I also showed her ways that she could compose the
letters h-e-l-p using candy. Throughout the lessons, I would give Macy feedback in order
to correct and imperfections. For example, when Macy was making the letter “p” with
candy, she initially started to place the candy so that the “p” faced backwards. I then
asked her if the word “help” looked like it was printed in the book. At that point, she
realized that her “p” was facing the wrong way, and corrected her error. Providing this
feedback allowed Macy to become more familiar with how to form letters correctly and
accurately spell words. During the sight word reading I modeled how to take a “picture
walk” and read words one at a time, as I demonstrated how to do this correctly. During
the word family lesson, I used a word family tale book, as a teaching aid, in order to
model the formations of letters and words. This book proved to be a useful tool in
conveying the true meaning of word families. During Macy’s post-assessment I gave her
feedback concluding the completion of the worksheet. I reviewed each word family
ending as it corresponded with the correct color. Using modeling, teaching aids, and
providing feedback allow Macy to thrive as a learner.
(c) techniques for promoting generalization and maintenance, such as performance
summary and branching to future lessons.
Teaching Macy a sight word as well as word families provided a solid foundation
for future word processing, spelling, and whole language acquisition. This will enhance
her phonological awareness and assist her in future development. “Systematic language
related differences and the fact that early forms of phonological awareness develop prior
to literacy instruction suggest that experiences with oral language play an important role
in developing phonological awareness” (Francis, D. J., & Anthony, J. L. (2005), pg 256).
Teaching word families will only increase a child’s ability to recognize and become more
familiar with written and oral language
9. What were the critical moments or choices made during instruction that
impacted the direction of the lesson?
As I reflect on the critical moments and choices made during instruction that
impacted the direction of the lesson, everything went exactly as planned. From the choice
of topics for each lesson to the implementation of the lessons it was easy to see that this
experience had been educational as well as enjoyable for Macy. Creating lessons that
Macy could compare to her school routine was helpful in maintaining her excellent
motivation and attention. Taking a “picture walk” through the book to brainstorm what
the book will be about, reminded her of what she often does in her natural school setting.
She was eager to learn, as the information was grade level appropriate. The lessons were
paced properly and well coordinated. I slowed down when I sensed Macy getting
frustrated and paced the lesson so that she would be successful. Each lesson was
developmentally appropriate and carefully planned. There was creativity in both the
teaching and the assessments. Creating lessons and assessment with Macy’s interest in
mind was critical to her learning. Macy spelled out the word “help” in three different
ways. First she used candy, second she formed the letters with play-dough, then finally
shaped her body into the letters of the word (starting with h, and ending with p). These
activities motivated Macy to learn. Since Macy enjoyed reading, choosing a book that
was not too difficult, allowed Macy to learn a new sight word as well as read a book to
me. Macy enjoys books read to her. Choosing to read Bop, Bop at the Bunny Hop,
increased her interest in the lesson. Since she enjoys art, creating a post-assessment
involving coloring excited her.
10.What evidence do you have that the student achieved your instructional goals?
Macy’s post assessments prove that she has achieved my instructional goals. I
noticed, upon completion of the running record assessment that Macy improved not only
on the sight word “help,” but also on her reading percentage as a whole. She was able to
focus on the sight word and practice spelling the word using a variety of methods. She
became very familiar with the –op word family and ultimately understood the definition
of a word family. In addition to the word family lesson, Macy proved that she could also
understand other word families than the initial word family she was taught. This was
proven when she was able to identify other word family endings on her post-assessment.
Macy proved to be successful in both areas of study and demonstrated complete
knowledge of these areas.
11.If you were given another opportunity to teach this lesson with this student,
what changes would you make and why? Some particular elements you might
want to address include:
If given another opportunity to teach these lessons, It would be difficult to alter them
with this particular student given the fact that I am extremely familiar with this student’s
personality, cognitive ability, temperament, as well as her prior knowledge. I am also
aware of her interests and what motivates her. I tailored lessons to Macy, taking a great
deal of time and preparation in order to make them informative and suitable for a six year
old to study. My thorough reflection of the implementation of these lessons clearly
indicates that Macy was comfortable and motivated the entire time.
