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Worksen project opportunities in labour_market

Trends in the Employment of Disabled People
“World Report on ...
able to participate in community fully as a result of alienation and poverty, lack
of skill and training opportunities or ...
beginning of 20th
century. The idea of the obligation to employ disabled emerged
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Worksen project opportunities in labour_market

  1. 1. OPPORTUNITIES IN LABOUR MARKET EMPLOYMENT OF DISABLED PEOPLE Trends in the Employment of Disabled People “World Report on Disability”, developed and published in partnership with World Health Organisation and the World Bank, shows that the disabled population theme will continue to be relatively important in economic crisis. In the World Report on Disability where the subject of Work and Employment is analysed in a specific section, firstly the outlook of labour market in terms of employment of disabled people is introduced, then the barriers to entering the labour market are identified and lastly the tailored interventions addressing the barriers to work and employment are emphasised. There are significant barriers for disabled employees to entering the labour market. The barriers aforementioned in the 2011 World Report on Disability are under the title of “Lack of Access”. According to this, the disadvantages of lack of access to education and training and funding are defined as chief ‘environmental obstacles’ on the way to entering the labour market (WHO-WB, 2011, p.239). Another factor contributing to lack of access is misconceptions – prejudices about the abilities and performances of people with disabilities. These misconceptions which can be summarised as disabled employees are less productive than their non-disabled counter-parts are often prevalent not only among non-disabled employers but also among family members and disabled people themselves. For this very reason, some people with disabilities display low self-esteem, their expectations about their ability to be employed go down. In the aforementioned report of World Health Organisation, this situation is characterised with the concept of “the social isolation of people with disabilities”. There are various studies suggesting that people with disabilities have difficulty in accessing social networks and are exposed to social exclusion. In these studies, it is emphasised that social exclusion is a process treated as not being 1
  2. 2. able to participate in community fully as a result of alienation and poverty, lack of skill and training opportunities or discrimination. The disadvantages that the disabled population experiences differ in terms of gender, disabled women encounter more negative attitudes than disabled men. These negative attitudes are also observed in the work place. It is seen that women have a higher risk of being dismissed compared to men as well as disabled women employees may be unemployed for longer periods than disabled men employees (Randolpha and Andresenb, 2004). In working life, disabled women employees have a dual disadvantage; they face discrimination not only for being a woman but also for being disabled (Fulton and Sabornie, 1994). Whereas the international studies on attitudes and behaviour of employers towards employment of disabled people show a relative improvement when compared to past, they assert that this subject is still problematic (Jacoby, Gorry and Baker, 2005). In summary, the picture drawn in World Health Organisation and the World Bank’s “2011 World Report on Disability” and the findings of academic studies on overall picture of employment of disabled people overlap to a great extent. This overlap continues on the subject of what kind of mechanisms and measures enhancing the employment of disabled people there are. In the report of World Health Organisation and the World Bank (2011, p.240), in terms of work and employment, these mechanisms for overcoming the barriers to disabled labour-force are listed as following: Laws and regulations, tailored interventions, vocational rehabilitation and training, self-employment and microfinance, social protection, working to change attitudes. World Health Organisation, not concretising the mechanisms listed here towards improvement and betterment of employment of disabled people, is of the opinion that these costs may differ from country to country. Disabled persons have always been in the community for reasons stemming from both birth and adventitious situations. These people are treated differently compared to the non-disabled people for various reasons. The studies on the involvement of disabled people in social and economic life started in the 2
  3. 3. beginning of 20th century. The idea of the obligation to employ disabled emerged as a result of an increase in disabled war veteran population especially after the World Wars. The purpose of this regulation is to convert disabled people from being consumers in the society into being productive individuals and by this, to help the country’s economy flourish, in addition, to enable them to earn their own money in a proud way without being in need of other people. For this reason, that disabled people be provided with a proper vocational training is important. Vocational training is an adopted approach for an individual to have necessary information, skill, attitude, behaviour and habits to have a job valid in labour market and to build their career. In this age, developed societies have agreed that disabled individuals as well as non-disabled individuals have a right to be qualified employees a country needs and to have a vocational training for this and they have also conducted studies on this subject. Unfortunately, it is regrettable to say that the exercising of vocational guidance and preparation for work programmes is not at a sufficient level. Thus, it is becoming considerably difficult for disabled people to find a profession and have a suitable job and sustain employment there as such a programme is not followed. There are mainly two systems in the world about employment of disabled people: 1. The obligation to employ disabled people (quota regime). The obligation to employ disabled people (quota regime) is the first regulation towards protecting disabled people in a positive manner within the employment relationship. 2. It is the method of legalisation acts, started to have a field of application in recent years, intended to prevent discrimination aiming at eliminating discriminating behaviour towards disabled people; in other words, it is the method of effectuating legislation intended to prevent discrimination. In addition, in recent years, another method put into practice in some countries is tailored jobs. In this system, specific jobs are exclusive to disabled 3
  4. 4. people. For instance, in Italian law, for blind or people who do not have sight more than 1/10 with both their eyes, being a telephonist, masseur, masseur- physiotherapist are reserved jobs. In Greece, being a telephonist is assigned to blind people. In Denmark, whereas there is no quota rate, being a telephonist is assigned to blind people. There is also sheltered employment in employment of disabled people. Sheltered Employment is a type of employment in establishments designed for people who cannot earn money through a normal occupational activity because of personal defectiveness or their disability. This method is practiced by the countries agreeing to both quota regime and legislation management intended to prevent discrimination. REGULATIONS FOR DISABLED PEOPLE In recent years, governments that societies form have been trying to make disabled people’s lives easier by making legal regulations and have been striving to realise the integration with work life. United Nations and European Union taking place top take necessary actions and encourage the countries in the direction of taking steps about this issue. EUROPEAN UNION Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 and was signed by Turkey on 6 April 1949. In article 25/a of the declaration, it is stated that “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control”. With this regulation in the declaration, it is stated that disabled as well as everybody has a right to live and social security. With the decision dated 9 December 1975 numbered 3447 (Resolution 3447, 9.12.1975), the annex to Universal Declaration of Human Rights of United 4
  5. 5. Nations General Assembly, “Declaration of the Rights of Disabled Persons” was declared. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION In R99 Vocational Rehabilitation (Disabled) Recommendation of International Labour Organisation (ILO) dated 1955, vocational rehabilitation is a part of the continuous and co-ordinated process of rehabilitation which involves the provision of those vocational services, e. g. vocational guidance, vocational training and selective placement, designed to enable a disabled person to secure and retain suitable employment. “C159 Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention” was adopted by International Labour Organisation on 1 June 1983. Turkey adopted this convention under the law No. 4407 on 8 July 1999, became effective by being published in the Official Gazette No. 23751, dated 10 July 1999. EUROPEAN UNION In Lisbon Summit, 2000, by determining a strategy based on strengthening employment, economic reform and social adaptation, the concentrated issues were to create more and better job opportunities for Europe, modernisation of social protection and to prevent social exclusion. Social Policy Agenda adopted by the Commission in June 2000 and the political atmosphere provided by European Council of Nice in December 2000 provided a course of action about measures to be taken in social domain in the period until 2005. Especially, European Social Policy Agenda prioritised the full participation of disabled people in communal living. It is emphasised in this document that the main reasons why disabled people are excluded from the labour market are negative attitudes towards them and lack of information about disability. Upon the suggestion of the Commission, 2003 was decided to be European Year of People with Disabilities and throughout the year activities were held about awareness and consciousness. In the same year, by announcing “The Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities” COM (2003), European 5
  6. 6. Commission stressed that the barriers that disabled people encounter in all the areas of life be identified and the barriers to benefitting from equal opportunities for disabled be eliminated. In the period until 2010, the most prominent framework document is the “Disability Action Plan” of European Commission. European Union Disability Action Plan was carried out as a three-phased process. In 2004-2005 Disability Action Plan, the issue of building up conditions necessary for employment of disabled people was focused on while enabling the labour market to be more accessible for disabled people in expanding European Union was worked on. Four priorities were built regarding employment. These priorities are: accessibility to employment which includes the anti-discrimination against disabled people; life- long learning intended to increase employability; active citizenship and developing new technologies intended to make it easier to access to employment and provide accessibility to public spaces for disabled people. 2006-2007 Disability Action Plan indentified priorities intended to encourage independent life for disabled people. These are: support activities; encourage access to quality support and care services; popularise the ICF classification system; improve access to goods and services. 2008-2009 Disability Action Plan adopted providing accessibility as a priority including participation in community actively and protection of the rights of the disabled people in order to ensure actualising the terms of European Union Declaration of the Rights of Disabled Persons in Europe. The approach of European Union on the subject of disability to rights was shaped around the centre of disability policies of United Nations and the demands of their disabled citizens on this issue. However, that the mechanisms European Union designed until 1999 were not binding and using the authority about anti-discrimination in only the area of employment were detected as problems. Declaration of the Rights of Disabled Persons is the most recent international legal regulation in the context of disability. This binding Declaration was put into force in 2008. The countries agreeing on the declaration undertake the responsibility of having a more active part in increasing the rights of disabled 6
