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: A clause is a group of words which resembles phrase
in doing the work of a single part of speech but
unlike a phrase it has a subject and a predicate of its
Clauses are of two kinds: Main clause and Su-ordinate
Main Clause: makes the main statement and can stand
e.g. Sheela is a rich woman. He is a clever boy.
A sub-ordinate clause
A sub-ordinate clause : cannot
stand alone but is dependent for
its meaning on the main clause.
e.g. Although she is very rich she is very humble. She
is humble is a main clause. Although she is very
rich is a sub-ordinate clause.
Kinds of subordinate clauses
A subordinate clause does the work of a noun, an
adjective or an adverb, and according to its
function in the sentence it is classified as a noun
clause, an adjective clause or an adverb clause.
1 When she will come is uncertain. Noun clause used
as subject of the verb ‘is’
2 Tell me how you know this. Noun clause used as
object of the verb’ tell’.
3 The question is whether they reached the spot .
Noun clause as subject complement.
4 The sentry who witnessed the incident gave full
details adjective clause qualifying ‘sentry’.
5 This is the book which I bought yesterday.
Adjective clause qualifying ‘book’.
6 If that is true, I repent. Adverb clause modifying
7 Though I saw it, I doubted it. Adverb clause
Note: Noun clauses and adverb clauses are
introduced by sub-ordinate conjunctions ( when,
how, whether ,if , though, etc)
Adjective clauses are introduced by relative
pronouns (Who ,whom, whose which, that)
Noun clause: does the work of a noun. It can be;
The subject of a verb
The object of a verb
The object of a preposition.
In apposition to noun phrase.
The complement of a verb of incomplete predication.
It begins with that, how, when, where, whether, why
That you are weak is your excuse .(subject)
He said that his brother was there. (object)
It all depends on how you look at it.( governed by
Your report that he stole your purse is baseless.
This is where I live.(complement of a verb) Adjective
clause does the work of an adjective. It qualifies a
noun or apronoun. It begins with one of the
following words….. who, which, whom ,that,
He who breaks the law shall be punished.
This is the man whom I met yesterday.
ADVERB CLAUSE: does the work an adverb.
Modifies a verb, an adjective and an adverb.
I reached the station as soon as the train arrived.
The Adverb classes 8 kinds:
1.Reason: Ex: He failed because he did not work
2.Condition:Ex: You cannot pass unless you work
3.Time: Ex: The train arrive when I reached the
4. Place: Ex: We will meet where we met yesterday.
5. Consequence(result or purpose): Ex: He worked
so hard that he fell ill.
6. Manner: Ex: He has not done the work as I have
asked him to do.
7. Degree of comparison: Ex: He writes more quickly
than I do.
8. Concession: Ex: Though he worked hard he failed.
Note:1. Reason begins with because, as, since etc
2.Condition begins with if, unless etc.
3.Time begins with when, till etc.
4. Place begins with where.
5. Consequence begins with that.
6. Manner begins with as
7. Degree begins with than.
8.Concession begins with though, although.