(a) your behavior management;
My behavior management was appropriate for Macy’s learning, for I created an
environment where she was on task and motivated to learn the material being taught. She
acted in a studious manner and was well behaved. Had I worked with a student that was
not as focused and on task as Macy, I would have had to manage the student’s behavior
in a better fashion. I would have had to use different cues in order to engage my student
in learning. Some students are not capable of focusing during lessons, and need
reinforcement. Others, such as Macy do not have behavior problems that affect her
(b) Tactics to promote active participation and interest;
Given that I know Macy’s interests, I created tactics to promote participation and
interest. Had I not worked with a student who I had extensive knowledge about, I would
have had a harder time promoting participation. Knowing what motivates Macy allowed
me to prepare lessons that were of her liking. Since Macy enjoys physical activity, art,
reading, and candy, I was able to incorporate each of these elements into a lesson where
she thrived. Creating the lessons that I did promoted her participation and
comprehension of the concepts taught. In the future I could use the knowledge of some
of Macy’s other interests such as music, to create another engaging lesson. If I were to
teach these same lessons to her again, I would use similar creative techniques in order to
hold her attention
(c) lesson pacing and transitions;
The lesson was paced very well, as Macy did not feel overwhelmed. Had I had an
opportunity to teach these lessons again, I would have spent more time on word families.
I read her the –op word family book, Bop, Bop at the Bunny Hop, worked on word
family concepts, then gave her a post-assessment with regard to various word family
endings. In the future I would read her another word family book with a different ending,
such as –ell. If I had done so, the transition to an assessment, which provided more than
one word family, would have made more sense to her. The post-assessment helped me
realize that Macy understood the word family concept even though she was only read one
book on the –op word family. With respect to the sight word “help” I would spend more
time having Macy identify the word in context of book as well as out of context. The
lesson was paced well, however in order to improve comprehension I would have taken
more time to teach each concept.
(d) Effectiveness of teaching procedures and materials; and
I found my teaching procedures and materials to be effective for Macy was
excited to learn the new concepts. Given the opportunity to teach Macy these lessons
again, I would use similar procedures and materials. Knowing her interests, I might
create lessons that relate to other areas in which she enjoys. I would use more reading
materials, for she desires reading books as well as having books read to her. I would also
incorporate other projects that involve Macy’s creativity. Along with having Macy do art
projects, color, use play-dough, and kinesthetic learning, I will have her create a song as
it relates to both the sight word and word families. I was an effective teacher for Macy
for I understood how she learns best. Macy enjoyed working with me and I was excited
that I could contribute to her knowledge base.
e) usefulness of the assessment data collected.
The data collected proved that Macy learned the new concepts and that my
teaching was effective. Macy correctly read the sight word “help” each time when
reciting the book, I Can Help. The pre-assessment data collected allowed me to
determine a sight word that Macy needed assistance. The post assessment determined that
she learned the word and could read it in the same context as her pre-assessment. In
another lesson, I would have Macy read another book, at her grade level, that
incorporates the word “help” in context throughout the reading. This would give me a
better understanding of Macy’s retention. The rhyming pre-assessment for learning word
families allowed me to determine if teaching Macy word families would be beneficial.
Had she not understood the concept of rhyme, It would have been difficult for me to
continue with my lesson as planned. I would have had to alter it completely. The post-
assessment data collected proved that Macy could identify not only –op word families,
but other word families as well. If I were to post-assess Macy in another fashion, I might
have her create her own story using the –op word family or one of her choice.
12.In what ways could reading instruction for this student be more
developmentally appropriate and responsive to his/her unique needs?