  7. 7. people. This declaration is the first convention of human rights negotiated and signed by European Union. Due to signing, all the member countries are in the scope of sanction. All the same, EU Disability Strategy 2010-2020, legalised in December 2010, presents actions and application mechanisms to improve the applicability of Declaration of the Rights of Disabled Persons in member countries of EU. This strategy, in accordance with the Declaration, provides for free Europe by creating the opportunity for disabled people to strengthen them and to lead a life in a proud way. European Union Employment Strategy European Union is an integration of various standards and common policies. There are four major policies in European Union. These are: common agricultural policy, common competition policy, common transportation and trade policy, common social policy. The objectives of EU Employment Strategy Europe Employment Strategy was restructured between the years of 2003 and 2006 and three factors were brought forward consisting of full employment, quality and efficiency at work, social integration. In the framework of these factors, 10 objectives were determined for member countries to act towards an end. These are: 1. Active and preventive measures for the unemployed and inactive 2. Job-creation and entrepreneurship 3. Address change and promote adaptability and mobility in the labour market 4. Promote development of human capital and lifelong learning 5. Increase labour supply and promote active ageing 6. Gender equality 7. Promote the integration of and combat the discrimination against people at a disadvantage in the labour market 8. Make work pay through incentives to enhance work attractiveness 7
  8. 8. 9. Transform undeclared work into regular employment 10. Address regional employment disparities “Promote the Integration of and Combat the Discrimination Against People at a Disadvantage in the Labour Market” Member countries to European Union exercise in accordance with European Employment Taskforce. In European countries, instead of forcing the employment of disabled people to increase the employment of disabled people, some other opportunities are presented to the employers. There is some incentive governmental support among European countries where employing disabled people are obligatory in Germany, France, the Czech Republic, Spain, Romania, Austria, Belgium, Finland and Poland; like tax deduction for employers, government’s covering half of the expenses for necessary investments for employment of disabled people, providing obligatory improvement service, government’s covering the fees and insurance of disabled employees for a specific period of time, subsidising or providing loan to the employers. Training in the Employment of Disadvantageous Group For individuals to find a job is possible through having a proper level of education and skills needed in the labour market. As the level of education of people increases, the risk of being unemployed decreases and individuals have the ability to earn their living enabling them to become self-sufficient economically. Those who do not have a proper level of education and skill face the problem of being unemployed. Disadvantaged groups are in the position of facing various problems like poverty, lack of social security, being dependent financially, social exclusion, in- family problems, psychological problems as a result of the problem of being unemployed. TURKEY 8
  9. 9. Negative perspective about disabled people causes them to be excluded from society and generates barriers to benefitting from many opportunities. One of the most important problems that this negative perspective causes is the employment. Our country has guaranteed that the measures to be taken about disabled people cannot be seen as contradictory with the principle of equality by rejecting the old-fashioned perspective of alienating disabled people, imprisoning them home. According to the article 10 titled “Equality Before the Law” in the First Section of the Constitution, it is stated that: “All individuals are equal without any discrimination before the law, irrespective of language, race, colour, sex, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion and sect, or any such considerations. No privilege shall be granted to any individual, family, group or class. State organs and administrative authorities shall act in compliance with the principle of equality before the law in all their proceedings.” According to the article 49 titled “Right and Duty to Work” in “Social and Economic Right and Duties” in Chapter Three of the Second Section of the Constitution, “Everyone has the right and duty to work”. Again, according to second clause of the article 50 under the title of “Working Conditions and Right to Rest and Leisure”, “Minors, women and persons with physical or mental disabilities, shall enjoy special protection with regard to working conditions”. In addition to this, according to the second clause of the article 61 under the title of “Persons Requiring Special Protection in the Field of Social Security”, it is stated that “The State shall take measures to protect the disabled and secure their integration into community life”. Law on Disabled People became effective in 2005. The main objectives of this law are to prevent disability, to enable the disabled people to join the society by taking measures which will provide the solution of their problems regarding health, education, rehabilitation, employment, care and social security and the removal of the obstacles they face and to make the necessary arrangements for the coordination of these services. Arranging the Workplace for Disabled People 9
  10. 10. Employers, within the bounds of possibility, have to arrange their workplaces for disabled people to work easily, take necessary precautions for their health, let them perform in their line of profession or a similar area, contribute to their knowledge and skills, provide the necessary equipment for them to work. Disabled people are not employed in other line of professions that can present a danger to their health except for the jobs they can do. In the case of providing all the appropriate conditions, the working hours (starting and finishing time) is determined according to the conditions of the disabled person. Employers have to make necessary changes according to the conditions of the disabled employees like proper lighting for poor sighted employees, special ways for leg disabled people or in a wheelchair to enter and leave the workplace, building doors and elevators, providing special equipment for arm and hand disabled people, providing special miscellaneous equipment to level the effort disabled people make suitable for them, making necessary changes on tables, chairs and counters according to the situation of the disabled employees. Moreover, employers have to take necessary precautions for the health of their disabled employers and have to protect their health. Incentives Provided for State Enterprises and Private Sector Employers a) Employing disabled people above the ratios to be determined by the Council of Ministers, b) Despite having less than fifty employees, employing disabled people by means of demanding from the Agency and/or registering, c) Employing disabled people not having more than 80% capacity to work. Treasure provides employers for every disabled person that they employ with 50% of insurance premiums. Ministry of Treasury pays for it. Control 10
  11. 11. The control of disabled employees in work places is performed in accordance with Labour Law No. 4857 on Control and Inspection of Work Life basis. Previously, according to the Article 30 in Labour Law No. 4857, the control of employers who do not employ disabled people used to be performed by Labour Inspectors and these employers used to be made to pay a fine by District Labour Office for their incompliant behaviour but now this authority was warranted directly to Provincial Director of Turkish Employment Agency (İŞ-KUR) by the Article 39 of Law no 5378 dated 01.07.2005, Law on Disabled People and on Making Amendments in Some Laws and Decree Laws. Moreover, vacancies are followed by İŞ-KUR and Ministry Labour Inspectors and in case of detecting any misconduct, it is reported to the Agency. VOCATIONAL TRAINING, REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT SYSTEMS The disabled people’s right to education is guaranteed by law in the Constitution. There are various laws and secondary regulations concerning the education of disabled people. There are vocational schools, education and workshop centres which can provide vocational education for disabled people. Educational Institutions for Mentally Handicapped; these are the schools which aim to improve the skills of basic life, integrate them into society, accumulating information and skills regarding business life. Vocational training centres are formal vocational training institutions aimed providing them with basic life and various professional skills. These centres provide occupational training in several areas like carpentry, plastic manufacturing like rubbers and sack, handicrafts, business services, agriculture and so on. Vocational High School for People with Impaired Hearing; the basic approach of these schools is to provide them with an integrated education with their non-disabled peers in ordinary schools. There are multi-program vocational high schools for those who cannot benefit from integrated education. In these high schools, there are computer operations, furniture and furnishing, installation technologies, construction, painting, metal work, electricity, accountancy, textile- dressing classes. 11
  12. 12. Vocational High Schools for Orthopedically Disabled; children who are orthopedically disabled generally attend to normal schools. For orthopedically disabled students who can benefit from integrated education, there are vocational high schools which have departments of accountancy and dressing. There is possibility for these schools to welcome new and in-demand departments such as computer science, electronics, and telecommunication. Vocational Training for Visually Impaired; visually impaired students generally attend to normal high schools (90%). There are also students both sight impaired and going to vocational or technical high schools. These students attend industrial vocational high schools, vocational school for girls (in total 6%), trade vocational high school (in total 3%), and art schools (in total 1%). In undergraduate and post-graduate levels, the ratio of visually impaired students is higher than other handicapped groups. Training Centres for Autistic Children; these centres are at primary education level and there are special classes for autistic children. There are also private centres specialising in this subject. At higher education levels, there are also newly founded vocational training centres. General Directorate of Turkish Employment Agency and State Personnel Administration under the Ministry of Labour and Social Security are the chief institutions responsible for employment of disabled people. In the Regulations on Employment of Disabled People on the basis of Labour Law number 4587, employers who employ 50 or more than 50 people have to employ disabled people at the ratio of 4% of their total employees in public sector and 3% in private sector. Employers who do not comply with this quota pay monthly fines. These taxes (fines) are saved in Penalties Fund and used for projects focusing on vocational training, rehabilitation, and employment for disabled people by Turkish Employment Agency. There are also subventions for disabled people. Disabled people who are active in labour market benefit from tax deductions. The deduction rate varies 12
