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6. S, Ca and Mg Requirements in Ontario

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A look at the sulphur, calcium, and magnesium requirements for crop production in Ontario. John Lauzon, University of Guelph

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6. S, Ca and Mg Requirements in Ontario

  1. 1. Sulphur, Calcium and Magnesium in Ontario John Lauzon
  2. 2. Sulfur Cycle Sulfides Sulfate Organic Matter fertilizer reduction volatilization H2S SO2 Burning fossil fuel H2S, SO2 Soil Minerals leaching harvest Plant uptake oxidation SO4 Erosion runoff Elemental S oxidation
  3. 3. Need For Sulphur in Ontario • 1880's gypsum (land plaster)was commonly applied in Ont. (applied as early as the mid 1700’s) • Recent work is starting to show sulphur response • After 1950 ammonium phosphate became common (very little S) • About 1880 super phosphate (0-20-0) was introduced (14 % S)
  4. 4. Sulphate (SO4) wet Deposition 1990 - 2015 Environment Canada
  5. 5. Estimates of Anthropogenic Sulphur Dioxide Emissions: 1850–2005 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Emission(Ggyr-1) North America Western Europe China Smith et al 20111 Gg = 1 000 000 kg
  6. 6. Sulfur Crop Uptake and Removal Canadian fertilizer institute, 1998 Crop yield S uptake S removal (kg ha-1) Grain corn 9500 15 - 18 11 - 12 Soybean 3400 19 6 Winter wheat 5100 17 - 21 7 Mixed Hay 1st 11200 17 - 34 Mixed Hay 2nd 6700 11 - 17 Cabbage 78 000 73 - 90 Potato 44 800 20 Canola 2 600 1730- 34
  7. 7. Sulphur Responsive Crops in Ontario • Alfalfa • Canola • Winter wheat • Corn ? • Soybean ? Cowen
  8. 8. Alfalfa Response to Sulphur in 1977 based on average of 2 N rates Sulphur application rate (kg S/ha) Cut 0 30 60 90 Forage yield (kg/ka) 1 4680 4940 5100 4500 2 3200 3110 3040 3040 3 2430 2220 2170 2300 total 10300 10300 10300 9900 (Sheard 1977)
  9. 9. Alfalfa Sulphur Response in 2012 North of Fergus (Harrop) First Cut Yield kg/ha 4566 b 4474 b 6821 a Treatment Control 225 kg KCl/ha 270kg K2SO4/ha First Cut Alfalfa % of stand 31 b 35 b 56 a Third Cut Yield kg/ha 968 b 1067 b 2180 a Lauzon and Ball 2012 52 % 104 % All of the increase was due to greater alfalfa growth Dry year
  10. 10. Alfalfa Sulphur Yield Response in 2013 Treatment Wallenstein (Logel) Hesson (Runsteder) Listowel (McLagan) First Second First Second First Second Yield (kg/ha) Check 6817 2556 5078 2639 a 2833 2189 a Fall 50 kg/ha elemental S 6583 2767 4575 3401 ab 3094 2531 b Fall 100 kg/ha elemental S 6732 2830 5247 3715 b 3128 2482 b Potassium Sulphate 55 kg S/ha 6897 2768 4712 3352 ab 3138 2468 b Potassium Chloride Same K level 6718 2507 4627 2703 a 2824 2163 a Bonnie Ball Wetter than normal until Aug.