If I had not consulted an elementary school reading professional, prior to selecting
materials for these lessons, I might have had difficulty determining developmentally
appropriate lessons and materials. Had this occurred, I would have had to make
appropriate adjustments to facilitate my instruction. I might have had to lessen or increase
the difficulty of each aspect of my pedagogy depending on Macy’s ability to comprehend
the material. The sight word book selected was at Macy’s reading level and did not need
to be altered. Had I chosen a more difficult book, Macy would have struggled. During
the lesson on word families, had I not determined in Macy’s pre-assessment that she
understood rhyming, I would not have been able to continue the lesson as planned. I
would have had to teach onset and rime prior to moving on to a concept such as word
family recognition. Since the lessons provided were developmentally appropriate Macy
was eager to learn and was very responsive to the instruction of each new concept.
13.What aspects of your reading lessons demonstrate your use of newly learned
techniques to provide effective reading instruction?
As I planned the lessons on sight word reading and word families, I consulted
various publications and read numerous journal articles to educate myself more fully
on these topics. I sought materials that would be age appropriate, purposeful, and
creative. I employed various teaching techniques in order to successfully reach a six-
year-old learner who was already reading at grade level. I utilized assorted activities
that promoted risk-taking, active engagement, and above all, outcome based
comprehension. Throughout each lesson, Macy was motivated to become a better
reader. “One reason that motivation and engagement may influence the development
of reading comprehension is that motivated students usually want to understand text
content fully and, therefore, process information deeply. As they read frequently with
these cognitive purposes, motivated students gain in reading comprehension
proficiency.” (Guthrie, J. T., et al. (2004), pg 403). Motivating and engaging a young
reader created a positive learning environment where learning occurred. The student
was receptive to new ideas and enjoyed adding to her knowledge base. As an
educator I found this experience personally rewarding as well. Through reading
Procedures For Word Learning: Making Discoveries About Words, I gained a better
understanding of how to apply theory and research while implementing lessons on
sight words. “In sight word reading, the words are read from memory, not from
decoding and blending operations, because the words are familiar” (Gaskins, I. W.,
Ehri, L. C., Cress, C., O'Hara, C., & Donnelly, K. (1996/1997), pg 315). In using this
knowledge, I was able to create a lesson that assisted in Macy’s comprehension of
identifying a sight word. Implementations of module readings were used in order to
create reading lessons that were purposeful.
Francis, D. J., & Anthony, J. L. (2005). Development of phonological awareness. Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 14(5), 255-259.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Peer assisted learning strategies: Promoting word
recognition, fluency, and reading comprehension in young children. Journal of Special
Education, 39(1), 34-44.
Gaskins, I. W., Ehri, L. C., Cress, C., O'Hara, C., & Donnelly, K. (1996/1997).
Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries about words. The Reading Teacher,
Geisel, T.G. I Can Read With My Eyes Shut! New York: Random House
Guthrie, J. T., et al. (2004). Increasing reading comprehension and engagement through
concept-oriented reading instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 403-423.
Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic
success. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 313-327.
Moats, L. C. (1998). Teaching decoding. American Educator, 22(1), 1-9.
Scarborough, H. S., & Brady, S. A. (2002). Toward a common terminology for talking
about speech and reading: A glossary of the "phon" words and related terms. Journal of
Literacy Research, 34(3), 299-336.
The following pictures were taken during the first lesson: sight word reading
Macy was excited to begin her lesson on learning the sight word “help,” however decided
to eat a piece of candy first.
In the process of creating the word H-E-L-P, Macy was figuring out what pieces of candy
would work best for the letter “p”
Macy’s completed lesson, using candy, on the sight word “help.” She was proud of her
While creating the word h-e-l-p, Macy carefully selected pieces of candy to form the
Macy used her body to form the letters in sequential order. H-E-L-P
I Can Help: Benchmark C book with a 72 word count.
Used a pre-assessment and post-assessment for comprehension of the sight word “help”
Macy read the book to me for her pre and post assessments.
The following pictures were taken during the second lesson: word families
-op word family book read to Macy
Macy worked diligently on completing her post-assessment
Macy, in question, of how many words she should think of in the –op word family.
Assessments for word family lesson