  13. 13. according to severity of the impairment. In addition to the system functioning on the base of quota/fine, there are also new systems about training and employment for disabled people as well. The most important of these are two new regulations adopted in 2006 directly related to training, rehabilitation and employment for disabled people. The first one Private Vocational Rehabilitation Centres is the first regulation regarding opening vocational rehabilitation centres in Turkey. The objective in opening these centres is to provide services which will enhance disabled people’s economic and social welfare by improving their skills and thus improving their chances of being employed. According to the regulation, the constituents of vocational rehabilitation are medical rehabilitation, vocational guidance, preparing for the job, career development training before being employed or changing jobs, making job placement and employment easier, and follow-up being carried out steadily and in coordination in order to increase the number of disabled people in suitable positions sought for in the labour market in terms of their interest and skills. Social rehabilitation implementations which did not get much attention until recently are also now in the regulations. According to this, social rehabilitation will be carried out in order to support disabled people’s adaptation to home, centre and social surroundings and enable them to communicate with public/private enterprises. With Sheltered Workshops Regulation, a legal basis for the construction of vocational rehabilitation and employment services aimed at disabled people who can hardly enter the normal labour market has been provided. These are the conditions to set up a sheltered workshop: if this enterprise operates in a metropolitan municipality, the minimum number of workers has to be 30; if this enterprise operates in a municipality, the minimum number of workers has to be 15; 75% of the employees have to be disabled; in mentally handicapped employees incapacity to work has to be 40%; in other handicapped groups it has to be 60%; employees have to be over 15 years old. With these regulations, providing vocational training services ensured by public enterprises became obligatory for municipalities. From now on, disabled people who want to benefit from vocational training will be able to get in contact with municipality and will be able to benefit from these services thanks to the payments the municipality will make. It is expected that these improvements will 13
  14. 14. bring new debates and regulations regarding the training, rehabilitation and employment for disabled people. THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN VOCATIONAL TRAINING-EDUCATION, REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT SYSTEMS The problems experienced prior to employment are: there not being job and occupational analysis, lack of vocational training, working conditions’ not being suitable for disabled people, lack of policies and initiatives, lack of occupational skill and experience, economic structure of Turkey in general, and high unemployment rate. In general, as it is in many other countries, vocational training-education system in Turkey is planned and implemented for non-disabled people primarily. For this reason, vocational training-education system exclude disabled people in the first step. They try to integrate disabled people later on to the system which is designed for the needs of non-disabled people. However, for the methods that later developed do not cover the needs of disabled people, these people cannot benefit from vocational training-education at desired level. Educational programmes in Turkey are general and are not designed for specific characteristics of people. In the area of vocational training-education and rehabilitation of disabled people, the coordination among decision-making mechanisms, practitioners/schools and labour market is not at a sufficient level. Some families do not believe that their disabled children will be successful in vocational training-education and rehabilitation. There isn’t any implementation to raise the awareness of families regarding this subject and enable disabled children to attend vocational training- education and rehabilitation programmes. Physical conditions in vocational training-education and rehabilitation centres which are inconvenient and inaccessible make it difficult for disabled people to attend these programmes. All open public spaces, especially places and transportation vehicles for training- education and rehabilitation centres are designed for “normal” people and people who are not able to move easily aren’t taken into account. 14
  15. 15. Mental level, capacity to work, health problems, interest and skills of disabled people are not evaluated; prior to vocational training-education and rehabilitation, physical and occupational evaluations aren’t carried out. Vocational guidance, educational-vocational development and orientation, occupational and professional consultancy practices are not sufficient. Vocational rehabilitation in Turkey is carried out by various institutions. However, the collaboration and cooperation among these institutions are not sufficient. Vocational training-education and rehabilitation services provided are determined without conducting any survey in labour market. Thus, disabled have difficulty in finding a job even if they have vocational training-education and rehabilitation. Vocational rehabilitation and training-education services are centred in developed cities but not common practice country-wide. There is also gender-based discrimination in services intended for disabled people and the number of women benefitting from these services is low. In terms of benefitting from these services, there are significant differences between disabled groups. Orthopedically handicapped and people who have impaired hearing benefit from these services more compared to mentally handicapped people. In the stage of vocational training-education and rehabilitation, handicapped participants underutilise training-education support during their training-education such as guidance and counselling, technical support, adapted educational/training materials, exams and tests. If these conditions are not provided, even if disabled people find a job, they can have problems adapting to the workplace. Vocational training-education and rehabilitation is limited to only teaching a profession. There isn’t any effective social rehabilitation which will support disabled people’s physical and social adaptation to their families and social surroundings. Vocational training-education and rehabilitation requires the cooperation of professionals from various areas; however, the number of professionals trained for vocational training-education and rehabilitation for disabled people fails to satisfy. 15
  16. 16. In the course of the placement at a job, recruitment, and vocational training-education and rehabilitation about the continuance of the employment, there are other problems. First of all, disabled people’s not being able to find a job doesn’t only stem from the negative conditions in the labour market. The biggest barrier for disabled employees is not their being mentally or physically handicapped, it is their not being qualified enough. Lack of training-education and rehabilitation services and lack of skills prevent them from participating fully in the labour market. At the stage of employment, tracking of disabled people participating in vocational training-education and rehabilitation services is not performed. After the rehabilitation programmes, disabled people who are employed aren’t followed, and they are not given any support for adaptation to the job and workplace. Systems like employment coach, guidance and consultancy services that can be necessary for employers and other employees to adapt disabled people to the job are not implemented. Problems in Employment System; problems experienced after employment are as following: productivity of disabled people’s being low, carrying out necessary regulations insufficiently, employment in unsuitable positions, the high rate of dismissing disabled in a short period of time, inappropriate job placement, difficulty in transportation, the high rate of going to hospitals, discrimination and ill-treatment at work. In the fieldwork carried out by Directorate General of the Disabled and Elderly Services, Ministry of Family and Social Policies, throughout Turkey in 79 cities and 2573 businesses, according to the study (December 2011) about “the Analysis of Labour Market in terms of Disabled People”, the number of interviews being 1628 included in the Analysis carried out with a technique called face-to- face meeting with employers or employers representatives, businesses are asked this open-ended question: “Why are you employing disabled people?” Graph 1. Motivation for Employing Disabled according to the Size of the Enterprise; 16
  17. 17. The answers involving more than one motive are classified under three headings of “Legal Obligation”, “Social Responsibility” and “Being Suitable for the Job”. When business scales are evaluated all together, the motivation for employing disabled people is 66% “legal obligation”, following it with 24% “social responsibility”, and 10% “suitable for the job. scale of the enterprise 200 and more50-19949 and under % 100,0% 80,0% 60,0% 40,0% 20,0% 0,0% 2,3%1,9% 5,8% 8,0% 6,4% 9,6% 24,1% 23,9% 18,0% Suitable for the job Social Responsibility Legal Obligation 17
  18. 18. Table 1. Primary Problems Businesses Experience about Employment The range of problems / Statements of Responders No. Per cent We can’t find disabled people suitable for the job/market. 175 31.6% We can’t find skilled/trained/qualified handicapped. 106 19.2% İŞKUR don’t provide disabled candidates suitable for the job. 61 11.0% There is disinclination to work / instability / discontinuation. 41 7.4% WE can’t find disabled employees. 30 5.4% They don’t like the positions. 24 4.3% Adaptation and communication problems are experienced. 20 3.6% They are delicate/capricious/aggressive. 19 3.4% They cannot be productive. 11 2.0% There are problems experienced about the wages. 7 1.3% We cannot find disabled people to employ in country, construction yards. 5 0.9% Transportation is a problem. 5 0.9% There are rise and falls in quota. 5 0.9% We cannot get any support from İŞKUR. 4 0.7% They slow down the work. 4 0.7% Physical conditions are inconvenient. 4 0.7% They are exposed to social prejudice. 4 0.7% We cannot employ severely disabled. 4 0.7% There are problems stemming from regulations. 4 0.7% There are problems regarding job safety. 3 0.5% 18
  19. 19. 21.1 19.1 18.2 14.2 12.9 9.7 4.7 20.7 21.0 27.0 31.3 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 Unsatisfactory AreasSatisfactory Areas As it can be seen in the below graphic, employers or representative employers were asked to answer in an open-ended way about the things they find satisfactory and unsatisfactory, the responses are evaluated by multi- response analysis. There are two things interesting in Graph 9: First of all, whereas all the positive features that are “satisfactory” are about individual working attitudes of disabled employee, the features that are described as “unsatisfactory” are focused on adaptation problem to the work environment. Secondly, although there are features which refer to the ‘character’ of the disabled employee in the positive features list such as “determination, persistence, duty, and self-sacrifice”, the ‘capacity’ of the disabled employee is focused with the emphasis on “unsatisfactory” in the areas of “knowledge, speed, and adaptation”. Graph 2. Satisfactory and Unsatisfactory Features of Disabled Employees 19