  11. 11. Alfalfa Sulphur Uptake Response in 2013 Treatment Wallenstein (Logel) Hesson (Runsteder) Listowel (McLagan) First Second First Second First Second (kg/ha) Check 6.6 a 3.2 a 4.3 3.2 a 5.0 a 3.3 a Fall 50 kg/ha elemental S 8.0 a 4.1 a 5.8 5.7 b 7.8 b 6.5 b Fall 100 kg/ha elemental S 8.0 a 5.3 b 4.4 8.0 c 9.8 b 8.5 b Potassium Sulphate 55 kg S/ha 12.0 b 5.7 b 5.3 8.5 c 9.9 b 6.7 b Potassium Chloride Same K level 6.7 a 3.5 a 3.6 3.2 a 5.0 a 3.2 a Bonnie Ball
  12. 12. Alfalfa Sulphur Yield Response in 2014 near Lynden Sand texture 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 0 10 20 30 40 S kg/ha Yield(kg/ha) 1st cut 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 10 20 30 40 S kg/ha Yield(kg/ha) 2nd cut Close to normal precipitation
  13. 13. Alfalfa Sulphur Yield Response in 2014 Elora Research Station Silt loam texture 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 0 20 40 60 1st Cut S kg/ha Yield(kg/ha) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 20 40 60 2nd cut S kg/ha Yield(kg/ha) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 20 40 60 3rd cut S kg/ha Yield(kg/ha) Close to normal precipitation
  14. 14. Sulphur on Alfalfa • Of the 11 trials, 6 of the sites responded • Soil texture and organic matter did not dictate response • Potentially dry years responded more (not always) • Older stands tended to respond more
  15. 15. 2010 Canola Sulphur Trials Site No Sulphur 24 lbs/ac sulphur Yield kg/ha Owen Sound 3884 a 4072 b Arthur 807 a 1391b Fergus 1695 a 2117 b Port Elgin 3517 a 3710 b Brian HallWetter than normal until Aug
  16. 16. 2014 Canola Sulphur Responses Close to normal precip 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 10 20 30 40 50 Yield(kgseed/haas DM) Listowel 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 10 20 30 40 50 Camilla 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 10 20 30 40 50 Yield(kgseed/haas DM) Owen Sound y= 3002 +34.7x -0.64x2 R2 =0.64 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 10 20 30 40 50 Yield(kgseed/haas DM) S application rate (kg S/ha) Elora 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0 10 20 30 40 50 S application rate(kg S/ha) Kimberley y= 2294+14.6x-0.24x2 R2 = 0.60 (Haupt 2017)Brian Hall
  17. 17. Canola sites • 28 sites in total between 2010 - 2015 with a positive response at 13 sites • No clear way of predicting responsive sites
  18. 18. 2005 and 2006 Johnson Wheat Trials No Sulphur Sulphur Yield (bu/ac) Carthage 05 83.2 89.3 Stratford 05 89.3 93.5 Lucan 99.2 95.5 Lucan 2 95.2 93.8 Perth 72.6 68.5 Carthage (2006) 69.9 69.2 Nairn 103.1 106.0 Brantford 57.6 57.6 Average 83.8 84.2
  19. 19. Sulphur Response on Winter Wheat 2011 - 2014 S Rate (lbs S/ac) Yield (bushels/acre) 2011 2012 2013 2014 Avg. Number of sites 5 11 10 14 40 0 95.2 101.4 80.2 91.6 91.0 5 - -0.5 +0 +4.6 +1.4 10 - +1.2 +1 +4.7 +2.3 20 4.5 +0.6 +1.3 +4.3 +2.6 40 +0.8 - +4.1 - Follings, Field crop news 2017. (Peter Johnson) 12 of the 40 sites responded
  20. 20. 2018 Wheat Sulphur Trials Check With Sulphur Yield (kg ha-1) Elora 8050 8180 Sombra 5860 5590 Stayner 7090 7160 Average 7000 6975
  21. 21. Sulphur On Winter wheat • Ontario research to date suggests optimal rate of 10 kg S ha-1 • Less than 1/3 of sites responded • We need to dig into the data more, but No Clear way of predicting responding sites
  22. 22. 2006 Corn Sulphur Trial Sites by Middlesex S.C.I.A. Site Soil S (ppm) Corn yield With S Corn Yield No S bu ac-1 SJL 39.8 174 172 SMR 18.7 162 166 SSF 23 159 157 SNS 13.9 177 176 SRB 19.8 161 163 SKP 20.6 165 168 STL 17.7 194 196 SMA 18.5 154 143 SRM 46.9 130 134 SJF2 20.6 172 174 SJF3 20.6 182 182 SBP 25.9 170 169 SFH 30 167 185 Average 24 167 168 http://www.gocorn.net/v2006/Rotation/articles/Peas%20and%20Sulphur.html Peter Johnson