  20. 20. In the same study, there are opinions of the employers or employer representatives regarding the suitability of the physical conditions of the workplace for employment of disabled people. 27% of the employer representatives are of the opinion that physical conditions of the workplace are suitable for disabled employees; the major responder group has preferred the “substantially suitable” option. Graph 3. Are the physical conditions of the workplace suitable for disabled employees? Not Suitable Completely Suitable Somewhat Suitable 50% Suitable Substantially Suitable Suggestions about increasing the performance of disabled employees are from the study and they are presented in Graph 4 in accordance with the scale of DeterminationtoWork Continuity PerformaGivenTask Self-Sacrifice StrongSenseofResponsibility GoodJobPerformance Other Introvert Non-adaptation LackofOccupationalKnowledge LowPerformingSpeed 20
  21. 21. the enterprise. For each suggestion heading, however similar percentages the responses from medium and large scaled enterprises have, it is observed that the orientation of medium scaled enterprises about this issue is higher. Graph 4. Suggestions about Increasing the Performance of Disabled Employees According to the study, when Graphic 5 is analysed, it can be said that orthopedically handicapped group have an exclusive position in the employment of disabled people. Other groups except orthopedically handicapped, the percentage of being preferred always falls behind the percentage of not being preferred. In this regard, mentally handicapped group is seemingly the most 13.1 11.7 11.1 9.5 15.7 12.6 11.8 12.1 13.0 51.5 51.5 53.0 53.6 51.1 50.2 51.2 48.3 49.6 35.4 36.8 36.0 36.9 33.2 37.2 37.0 39.6 37.4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Inservice Training at the Workplace Self-Improvement Courses Vocational Training/Education Courses Social Organisation Increasing Motivation Individualised Education Arrangement of Physical Conditions of the Workplace Accurate Job Description Transportation Team work Small scaled enterprise (49 and under) Medium scaled (50-199) Large Iscaled (200 and more) 21
  22. 22. disadvantageous group; the percentage of not being preferred in mentally handicapped group reaches to 70%, mentally handicapped group follows it reaching 60%. In not being preferred disability list by far, visually impaired comes third; this group is not preferred at the percentage of 54% and the percentage of enterprises preferring visually impaired is 24%. A similar situation about being against preferring disabled labour force is observed for the group “having more than one disability”; here the ones who do not prefer this group are 41% and the ones who expresses that they prefer this group are 12%. Graph 5. Disabled Groups That Are Preferred or not Preferred in the Workplace 12.4 81.2 23.8 37.1 8.0 7.5 25.8 41.4 10.6 53.8 38.6 71.2 59.5 35.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 More than One Disability Orthopedically Visually Hearing+ Language and Speech Mentally Mentally and Emotionally Chronic Illnesses disabled group favoured disabled group not favoured 22
  23. 23. Graph 6. Positive Effects of Disabled on the Workplace 49% 33% 8% 5% 3% 2% Yasalara Uymak Olumlu Etkisi Yok Personeli Teşvik Etmek Verimliliği Arttırmak Vizyon Sağlamak Performansı Arttırmak Comply with the Laws Increase Productivity No Positive Effect Increase the Performance Encourage the Personnel Provide a Vision Graphs 6 and 7 are about judgements of disabled people. In the study, managers of the enterprises are asked to present the negative and positive aspects of employing disabled people. Among the contributions disabled employees make to the firms, “compliance with law” or “rules” has an important place. The percentage of contributions about direct productivity like “increase productivity” or “performance” is low. More than half of the responders (63%) has expressed that disabled employees have no negative impact on the firm. However their percentage is low, negative aspects about direct productivity that are attributed to disabled employees are striking. 23
  24. 24. 63%12% 7% 7% 11% Olumsuz Etkisi Yok İş Kazası Riskinin Yüksek Olması Verimi Düşürmek İşi Yavaşlatmak İletişim Güçlüğü Graph 7. Negative Impacts of Disabled Employees on the Firm Graph 8. Effects of Disabled Employees on General Productivity According to the Scale of the Enterprise No Negative Impact High Occupational Accident Risk Communication Difficulty Slow Down the Job Decrease the Productivity 24
  25. 25. As it can be seen in Graph 8, in the framework of both the scale of the enterprise and market variable, there are positive evaluations about the productivity of disabled employees. Whereas in the enterprises employing 50 and more and medium scaled enterprises employing 200 and more, the ones that find disabled work force non-productive are at a ratio negligible statistically, this ratio can barely reach to 9% in small scaled enterprises. In fact, in these three scales, representatives of private sector find disabled work force productive at a ratio of 60-70%. Graph 9. Where Quota and Incentive in Employing Disabled People Stands 2.0 6.8 26.5 57.8 6.8 3.9 22.7 64.0 8.6 3.2 30.2 57.4 9.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 49 and under 50-199 200 and more Very Productive Productive Neither Productive Nor Non-productive Not Productive Not Productive At All 25
  26. 26. Polarised opinions about quotas’ being removed or not in the employment of disabled people are present with the support reaching 20%. More than half of the responders support “a hybrid system where quota and incentive are used in a balanced way”. Abovementioned graph stays the same in terms of the scale of the enterprise. Graph 10. Evaluation of the Penalty System about Employing Disable People 21% 63% 16% 16% There Should Be a Hybrid System Where Quota and Incentive Are Used in a Balanced Way. Quota Application Should not Be Removed. Quota Application Should Be Removed. Quota Application Should Be Removed. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDD 26
  27. 27. The ones who believe that penalty system is necessary in order to realise the employment for disabled people make up of 40%. Whereas a similar percentage is seen in the group “there should be enforcements other than penalty fines”, 15% of the responders preferred the option “penalty should be lowered”. Graph 11. Justifications of Businesses for not Employing Disabled People 34.0 41.1 15.4 4.8 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 There Should Be Enforcements Other Than Penalty Fines Penalty is Necessary. Penalty Should Be Lowered. Penalty Should Be Raised. 27
  28. 28. In Graph 11, when the employers are asked why they do not want to employ disabled persons, whereas “having employees below quota” (48,5%) is ranked as 1, only the 1,1% of the employees has expressed that they do not want to employ disabled people. When findings in this section regarding quota, incentive and employment are evaluated, employers approach employment of disabled people positively, it is seen that they prefer systems where quota and incentives are dealt with in a balanced way, it is observed that they express their opinions in favour of penalty I have employees below quota. There is no application from disabled. Sector is not suitable. I do not want to employ disabled. Other 28
  29. 29. system but they think that these penalties may be applied in another form except money. IMPLEMENTATIONS AIMED AT DISABLED PEOPLE In order to manage employment of disabled people more systematically, between the years of 2005 and 2010, an “Action Plan” for Employment of Disabled People was prepared. In the preparation process, all the concerned parties (ministries, public enterprises, associations for people with disabilities, social partners) were taken into account and there was a mutual understanding in taking new measures about employment for disabled persons. This action includes provisions about improving recruitment, adaptation to work, job continuity and work. Aforementioned provisions are collected under 10 headings: 1. Human rights should be taken into consideration while planning policies related with employment of PWD (People with Disabilities). Any discrimination in any stage of employment of PWD is abolished. 2. Employment Policies for PWD should be in line with National Employment Policy and should be constituted with the collaboration of all stakeholders. 3. The employment policies for PWD should adapt itself according to the restructuring of public administration which includes local authorities and should consider the regional differences. 4. National and international financial and human resources should be used effectively. 5. Public awareness should be raised to increase the rate of employment among disabled people 6. Model applications should be developed according to national need. 7. Quota System and Penalty System should be revised such that it will increase the support for employees 8. Developments in the industrial production operations should be followed and new arrangements should be made accordingly. 29
  30. 30. 9. Alternative employment systems should be developed and self-employment should be encouraged. 10. The qualifications among disabled people should be increased such that it increase participation in the labour market. Studies of İŞ-KUR (Turkish Employment Agency) Turkish Employment Agency enables disabled people to go through vocational training and rehabilitation programmes according to the information that employers provide and studies it carries on taking into consideration what kinds of jobs disabled people are able to hold and qualifications necessary for the line of profession and occupation. At the end of this training/education, disabled people are given a certificate saying at which occupations and professions they can be successful. While the organisation is providing vocational training/education and rehabilitation service, it may be able to request help from related institutions and organisations. Disabled people who are registered and who have undergone vocational training/education and rehabilitation programmes are provided with explanatory information by the Agency as to social rights and vocational rehabilitation training/education and the conditions of professions and occupations they can have, working conditions, procedures they have to perform to be employed, wages, social and economic conditions of the enterprise and its surroundings with livelihood conditions of the place where the enterprise is, means of transportation, health institutions and organisations and so on. The development of labour force, vocational training/education and labour force compliance programmes of İŞ-KUR are performed based on the Act No. 4904, dated 25.03.2003, on the Foundation and the Duties of the İŞKUR which was put into effect after its publication in the Official Gazette No. 25159, dated 05.07.2003 based on Law of Turkish Employment Organization and Turkish Employment Agecny Development of Labour Force and Compliance Services Regulations, in the Official Gazette No. 25560, dated 21.08.2004. 30
  31. 31. Projects aimed at vocational training/education, rehabilitation and employment of disabled people are carried out based on the provisions Authorised Commission to Utilise Issued Fines from Businesses Not Employing Disabled and Former Convicted People with Regulations on Working Procedures and Principles, published in the Official Gazette No. 25241, dated 29.09.2003 and was put into effect by Article 30 of Labour Act of Turkey Law No. 4857. Courses Aimed at Self-Employment of Disabled People These are courses intended for helping disabled people to involve in income-generating businesses or self-employment by training them in professions needed in labour market or developing vocational knowledge and skills or changing their professions. Vocational Training/Education and Rehabilitation Courses Aimed at Disabled People These are courses intended for making their employment easier for disabled people by training/educating disabled people for suitable professions needed in the labour market according to their interest and skills and developing their professions. Vocational training/education and rehabilitation is social and medical rehabilitation, vocational counselling, preparation for the job, provide employment, development and re-formation training/education aimed at making their employment easier by training/educating disabled people for suitable professions needed in the labour market according to their interest and skills and enabling them to build their career. 31