  23. 23. 2012- 2018 Corn Sulphur trials 2012 2013 Number of sites 5 6 Yield (kg/ha) No Sulphur 9927 10956 With Sulphur 9736 10818 Stewart 2012 and 2013, Lauzon and Sanders 2016 and 2018 No Significant responses at any sites 2016 (Elora) 1 12190 11420 2018 (Elora) 1 14740 14410
  24. 24. 20 lbs of S 0 lbs of S Dale Cowan
  25. 25. Sulphur of Corn in Ontario • Industry has indicated observing responding sites • Sulphur widely applied to corn in Ontario • No response seen on any sites evaluated
  26. 26. Soybean Sulphur Response 2018 Check With Sulphur Yield (bu/ac) Bornholm 1 72.5 74 Bornholm 2 69.6 77.9 Winchester 56.9 55.9 Elora 45.5 46.3 Average 61.1 63.5 Bohner Ammonium sulphate applied the check was not corrected for the nitrogen content in the first 4 sites Arkona 58.4 60 Merlin 55.8 57 Elora 64 65 Average 59.4 60.7 Sanders and Lauzon
  27. 27. Summary • Sulphur deposition has drastically decreased in Ontario and may be continuing to decrease • We have seen response on about ½ of the alfalfa and canola sites, 1/3 of the winter wheat sites tested. “Rarer” response on corn and soybean • Greater probability of response would be expected on sandy and/or low organic matter soils; however, this was not seen in the trials • More sites needed to determine if we can predict the response to sulphur
  28. 28. Calcium and Magnesium Cycles Soil Organic matter Ca2+, Mg2+ Exchangeable Microbial/ Plant uptake Harvest export Erosion Fertilizer/Lime Clay solution leaching Mineral Ca/Mg
  29. 29. Ca Crop Uptake and Removal Crop yield Ca uptake Ca removal (kg ha-1) Grain corn 9500 28 - 56 1 Soybean 3400 28 - 34 10 - 12 Winter wheat 5100 15 2 Mixed Hay 1st 11200 90 - 157 Mixed Hay 2nd 6700 78 - 112 Cabbage 78 000 95 Potato 44 800 22 6
  30. 30. Possible Ca Deficiencies • Blossom end rot in tomatoes (can also indicate moisture stress) physiological disorder • Black-heart in celery • Bitter pit in apples • Pod growth in peanuts • Club root in cauliflower • Tip dieback in cabbage
  31. 31. Soil Calcium Deficiencies in Southern Ontario • Dry soil or root pruning Typically these soils will be limed, most liming material contain calcium Adding calcium is unlikely to help this situation, but irrigation will • Ontario agricultural soils formed from high calcium rock, as such calcium is typically extremely high • Acid, sandy , highly leached soils with low CEC
  32. 32. Magnesium Crop Uptake and Removal Crop yield Mg uptake Mg removal (kg ha-1) Grain corn 9500 20 - 34 15 Soybean 3400 23 - 34 8 - 10 Winter wheat 5100 19 - 26 14 Mixed Hay 1st 11200 20 - 34 Mixed Hay 2nd 6700 17 - 28 Cabbage 78 000 40 Potato 44 800 45 11
  33. 33. Soil Magnesium Deficiencies • Acid, sandy , highly leached soils with low CEC • Calcareous soils with low Mg levels • Acid soils with low magnesium limed with calcitic limestone • Crops with high requirement or need for low soil pH
  34. 34. Interpreting Soil Mg Test Results Official If soil test Mg is below 20 ppm Mg should be applied at 30 kg /ha for field crops. Unofficial Agronomy Guide for Field Crops If soil test Mg is below 100 ppm and the soil pH is low, use dolomitic limestone to correct the pH. Dolomite contains high amounts of magnesium
  35. 35. Summary • Calcium Magnesium and Sulphur are all require plant elements • Calcium unlikely to be limiting in agricultural soils of Ontario • Soil test will indicate if magnesium is low. • More work is needed on sulphur to determine under what conditions it is needed, but I would apply on crops that have a high possibility of responding.
  36. 36. 2019 Field Trials We are currently looking for grower cooperator trials for sulphur research. If you are interested please contact: Joanna Follings OMAFRA EMAIL: joanna.follings@ontario.ca Phone: (519) 271-8180

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