  32. 32. Table 2. Data Regarding Application and Employment of Disabled People in the Last 5 Years (İŞ-KUR 2010 Statistical Yearbook) Application; Employment; Total Public Private Years M F T M F T M F T M F T 2006 22.462 5.774 28.236 20.651 3.130 23.781 1.037 165 1.202 19.614 2.965 22.579 2007 26.196 10.201 36.397 15.592 2.272 17.864 494 79 573 15.098 2.193 17.291 2008 33.599 14.881 4.880 18.855 3.112 21.967 371 56 427 18.494 3.056 21.540 2009 24.901 15.618 40.519 22.820 3.585 26.405 470 75 545 22.350 9.510 25.860 2010 22.140 14.004 36.144 27.829 4.428 32.257 265 30 295 27.564 4.398 31.962 Table 3. Classification of Disabled People According to Disability Groups in 2010 (İŞ-KUR 2010 Statistical Yearbook). Disability Application; Employment; Total Public Private M F T M F T M F T M F T Mentally 1.091 580 1.671 1.231 72 1.303 3 0 3 1.228 72 1.300 Nervous System 1.709 1.017 2.726 2.853 334 3.187 35 3 38 2.818 331 3.149 Mental, 4.456 2.492 6.948 1.332 142 1.474 6 0 6 1.326 142 1.468 32
  33. 33. Behavioural Disorder Visually 1.908 1.115 3.023 4.233 480 4.713 53 3 56 4.180 477 4.657 Otorhinolar yngology 1.771 1.484 3.255 3.485 798 4.283 15 3 18 3.470 795 4.265 Other 4.348 3.182 7.530 2.874 491 3.365 18 6 24 2.856 485 3.341 OPPORTUNITIES IN LABOUR MARKET Disabled people constitute 12% of the population in our country and 22% of this percentage participate in the labour force. The most important barriers to participation of disabled people in the labour force are physical conditions (transportation and working conditions) and prejudice that employers have against disabled people. People with disabilities face with great difficulties while getting out of their homes and participating in working life for various reasons. In practice, actual participation of disabled people in labour force cannot be realised. Thus, they cannot be self-sufficient individuals by becoming financially independent. Physical conditions, Prejudices, and Lack of Awareness are among the important reasons why people with disabilities cannot find a job. Worksen Project Disability is one of the most suitable areas of study for these kinds of studies as it is an interdisciplinary and broad subject. The main idea of this project is that the special needs vocational education should be supported by innovations, experience exchange, comparison of curricular content, parent education, integration into social and vocational life, and cooperation with sector. 33
  34. 34. The overall aim of the special needs vocational education is to integrate them into social and vocational life according to their skills, interest and knowledge. The project is focused on 4 points. 1. Developing educational activities in terms of their skills. 2. Effective engagement of disabled pupils with social life in terms of their skills and knowledge. 3. The practice of employment according to their professional skills 4. Training parents on how to treat their children and live happily with them. Mentally handicapped children who are the target group of this project constitute an important part among children with special needs. As in all children’s education, also in disabled children’s education, the aim is to enable them to lead a self-sufficient life later on, to be self- sufficient and to integrate them into social life. It is important for mentally handicapped adults to gain full independence to take a part in social roles like citizenship. As mentally handicapped is not a homogenous group, they display important personal differences depending on their various characteristics. These differences can lead to their being in more need of others’ help in order to learn many skills that are necessary to be prepared to community life. Especially, mentally handicapped children may have difficulty in learning various skills, which other individuals learn on their own or with little help, on their own or with little help. Many mentally handicapped individuals are candidates to live independently. Many will need to take care of themselves, do chores, marry and start a family, use devices at home, clean, prepare food; in short, lead their lives 34
  35. 35. independently. Mentally handicapped people will have to leave home and their parents and live on their own when the time comes. Individuals, who leave home, as it is in many countries, will be able to live in many places like at a house, flat, group homes, boarding institutions. For these reasons, mentally handicapped individuals need to be prepared seriously to be able to lead their lives in various surroundings. Therefore, the primary aim in education of mentally handicapped should be to improve their skills to live independently. The role of the education provided in schools and family is very important for this. In countries which have the quality of being social states, the following activities in general are base activities to integrate mentally handicapped people into society: 1. The integration and rehabilitation of mentally handicapped people, 2. Educational activities according to their situation and skills, 3. Employment of these people according to the skills they acquire This project is aimed at comparing the integration of disabled people in associated countries into society, educational activities provided, practices, employment in suitable lines of businesses and activities and experience including parental education. In this association, studies will be carried out to take necessary measures to overcome the deficiencies. It is vital for different institutions to work in cooperation for education of mentally disabled children. Thus, overcoming the deficiencies in this field will bring about new approaches in education of mentally handicapped children. Hence, improving educational activities of mentally handicapped individuals and trying to provide their needs by determining them are a multi-directional need. In accordance with requirements, in this project, integration into society and educational activities being carried out for 35
  36. 36. mentally handicapped, the situations of associated countries will be compared and the necessary precautions that should be taken will be focused on. Mentally handicapped are fragile, sensitive, and however they are treated, they behave accordingly. There are basic life requirements, love, devotion and the need to belong, the need to prove themselves, the need to love and to be loved, the need to marry and continue their bloodline, and these needs are generally more profound than non- disabled people. If these directions of these people are canalised properly or proper motivation is provided in accordance with their strong desires, they can acquire the required skills and be employed according to these skills; thus, their integration to the society will be accelerated. Therefore: 1. The burden on disabled people’s families will be lessened, 2. They will be able to benefit from all social rights, 3. Their isolation from the community will be prevented, 4. They will be able to contribute to the economy of the country. Opportunities in the Labour Market in Our Country 29,2% of disabled people registered to The National Disability Database is mentally handicapped, 25,6% is disabled with chronic illnesses, 8,8% is orthopedically handicapped, 8,4% is visually impaired, 5,9% is people having impaired hearing, 3,9% is mentally and emotionally handicapped, 0,2% is language and speech handicapped, and 18% is those who have more than one disability. 58,6% of the registered people with disabilities is male, 41,4% is female (Survey on Problems and Expectations of Disabled People, 2010). “Disability Law” published in the Official Gazette No. 25808, dated 07.07.2005 is two sections. In section one, there are regulations on definitions 36
  37. 37. about disability, main principles in the subject of people with disabilities and services provided for disabled people. In section two, new regulations which will resolve the problems of existing laws regarding disabled people are stated. This law constitutes the articles issuing directives and forming a frame regarding the following: the classification of disability, types of care services, types of rehabilitation, early diagnosis of disability, job and profession analysis, employment and sheltered employment, education and training. In this law, “sheltered workshop” term is used for the first time and sheltered workshops are adopted especially for the employment of severely mentally handicapped. With this law, vocational responsibilities of disabled people are given to related associations and organisations and local governments. This law is helpful in getting fines taken from employers who do not comply with the requirements of quota. There are some articles on public employment in the law. In this law, care, types of care and care requirements are defined. Those who do not have social security but need care are also included in financial support system. Again with this law, all children who are found to be in need of special education by evaluation boards are included in the scope of support. It is anticipated that in every university campus providing higher education Disabled Students Advice and Coordination Centres should be established. These centres will support disabled university students attending university during their education. This law addresses accessibility as well. All public buildings, roads, pavements, pedestrian crossings, recreation areas and similar social and cultural infrastructure areas should be accessible for disabled people. This law assigns metropolitan municipalities and municipalities some responsibilities. Municipalities are responsible for taking necessary measures to 37
  38. 38. enable disabled people to use public transport vehicles and raising awareness regarding disabled people, establishing “Disabled People Services” which will provide guidance and counselling. A year after this law was put into effect, to increase the application of the provisions of this law, 16 regulations were published. Among these regulations, there are two regulations which are directly related to employment of disabled people. With Regulations on Special Vocational Rehabilitation Centres, first substantial arrangements are made about opening vocational rehabilitation centres. The objective of establishing these centres is to offer services providing disabled people with economic and social welfare by improving their competencies and increasing the possibilities of employment. The second one is Regulation on Sheltered Workshops. According to this regulation, sheltered workshop is defined as a workshop established to provide vocational rehabilitation and employment for disabled people who have difficulty having a job in common labour market, where work environment is arranged specifically and supported by government technically and financially. Decree – Law No. 573, dated 1997 on special education came into force. This regulation identifies direct and indirect educational services which will be provided for disabled individuals and determines programmes, schools and institutions which will provide these services. As it is stated in the Decree, early intervention, pre-school, primary school, secondary school institutions and integration education of disabled people are guaranteed. Employment of disabled people is provided mainly with quota/penalty system. According to the regulation in the Article 30 in Labour Law No. 4857, employers are obliged to employ handicapped in the ratios to be determined by the Council of Ministers to be effective as from the beginning of January every year in jobs appropriate for their professions and physical and psychological statuses at businesses where they employ fifty or more workers. 38
  39. 39. The employers provide the workers that they are obliged to employ through Turkish Employment Agency. Moreover, there are specific legislations on employment of disabled people. There are regulations based on Labour Law No. 4857, related provisions and articles in published regulations based on Public Servants Law (657) and Officers Law. Lack of data about especially expectations intended for labour market in our country makes it difficult to carry out exercises aimed at improving employment of disabled people. Carrying out a sound study about this subject is necessary to have accurate data about detection of manpower deficit. With the acknowledgement of accessibility and employment problem for disabled people is one of the principle problems that cannot be postponed, current regulations and things said about this issue should be put into practice. It should not be forgotten that standard of living in a country should be measured with the standard of living of the weakest members of that country. Ethical standard of the community and welfare criteria is the standard of living of disabled citizens. Caring about rights of disabled people is not only one of the principal ethical values but also a duty and responsibility for every individual in the community. Another important point is that a public administration aiming to make labour market employment better quantitatively and qualitatively has to comprehend the views of the actors, who affect the labour demand with their daily decisions in business management, about professions needed currently and needed in the next ten years. Analysis of the place of employment of disabled people in the vision of future professions will be complementary in this regard. It will be seen in Graph 12 that with regard to those who shape labour demand in private sector, all of the certain professions that will be needed 39
  40. 40. 1.4 4.6 7.0 8.3 8.5 10.0 19.5 40.2 1.9 4.4 6.8 8.2 7.1 8.2 20.4 42.8 .4.2 1.0 1.2 3.4 4.3 6.6 11.8 16.2 17.4 38.2 .0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Professions Needed Nowadays (p.1935) Professions That Will Be Needed in the Future (p. 1665) Professions Disabled People Are Considered for Employment in the future as well as now is available for employment of disabled people equally. As a matter of fact, 40% of “professions needed currently” in this area, 19,5% of it is identified in “Assistant professional” jobs. From the point of private sector representatives, professional jobs and assistant professional jobs are available similarly. Private sector representatives state that they intend to employ disabled people at the rate of 38% in professional jobs, 17% in assistant professional jobs. There are two lines of professions in which the ratio of need now and in the future is lower than the tendency to employ disabled people. There are clerical and customer services and elementary occupations. Whereas in clerical and customer services, the rate of employment of disabled people is estimated to be 16%, it is stated that the need for this professions now and in the future will be at the rate of 10%. Graph 12. Professions Needed Nowadays and That Will Be Needed in the Future and Tendencies to Employ Disabled People (Labour Market Analysis In Terms of Disabled People, December 2011, Directorate QualifiedAgricultureandLivestockPersonnel Legislators,SeniorManagersandManagers ServicePersonnelandSalespeople FacilityandMachineOperatorsandAssemblers CraftsmanandPeopleWorkingatRelatedJobs PeopleWorkingatElementaryOccupations ClericalandCustomerServicesPersonnel PeopleHavingAssistantProfessionalJobs PeopleHavingProfessionalJobs 40
  41. 41. According to labour market analysis in terms of disabled people, it is observed that the attitudes of employers towards disabled employees at the workplace are positive; in other words, their approach to employment of disabled is positive; they evaluate disabled people’s adaptation to work and workplace, their qualifications and their performance as an employee as well as other employees. More importantly, it is ascertained that the larger the enterprise is, the more positive attitude there is. If the scale of the enterprise is recognised as an indicator of institutionalism, it can be said that the enterprises with corporate identity have a more positive attitude towards disabled people. SUGGESTIONS Employment policy aimed at disabled people should be formed in a way that is parallel to the unemployment problem, one of the main problems of the country; suitable for national employment policy; favouring the human rights and far from all kinds of discrimination. Employers should be provided with enthusiasm about employment of disabled people by introducing successful disabled people taking part in business life to the society. Special employment offices should be used more effectively to find suitable jobs for disabled people according to their training/education. Creating social awareness and sensitivity studies as to why improving disabled labour force for employers is significant in terms of social policy. In the studies to be carried out, methods which highlight the existing capacity of disabled people instead of their deficiencies should be pursued. 41
  42. 42. There should be concentration on the studies that will change the point of view of the society about disabled people based on the truth that everyone may become handicapped some day. It should be guaranteed that vocational programmes intended for disabled people is provided in an effective, widespread and continuous way by associated institutions and organisations and local administrations. In this education/training programmes, there should not be any age or level of education limitations. Vocational education/training courses should be organised according to the labour market needs of cities. On a going-forward basis regarding this subject, course programmes should be prepared by taking into account the technological advancements (i.e. computer-assisted). Currently, in employment of disabled people, information sector is also prominent. Through information sector, participation in economic and social life becomes easier on account of flexibility and mobility in the sector. Opportunity to work in any environment where there is Internet, telephone and computer is provided. There is no need to be dependent on a specific workplace. Opportunity to access information faster, assisting technology intended for the needs of disabled people are increasing the career opportunities for disabled people in this sector. Provincial Employment and Vocational Training Boards should make decisions according to the city conditions for disabled people’s participation in the labour market. There should be a reward system in consideration of the penalty system that is imposed on employers subject to obligatory employment implementation. The way that employers have to pay a penalty when they do not comply with the obligatory employment, employers who comply with this should be rewarded. It should be provided that work environment is arranged for disabled people. By taking into account the development in the process of production 42
  43. 43. structure and organisation of work, the conditions of social security and job security of disabled employees, flexible working configurations should be implemented. Studies and development programmes aimed at improving the performance levels of disabled people should continue after employment. With “Sheltered Workshops Regulations” published in the Official Gazette No. 26183, dated 30.05.2006, sheltered workshops which are increasing in number and recognised worldwide about providing employment for severely disabled people as well as mentally-emotionally handicapped are put into practice. However, for aforementioned regulation to be suitable for current conditions, it should be provided that some support and incentives are given in the process of establishing a sheltered workplace and continuing its existence. As private sector should undertake important responsibilities about employment of disabled people, private sector should increase their efforts and works about the employment of disabled, develop lines of business. By benefitting from the implementations of EU member countries, developing different qualifications of disabled people, different employment opportunities in private sector should be created in accordance with the conditions of our country. Employment of disabled people should not be regarded as a social responsibility project; it should be taken into account that they will be able to be in a productive position and contribute to the national economy by enriching the business life. In sheltered and semi-sheltered workshops supported technically and financially by government and local administrations, disabled people should become integrated to professions that they have the training/education for and marketing of the goods they produce in these places should be planned. 43
  44. 44. SUMMARY; Giving a chance to disabled people, providing them with opportunities to be successful, changing their lives, as a part of our economy, placing them in a position of a producer instead of a consumer is the duty of everybody and Worksen Project is one of the steps taken regarding this issue. BIBLIOGRAPHY BECEREN, İ and KASALAK, M. A. (2010) Employment Strategy of European Union and Practices about Employment in the Scope of 10 Objectives of the Strategies of the European Union Member States. Journal of Economy. İŞ-KUR (2010) Statistical Yearbook. KAYACI, E. (2007) İŞ-KUR, Creating an Efficient Employment Policy for Disabled People, Dissertation. Disabled People Foundation (2011) Congress and Social Activities Final Report. Kadir Has University Republic of Turkey Ministry of Family and Social Policies (2011), Directorate General of Disability and Elderly Services, Status Report on Disability in the European Union 44
  45. 45. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Family and Social Policies (2011), Directorate General of Disability and Elderly Services, Labour Market Analysis Summary Report in Terms of Disability WHO & WB (2011) World Report On Disability, Malta, WHO Press. İŞGÜCÜ PİYASASINDAKİ FIRSATLAR; ÖZÜRLÜLERİN İSTİHDAMI Özürlülerin istihdamında eğilimler; Dünya Sağlık Örgütü’nün Dünya Bankası ile ortaklaşa yayımladığı 2011 tarihli “Dünya Özürlüler Raporu”, özürlü nüfus temasının iktisadi kriz ortamında da göreli önemini sürdüreceğini göstermektedir. İş ve istihdam konusunun ayrı bir bölüm altında incelendiği Dünya Özürlüler Raporu’nda ilk olarak özürlü istihdamı bakımından işgücü piyasasının görünümü ortaya konmuş, ardından işgücü piyasasına katılımı engelleyen hususlar tanımlanmış ve nihayet engellerin aşılmasına dönük müdahale araçlarının üzerinde durulmuştur. Özürlü çalışanların işgücü piyasasına girmeleri önünde kayda değer engeller söz konusudur. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü’nün 2011 tarihli raporunda sözü edilen engeller “Erişim Güçlüğü” başlığı altında toplanmıştır. Buna göre, örgün ve mesleki eğitim ile gerekli finansal kaynaklara erişim konusundaki dezavantajlar, özürlülerin işgücü piyasasına dahil olmaları önündeki belli başlı ‘çevresel engeller’ olarak tanımlanmıştır (WHO-WB, 2011, s.239). Erişim güçlüğünü pekiştiren bir diğer faktör de özürlülerin yetenekleri ve performansları gibi konulardaki yaygın yanlış anlamaların-önyargıların varlığıdır. Özürlü çalışanın diğer çalışana kıyasla 45
  46. 46. daha düşük üretkenlikle çalışacağı şeklinde özetlenebilecek bu yanlış yargılar, sadece dışarıda değil, çoğu durumda, özürlü işgücünün kendi hanesinde de gözlenebilmektedir. Tam da bu yüzden özürlülerde özgüven kaybı ortaya çıkmakta, bir iş yapmak ve çalışmak hususundaki beklentileri zedelenmektedir. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü’nün anılan raporunda bu durum, “özürlülerin toplumsal yalıtılmışlığı” kavramı ile nitelenmiştir. Özürlülerin sosyal hayata katılım konusunda zorlanan ve sosyal dışlanmaya maruz kalan bir kesim olduğunu ortaya koyan çok sayıda çalışma mevcuttur. Bu çalışmalarda, sosyal dışlanmanın, toplumun dışına itilme ve yoksulluk, beceri ve öğrenme fırsatlarının eksikliği ya da ayrımcılığın bir sonucu olarak topluma tam katılamama olarak ele alınan bir süreç olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Özürlü nüfusun bir bütün olarak yaşadığı olumsuzluklar, cinsiyet değişkeni çerçevesinde farklılaşmakta, özürlü kadınlar özürlü erkeklere kıyasla daha olumsuz tutumlarla karşı karşıya kalmaktadır. Bu olumsuz tutumlar işyerine de taşınmaktadır. Kadınların erkeklere kıyasla daha fazla işten çıkarılma riski olması gibi, özürlü kadın çalışanların da özürlü erkek çalışanlara kıyasla daha fazla işsiz kalabildikleri görülmektedir (Randolpha, ve Andresenb, 2004). Çalışma yaşamında, çalışan özürlü kadınlar iki yönlü dezavantaja sahiptirler; hem kadın olarak hem de özürlü olarak iş yaşamında ayrımcılıkla karşılaşmaktadırlar (Fulton ve Sabornie, 1994). İşverenlerin özürlü istihdamına yönelik tutum ve davranışları konusunda yapılan uluslararası araştırmalar, eskiye kıyasla nispi bir iyileşme görülmekle birlikte, bu alanın hala problemli olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır (Jacoby, Gorry ve Baker, 2005). Özetle, özürlü istihdamının genel görünümü konusunda Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Dünya Bankası’nın “Dünya Özürlüler Raporu 2011” adlı belgesinde çizilen tablo ile akademik çalışmaların bulguları büyük ölçüde örtüşmektedir. Bu örtüşme, özürlü istihdamını artırmaya dönük politika araç ve unsurlarının neler olduğu konusunda da sürmektedir. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Dünya Bankası’nın (2011, s.240) raporunda, istihdam ve çalışma bakımından, özürlü işgücünün önündeki engelleri ortadan kaldırmaya dönük politika araç ve unsurları şöyle sıralanmıştır: Yasa ve yönetmelikler; amaca dönük özel müdahaleler; mesleki eğitim ve rehabilitasyon; mikro-finans ve kendi işini kurma; sosyal koruma; tutumları değiştirmeye dönük çalışmalar. Özürlü istihdamını geliştirme ve iyileştirmeye 46
  47. 47. dönük burada sıralanan politika unsurlarını mutlaklaştırmayan Dünya Sağlık Örgütü, bu unsurların maliyet ve getirilerinin ülkeden ülkeye farklılaşabileceği görüşündedir. Özürlüler toplumlarda gerek doğuştan, gerek sonradan oluşan sebeplerle sürekli var olmuşlardır. Bu kişiler toplumun diğer fertlerine oranla, çeşitli nedenlerle farklı muamelelere tabi tutulmuşlardır. Özürlülerin sosyal ve ekonomik yaşama katılmalarına yönelik çalışmalar XX nci yüzyılın başlarına denk düşmektedir. Özürlü çalıştırma yükümlülüğü fikri ise, özellikle Dünya Savaşları sonucunda Avrupa toplumlarında harp malulü nüfusunun artışı ile doğmuştur. Bu düzenlemeyle amaçlanan özürlü kişilerin, toplumda tüketici konumdan çıkarılarak üretici bireyler olmalarının sağlanması, bu sayede ülke ekonomisinin güçlenmesine yardımcı olunması, ayrıca özürlü bireylerin başkalarının yardımına muhtaç olmadan onurlu bir biçimde kendi geçimlerini sağlayabilmelerine imkan tanınmasıdır. Bundan dolayı da özürlülerin iyi bir mesleki eğitim almaları önem kazanmaktadır.Mesleki eğitim, kişinin iş piyasasında geçerliliği olan bir işe girebilmesi ve meslekte ilerleyebilmesi için gerekli bilgi, beceri, tutum, davranış ve alışkanlıkları kazanması için benimsenen yöntemdir. Günümüzde gelişmiş toplumlar, özürlülerin de özürlü olmayan bireyler gibi ülkenin ihtiyacı bulunan kalifiye eleman olma ve bu şekilde mesleki eğitimden geçirilme hakkına sahip olduklarını kabul etmişler ve bu yönde çalışmalar yapmaktadırlar. Maalesef üzülerek söylemek gerekir ki, Türkiye’de mesleki rehberlik ve mesleğe hazırlanma programları yönünde çalışmalar yeterli düzeyde değildir. Dolayısıyla böyle bir program takip edilmediği için özürlü bireylerin bir meslek bulabilmeleri ve uygun bir işe girebilmeleri ve orada istihdamlarını sürdürebilmeleri oldukça zorlaşmaktadır. Özürlülerin istihdamı ile ilgili olarak dünyada belli başlı iki sistem vardır. 1. Özürlü çalıştırma yükümü yöntemi, (kota rejimi)’dir. Belirli oranda özürlü istihdam edilmesini zorunlu kılan çalıştırma yükümü (kota rejimi), özürlülerin istihdam ilişkisi içerisinde pozitif anlamda korunmalarına yönelik ilk düzenlemedir. 2. Son yıllarda uygulama alanı bulan ve özürlülere yönelik ayrımcı 47
  48. 48. davranışları ortadan kaldırmayı hedefleyen ayrımcılığı önlemeye yönelik kanunlaştırma hareketleri bir başka ifadeyle, ayrımcılığı önlemeye yönelik mevzuatın oluşturulması yöntemidir. Ayrıca,son yıllarda belli,başlı ülkelerde uygulamaya konulan bir diğer yöntem de seçilmiş iştir. Bu sistemde belirli işler yalnızca özürlülere özgüdür. Örneğin, İtalyan Hukukunda, görme özürlüler veya her iki gözüyle de 1/10'dan daha fazla göremeyenler için telefon santral memurluğu, masörlük, masör- fizyoterapistlik ayrılmış iş olarak kabul edilmiştir. Yunanistan’da da, telefon santral memurluğu görme özürlüler için tahsis edilmiştir. Danimarka’da ise, herhangi bir kota oranı benimsenmemişken, telefon santral memurluğu görme özürlüler için tahsis edilmiştir Yine özürlülerin istihdamında korumalı istihdam da görülmektedir. Korumalı İstihdam, kişisel noksanlıkları veya özürleri nedeniyle yaşamlarını normal bir mesleki faaliyetle kazanamayacaklar için özel olarak düzenlenip, kurulan işyerlerindeki istihdam türüdür. Bu yöntem hem kota rejimini hem de ayrımcılığı önlemeye yönelik mevzuat yöntemini kabul eden ülkeler tarafından uygulanmaktadır. ÖZÜRLÜLERE YÖNELİK DÜZENLEMELER; Toplumların oluşturduğu devletler, son yıllarda çeşitli kanuni düzenlemeler yaparak özürlülerin yaşamlarını kolaylaştırmaya çalışmakta ve çalışma hayatıyla entegrasyonunu gerçekleştirmek için çaba göstermektedirler. Birleşmiş Milletler ve Avrupa Birliği bu konuda en ön sırada yer alarak, gerekli adımları atmakta ve dünya ülkelerini de bu konuda adımlar atması yönünde teşvik etmektedir. BİRLEŞMİŞ MİLLETLER İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirgesi; Birleşmiş Milletler tarafından 10.12.1948'de kabul edilmiş ve Türkiye tarafından da 06.04.1949'da onaylanmıştır. Bildirgenin 25/a maddesinde “Herkesin beslenme, giyim, konut, sağlık hizmetleri ve gerekli sosyal hizmetleri de içermek üzere, kendisinin ve ailesinin sağlık ve refahını sağlayacak uygun yaşam düzeyine hakkı vardır. Herkes, işsizlik, hastalık, sakatlık, dulluk, yaşlılık ve kendi iradesi dışındaki 48
  49. 49. koşullardan doğan geçim sıkıntısı durumunda güvenlik hakkına sahiptir” düzenlemesi yer almaktadır. Bildirgede yer alan bu düzenleme ile herkesle birlikte özürlülerin de yaşam hakkı ve sosyal güvenlik haklarının bulunduğu ifade edilmiştir. Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu'nun İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirisi'ne ek 09.12.1975'de 3447 sayılı kararı ile “Özürlü Kişilerin Hakları Sözleşmes” yayımlanmıştır. ULUSLARARASI ÇALIŞMA ÖRGÜTÜ Uluslararası Çalışma Örgütünün (ILO) 1955 tarihli Sakatların Mesleki Rehabilitasyonu Hakkında 99 sayılı Tavsiye Kararında, mesleki rehabilitasyon, mesleki rehberlik, meslek eğitimi ve geçici yerleştirme gibi, sakat bir kişiye uygun bir iş temini ve bu işe devamını sağlamak için oluşturulan bir takım meslek kurumlarının hazırlıklarıyla gerçekleştirilen sürekli ve koordine edilmiş rehabilitasyon sürecinin bir parçasıdır. Uluslararası Çalışma Örgütü tarafından 01.06.1983’te “159 sayılı Sakatların Mesleki Rehabilitasyonu ve İstihdamı Hakkında Sözleşme” kabul edilmiştir. Türkiye bu sözleşmeyi 08.07.1999 tarihinde 4407 sayılı kanunla kabul edilmiş,10.07.1999 tarih ve 23751 sayılı resmi gazetede yayımlanarak yürürlüğü girmiştir. AVRUPA BİRLİĞİ 2000 Lizbon Zirvesi’nde istihdam, ekonomik reform ve sosyal uyumu güçlendirmeye dayanan bir strateji belirlenerek, Avrupa için daha fazla ve daha iyi iş imkânları yaratılması, sosyal korumanın modernizasyonu ve sosyal dışlanmayı önleme konularında yoğunlaşılmıştır. Komisyon’un 2000 yılı Haziran ayında kabul ettiği Sosyal Politika Gündemi ve 2000 yılı Aralık ayındaki Nice Avrupa Konseyi’nin sağladığı siyasi ortam, 2005 yılına kadar olan dönemde sosyal alanda alınması gereken tedbirler için bir yol haritası sağlamıştır. Özellikle, Avrupa Sosyal Politika Gündemi, özürlülerin toplumsal yaşama tam katılımı yönündeki faaliyetlere öncelik vermiştir. Özürlülerin işgücü piyasasından dışlanmalarının temel nedeninin özürlülere karşı olumsuz tutumlar ve özürlülük konusunda bilgi eksikliği olduğu bu belgede vurgulanmıştır. Komisyonun önerisi üzerine 2003 Avrupa Özürlüler Yılı olarak saptanmış ve yıl süresince farkındalık 49
  50. 50. ve bilinçlendirme çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aynı yıl Avrupa Komisyonu “Özürlüler İçin Fırsat Eşitliği” COM (2003) başlıklı bir tebliğ yayınlayarak. Özürlülerin toplumsal yaşamın tüm alanlarında karşılaştıkları engellerin tanımlanması gerekliliğini ve özürlülerin fırsat eşitliğinden yararlanması önündeki engellerin ortadan kaldırılmasını vurgulamıştır. 2010 yılına kadar olan dönemde en çok öne çıkan çerçeve belge Avrupa Konseyi’nin Özürlülük Eylem Planı’dır. Avrupa Birliği Özürlülük Eylem Planı üç aşamalı bir süreç şeklinde uygulanmıştır. Özürlülük Eylem Planını 2004–2005, genişleyen Avrupa Birliği`nde iş piyasasının özürlüler için daha ulaşılabilir olması için çalışılırken, özürlülerin istihdamını desteklemeye yönelik gerekli koşulların oluşturulması konusuna ağırlık verilmiştir. İstihdama ilişkin dört öncelik kurgulanmıştır. Bu öncelikler: özürlülere yönelik ayrımcılıkla mücadeleyi içine alan istihdama erişilebilirlik; istihdam edilebilirliği artırmaya yönelik hayat boyu öğrenme; aktif vatandaşlık ve istihdama erişilebilirliği kolaylaştırmaya ve kamu alanlarının özürlülerin ulaşılabilirliğini sağlamaya yönelik yeni teknolojilerin geliştirilmesidir. Özürlülük Eylem Planı 2006–2007 ise özürlülerin bağımsız yaşamını teşvik etmeye yönelik öncelikler belirlemiştir. Bunlar: aktiviteyi desteklemek; kaliteli destek ve bakım hizmetlerine erişebilirliği teşvik etmek; ICF sınıflama sistemini yaygınlaştırmak; mal ve hizmetlere erişebilirliğini arttırmaktır. Özürlülük Eylem Planı 2008–2009 ise Avrupa’da Birleşmiş Milletler Engelli Kişilerin Hakları Sözleşmesi hükümlerinin hayata geçirmesini sağlamak için topluma aktif katılımını ve özürlülerin haklarını korumayı içeren bir öncelik olarak erişilebilirliğin sağlanmasını benimsemiştir. Avrupa Birliği’nin özürlülük konusunda haklara dayalı yaklaşımı büyük ölçüde Birleşmiş Milletlerin özürlülük politikalarından ve özürlü vatandaşlarının bu konudaki talepleri ekseninde şekillenmiştir. Ancak, Avrupa Birliği’nin 1999 yılına kadar geliştirdiği araçların bağlayıcı nitelik taşımaması ve ayrımcılıkla mücadele yetkisinin sadece istihdam alanında kullanımı sorun olarak tespit edilmiştir. Özürlü Kişilerin Haklarına İlişkin Sözleşme, özürlülük bağlamında en son gerçekleştirilen uluslararası yasal düzenlemedir. Bağlayıcılığı olan bu Sözleşme, 2008 yılında yürürlüğe konmuştur. Sözleşmeyi kabul eden ülkelerin özürlü bireylerin haklarının arttırılmasına yönelik daha aktif rol oynamaları yükümlüğü bulunmaktadır. Sözleşme Avrupa Birliği tarafından müzakere edilen ve imzalanan 50
  51. 51. ilk insan hakları sözleşmesidir. İmza dolayısıyla üye devletler bütünüyle yaptırım kapsamı altına alınmıştır. Yine ayni şekilde, 2010 Aralık ayında yasalaşan AB Özürlülük Stratejisi, 2010–2020, Engelli Kişilerin Haklarına İlişkin Sözleşme`nin AB’ye üye ülkelerde uygulanabilirliğinin arttırılması için yapılandırılmış eylemler ve uygulama mekanizmaları sunmaktadır. Strateji, Sözleşme ile paralel olarak, özürlü bireylerin güçlendirilmesi ve onlara insan onuruna yaraşır bir hayat sürmeleri fırsatı yaratılarak, engelsiz Avrupa oluşturulmasını öngörmüştür. Avrupa Birliği İstihdam Stratejisi; Avrupa Birliği çeşitli standartlardan ve ortak politikalarda oluşan bir entegrasyondur. Avrupa Birliği’nde başlıca dört ana politika mevcuttur. Bunlar, ortak tarım politikası, ortak rekabet politikası, ortak ulaştırma ve ticaret politikası, ortak sosyal politikasıdır. AB’de İstihdam Stratejisinin Hedefleri; Avrupa İstihdam Stratejisi 2003–2006 yılları arasında olmak üzere yeniden yapılanmış ve tam istihdam, işte kalite ve verimlilik ile sosyal birleşmeden oluşan üç unsur gündeme getirilmiştir. Bu unsurların çerçevesinde üye devletlere eylem için sonuca yönelik 10 hedef belirlenmiştir. Bunlar; 1.İşsizler ve işgücü piyasası dışında bulunanlar için aktif ve önleyici tedbirler, 2.İşsizlikle mücadele, iş yaratılması ve girişimcilik, 3.Çalışma piyasasında esneklik ve adaptasyon, 4.İnsan kaynağının geliştirilmesi ve hayat boyu eğitim, 5. İş arzını artırmak ve aktif yaşlanmayı teşvik etmek, 6.Cinsiyet eşitliği, 7.İşgücü piyasasındaki dezavantajlı kişilerin işgücü piyasasına entegrasyonu ve ayrımcılıkla mücadele, 8.Ücretlerde teşvik sistemiyle iş ortamının cazibesini arttırmak, 9.Kayıt dışı işgücü, 10.İstihdamda bölgesel farklılıklardır. “İşgücü Piyasasında Dezavantajlı Kişilerin İşgücü Piyasasına Entegrasyonu ve Ayrımcılıkla Mücadele” 51
  52. 52. Avrupa Birliği üye ülkeleri Avrupa İstihdam İşgücü Kurumu’nun istekleri doğrultusunda çalışmalar yapmaktadırlar. Avrupa ülkelerinde özürlü istihdamının artırılması için özürlü kişilerin istihdamının zorunlu kılınması yerine, işverene başka bazı imkânlar tanınmaktadır. Özürlüler için yasal istihdam zorunluluğu bulunan Avrupa ülkelerinden Almanya, Fransa, Çek Cumhuriyeti, İspanya, Romanya, Avusturya, Belçika, Finlandiya ve Polonya’da işverene vergi indirimi sağlanması, özürlü istihdamı nedeniyle yapılması zorunlu olan yatırımların yarısının devletçe karşılanması, zorunlu iyileştirme hizmeti verilmesi, belirli süreyle ücretlerinin ve/veya sigorta primlerinin devletçe karşılanması, işverene kredi veya sübvansiyon verilmesi gibi istihdamı teşvik edici devlet katkıları da bulunmaktadır. Dezavantajlı Grupların İstihdamında Eğitim; Bireylerin iş bulmaları iyi bir eğitim düzeyi ve işgücü piyasası acısından ihtiyaç duyulan becerilere sahip olmalarıyla mümkündür. Eğitim düzeyi arttıkça insanların işsiz kalma riski azalmakta ve bireyler ekonomik anlamda kendi kendilerine yetebilmelerini sağlayan bir gelir elde etme yeteneğine sahip olmaktadırlar. İyi bir eğitim ve beceri düzeyine sahip olmayanlar ise işsizlik sorunuyla karşı karşıya kalmaktadırlar. Dezavantajlı gruplar işsizlik sorununun bir sonucu olarak, yoksulluk, sosyal güvenlikten yoksunluk, mali anlamda bağımlılık, sosyal dışlanma, aile içi sorunlar, psikolojik sorunlar gibi bir çok sorunla yüzleşmek durumunda kalmaktadırlar. TÜRKİYE Özürlü bireylere yönelik olumsuz bakış açısı, özürlü bireylerin toplumdan dışlanmasına neden olarak, birçok fırsattan yararlanmaları konusunda engeller oluşturmaktadır. Bu olumsuz bakış açısının neden olduğu en büyük sorun alanlarından birisi de istihdamdır. Ülkemiz, özürlü bireyleri ötekileştiren, toplumun dışına iten, onları eve hapseden çağdışı anlayışı reddederek, özürlülerle ilgili alınacak tedbirlerin eşitlik ilkesine aykırı sayılamayacağı konusunu Anayasa ile güvence altına almıştır. 52
  53. 53. Anayasanın birinci kısmındaki “Kanun önünde eşitlik” başlıklı 10 uncu maddesine göre; “Herkes, dil, ırk, renk, cinsiyet, siyasi düşünce, felsefi inanç, din, mezhep ve benzeri sebeplerle ayırım gözetilmeksizin kanun önünde eşittir. Devlet, bu eşitliğin yaşama geçmesini sağlamakla yükümlüdür. Devlet organları ve idare makamları bütün işlemlerinde kanun önünde eşitlik ilkesine uygun olarak hareket etmek zorundadırlar” denilmektedir. Anayasanın ikinci kısmının üçüncü bölümündeki “Sosyal ve Ekonomik Haklar ve Ödevler” içerisinde yer alan “Çalışma hakkı ve ödevi” başlıklı 49 uncu maddesinin ilk fıkrasına göre; “Çalışma, herkesin hakkı ve ödevidir”. Yine Anayasanın “Çalışma şartları ve dinlenme hakkı” başlıklı 50 nci maddesinin ikinci fıkrasına göre; “Küçükler ve kadınlar ile bedeni ve ruhi yetersizliği olanlar çalışma şartları bakımından özel olarak korunurlar” denildikten sonra, “Sosyal güvenlik bakımından özel olarak korunması gerekenler” başlıklı 61 inci maddenin ikinci fıkrasına göre de; “Devlet, sakatların korunmalarını ve toplum hayatına intibaklarını sağlayıcı tedbirleri alır” denilmektedir. Türkiye Özürlüler Kanunu Temmuz 2005'te yürürlüğe girmiştir. Kanunun temel amaçları: özürlülüğün önlenmesi, sağlık, eğitim, rehabilitasyon, istihdam, bakım ve sosyal güvenlik alanlarında karşılaşılan sorunların çözülmesi, özürlü insanların sosyal hayata katılımını önündeki engellerin kaldırılması yolunda önlemler alınması ve günlük yaşam faaliyetlerinde bağımsızlığın geliştirilmesidir. İşyerinin Özürlülerin Çalışma Şartlarına Göre Hazırlanması; İşverenler, işyerlerini imkânları ölçüsünde, özürlülerin çalışmalarını kolaylaştırabilecek şekilde hazırlamak, sağlıkları için gerekli tedbirleri almak, mesleklerinde veya mesleklerine yakın işlerde çalıştırmak, işleriyle ilgili bilgi ve yeteneklerini geliştirmek, çalışmaları için gerekli araç ve gereçleri sağlamak zorundadırlar. Özürlüler, yapabilecekleri işler dışında sağlıklarına zarar verecek diğer işlerde çalıştırılmamaktadır. Uygun koşulların varlığı halinde çalışma sürelerinin başlangıç ve bitiş saatleri , özürlünün durumuna göre belirlenebilmektedir.İşverenlerce, örneğin gözleri az gören işçiler için çalışma yerlerinin özel olarak ışıklandırılması, bacağı sakat ve tekerlekli sandalyeli işçilerin giriş çıkışlarının kolaylaştırılması için özel yollar, kapılar ve asansör yapılması, eli veya kolu sakat işçiler için özel aletler verilmesi, iş için harcanacak kuvveti özürlünün becerebileceği düzeye indiren sair özel araç 53
  54. 54. ve gereçlerin sağlanması, kullanılan makine, masa,sandalye ve tezgahlarda özürlünün durumuna göre gerekli değişikliklerin yapılması gerekmektedir. Ayrıca işverenler, çalışan özürlülerin de sağlıkları için gerekli tedbirleri almak ve sağlık durumlarını gözetmek zorundadır. Kamu ve Özel Sektör İşverenlerine Sağlanan Teşvikler; Özürlü işçi çalıştıran işverenlerden; a) Bakanlar Kurulunca belirlenecek oranların üzerinde özürlü çalıştıran, b) Elliden daha az sayıda işçi çalıştırmasına rağmen Kurumdan talepte bulunmak ve/veya tescil yaptırmak suretiyle özürlü çalıştıran, c) Çalışma gücünü % 80den fazlasını kaybetmiş olan özürlüyü çalıştıran, İşverenlerin, bu şekilde çalıştırdığı her bir özürlü için, ödemeleri gereken işveren sigorta prim hisselerinin % 50’si hazine tarafından karşılanmaktadır. Hazine ödemektedir. Denetim; Çalıştırılacak özürlü işçilerle ilgili işyerlerinde yapılacak denetim 4857 sayılı İş Kanununun öngördüğü çalışma hayatının denetimi ve teftişi esaslarına göre yapılmaktadır.Daha önce 4857 sayılı İş Kanunu’nun 30 uncu maddesine göre özürlü istihdam etmeyen işverenlerin denetimi İş Müfettişlerince yapılıp tespit edilen aykırı davranışları için Çalışma Bölge Müdürünce idari para cezası uygulanırken 01.07.2005 tarihinde kabul edilen 5378 sayılı Özürlüler ve Bazı Kanun ve Kanun Hükmünde Kararnamelerde Değişiklik Yapılması Hakkında Kanunun 39 uncu maddesiyle bu yetki doğrudan Türkiye İş Kurumu(İŞ-KUR) İl Müdürüne verilmiştir. Ayrıca, kontenjan açıklarının takibi İŞ-KUR tarafından yapılmakla birlikte, Bakanlık İş Müfettişlerince de yapılmakta ve belirlenen aykırı davranışların tespit edilmesi halinde durum Kuruma bildirilmektedir. MESLEKİ EĞİTİM, REHABİLİTASYON VE İSTİHDAM SİSTEMLERİ Özürlü insanların eğitim hakkı Anayasada güvence altına alınmıştır. Özürlü insanların eğitimine ilişkin birçok kanun ve ikincil düzenleme mevcuttur. Özürlülerin mesleki eğitimini sağlayacak olan iş okulları, eğitim ve uygulama merkezleri bulunmaktadır. Zihinsel Özürlülere Yönelik Mesleki Eğitim Kurumları temel yaşam becerilerini geliştirmek, özürlülerin topluma kazandırılması, iş hayatına ilişkin 54
  55. 55. bilgi ve becerilerin toplanması amacını taşıyan iş okullarıdır. İş eğitim merkezleri temel yaşam becerilerini ve çeşitli iş becerilerini kazandırma amacı taşıyan örgün mesleki eğitim kurumlarıdır. Marangozluk, galoş ve poşet gibi plastik üretimi, el sanatları, işyeri hizmetleri, tarımsal işler gibi çeşitli alanlarda iş eğitimi sunmaktadırlar. İşitme Özürlüler Meslek Liseleri’nin temel yaklaşımı bu insanların normal okullarda normal akranlarıyla kaynaştırmalı eğitim görmelerini sağlamaktır. Kaynaştırmalı eğitimden yararlanamayanlar için çok programlı mesleki eğitim liseleri bulunmaktadır. Bu liselerde bilgisayar işlemleri, mobilya dekorasyonu, tesisat teknolojileri, inşaat, boyama, metal işleri, elektrik, muhasebe, tekstil- giyim dersleri sunulmaktadır. Ortopedik Özürlüler Mesleki Eğitim Liseleri ortopedik engeli olan çocuklar genelde normal eğitim veren okullara devam etmektedirler. Kaynaştırmalı eğitimden yararlanabilen ortopedik özürlü öğrenciler için muhasebe ve giyim bölümleri olan meslek liseleri bulunmaktadır. Piyasada rağbet gören bilgisayar, elektronik, telekomünikasyon gibi yeni bölümlerin açılma ihtimali de bu okullarda bulunmaktadır. Görme Özürlülerin Mesleki Eğitimi, görme özürlü öğrenciler genellikle normal liseye devam etmektedirler (%90). Görme kaybı olan ve mesleki ve teknik liselere devam eden öğrenciler de vardır. Bu öğrenciler endüstri meslek liseleri, kız meslek liseleri (toplamı %6'sı), ticaret meslek liseleri (%3), sanat okulları (%1) gibi liselere devam etmektedirler. Lisans ve yüksek lisans derecelerinde görme özürlü öğrencilerin diğer özürlü gruplarına oranı daha fazladır. Otistik Çocuklar Eğitim Merkezleri ilköğretim düzeyinde olup, normal ilköğretim okullarında otistik çocuklar için özel sınıflar bulunmaktadır. Otistik çocuklar konusunda uzmanlaşmış özel merkezler de vardır. Daha yüksek eğitim düzeylerinde otistik çocuklar için yeni kurulmuş iş eğitimi merkezleri vardır. Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığına bağlı Türkiye İş Kurumu Genel Müdürlüğü, Devlet Personel Başkanlığı özürlülerin istihdamından sorumlu başlıca kurumlardır. 4857 sayılı İş Kanununa dayanılarak çıkartılan Özürlülerin İstihdamıyla İlgili Yönetmelikte işyerinde 50 ya da daha fazla kişi çalıştıran işverenlerin toplam 55
  56. 56. çalışan sayısının kamu sektöründe %4’ü, özel sektörde %3’ü oranında özürlü istihdam etme zorunluluğu vardır. Bu kotayı yerine getirmeyen işverenler, aylık ceza öderler. Bu vergiler(cezalar) Para Cezaları Fonunda toplanmakta ve İş Kurumu tarafından özürlülerin mesleki eğitim, rehabilitasyon ve istihdamı üzerinde odaklanan projeler için kullanılmaktadır. Özürlü insanlara yönelik sübvansiyonlar da vardır. İş gücü piyasasında aktif olan özürlüler vergi indirimlerinden yararlanırlar. İndirim oranı özrün derecesine göre değişmektedir. Kota/ceza temelinde işleyen sisteme ek olarak kısa bir süre önce özürlülerin eğitimi ve istihdamıyla ilgili yeni sistemler de getirilmiştir. Bunlardan en önemlileri 2006’da kabul edilen ve özürlülerin eğitim, rehabilitasyon ve istihdamı ile doğrudan ilgisi olan iki yeni yönetmeliktir. Bunlardan ilki olan Özel Mesleki Rehabilitasyon Merkezleri Yönetmeliği Türkiye’de mesleki rehabilitasyon merkezlerinin açılması konusunda ilk düzenlemenin yapıldığı yönetmeliktir. Bu merkezlerin kurulmasındaki amaç, yeterliliklerini ve dolayısıyla işe alınma imkânlarını arttırarak özürlülerin ekonomik ve sosyal refahlarını geliştirecek hizmetler sağlamaktır. Yönetmeliğe göre mesleki rehabilitasyonu oluşturan bileşenler; tıbbi rehabilitasyon, mesleki rehberlik, işe hazırlama, bir işe alınma ve iş değiştirme öncesi ya da mesleki gelişim eğitimi, işe yerleştirme ve istihdamın kolaylaştırılması ve özürlülerin iş gücü piyasasında aranan, ilgi ve becerilerine uygun işlerdeki sayılarının arttırılması amacıyla sürekli ve koordinasyon içinde gerçekleştirilecek takiptir. Bugüne dek yeterli ölçüde dikkat gösterilmemiş olan sosyal rehabilitasyon uygulamaları da yönetmelikteki yerlerini almıştır. Buna göre sosyal rehabilitasyon özürlülerin eve, merkeze ve sosyal çevrelerine adaptasyonunu desteklemek ve resmi/özel kurumlarla etkin iletişim içerisinde bulunmalarını sağlamak amacıyla gerçekleştirilecektir. Korumalı İşyerleri Yönetmeliği ile normal iş gücü piyasasına girmesi zor olan özürlülere yönelik mesleki rehabilitasyon ve istihdam hizmetlerinin yapılandırılmasının yasal temeli oluşturulmuştur. Korumalı bir işyeri kurmanın şartları şöyledir: işyeri bir büyükşehir belediyesinin sınırları içerisinde faaliyet gösteriyorsa çalışan sayısının en az 30, bir belediyenin sınırları içerisinde faaliyet gösteriyorsa en az 15 olması; çalışanların %75'inin özürlü olması; zihinsel, ruhsal-duygusal ve davranışsal özürlülerde %40 çalışma gücü kaybı, diğer özür 56