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  2. The Underlying Principle THE FEMINIST THEORY
  3.  Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality.  Feminist researchers embrace two key tenets:  (1) their research should focus on the condition of women in society, and  (2) their research must be grounded in the assumption, that women generally experience subordination. THE FEMINIST THEORY
  5.  Feminist theories first emerged as early as 1792 in publications such as “The Changing Woman”, “Ain’t I a Woman”, “Speech after Arrest for Illegal Voting”, and so on. “The Changing Woman” is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world.  In 1851, Sojourner Truth addressed women’s rights issues through her publication, “Ain’t I a Woman.” Sojourner Truth addressed the issue of women having limited rights due to men's flawed perception of women. Truth argued that if a woman of color can perform tasks that were supposedly limited to men, then any woman of any color could perform those same tasks. HISTORY OF FEMINIST THEORY
  6.  After her arrest for illegally voting, Susan B. Anthony gave a speech within court in which she addressed the issues of language within the constitution documented in her publication, “Speech after Arrest for Illegal voting” in 1872. Anthony questioned the authoritative principles of the constitution and its male gendered language.  She raised the question of why women are accountable to be punished under law but they cannot use the law for their own protection (women could not vote, own property, nor themselves in marriage). She also critiqued the constitution for its male gendered language and questioned why women should have to abide by laws that do not specify women. HISTORY OF FEMINIST THEORY
  7.  Nancy Cott makes a distinction between modern feminism and its antecedents, particularly the struggle for suffrage. In the United States she places the turning point in the decades before and after women obtained the vote in 1920 (1910–1930).  She argues that the prior woman movement was primarily about woman as a universal entity, whereas over this 20 year period it transformed itself into one primarily concerned with social differentiation, attentive to individuality and diversity. New issues dealt more with woman's condition as a social construct, gender identity, and relationships within and between genders. HISTORY OF FEMINIST THEORY
  8.  The resurgence of feminist activism in the late 1960s was accompanied by an emerging literature of what might be considered female associated issues, such as concerns for the earth and spirituality, and environmentalism.  Feminist psychologists, such as Jean Baker Miller, sought to bring a feminist analysis to previous psychological theories, proving that "there was nothing wrong with women, but rather with the way modern culture viewed them." HISTORY OF FEMINIST THEORY
  10.  Lisa Tuttle has defined feminist theory as asking "new questions of old texts." She cites the goals of feminist criticism as:  (1) To develop and uncover a female tradition of writing,  (2) to interpret symbolism of women's writing so that it will not be lost or ignored by the male point of view,  (3) to rediscover old texts,  (4) to analyze women writers and their writings from a female perspective,  (5) to resist sexism in literature, and  (6) to increase awareness of the sexual politics of language and style. THE GOALS
  11.  Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theories or politics. Its history has been varied, from classic works of female authors such as George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, and Margaret Fuller to recent theoretical work in women's studies and gender studies by "third-wave" authors. THE FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM
  12.  In the most general, feminist literary criticism before the 1970s was concerned with the politics of women's authorship and the representation of women's condition within literature.  Since the arrival of more complex conceptions of gender and subjectivity, feminist literary criticism has taken a variety of new routes. It has considered gender in the terms of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, as part of the deconstruction of existing power relations. THE FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM
  13.  Grew out of women's movement following WW II, this approach analyzes the representation of women in literature. Though the projects of individual critics differ, there is general agreement that interpretation of literature involves critique of patriarchy.  Patriarchy = ideology that privileges masculine ways of thinking/points of view and marginalizes women politically, economically and psychologically. HISTORY OF FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM
  14.  For some (French influence), project of interpretation is to expose patriarchal nature of language itself. This involves usage that denigrates or ignores women. It also includes the deeper view that a masculine style of language has suppressed a feminine one.  Women need to assert a feminine language. What would this be like? Some have argued that it would be more fluid, less straightforward and logical, more perceptual, open to ongoing semiosis (For what this may look like, read Virginia Woolf's short story "The Mark on the Wall.") HISTORY OF FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM
  15.  Some authors (American) explore texts in detail, demonstrating patriarchical patterns, or the complex response of women writers to their own authorial status.  Some explore challenges to a literary canon that is so dominated by men. This means the insertion of ignored female writers (e.g. Kate Chopin, Charlotte Perkins Gilman) into the canon. It also entails the study of a literary tradition of women writers.  In the sense that this criticism often explores less what the text overtly says but what it hides (e.g. unquestioning attitude toward ideologically entrenched ideas about women) this criticism counts as an example of a "hermeneutics of suspicion." FEMINIST LITERARY STYLE
  16. People Behind the Critic MAJOR AUTHORS/CRITICS
  17.  Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792);  John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869);  Margaret Fuller, Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845);  Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own (1929);  Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1949);  Mary Ellman, Thinking about Women (1968);  Kate Millett, Sexual Politics (1969);  Judith Fetterley, The Resisting Reader (1978);  Elaine Showalter, A Literature of Their Own (1977); and  Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic (1979) MAJOR AUTHORS/CRITICS AND THEIR WORKS
  18. In a Nutshell FEMINIST IDEOLOGY
  19.  Dominant values, beliefs, ways of thinking through which a culture understands reality.  Similar to the phrase "cultural mythology," it usually represents in tacit fashion the prevailing views of a particular class.  Examples of ideology relevant to American culture: gender roles, value of capitalism, constitutional rights protecting individual liberties, Protestant work ethic, Rocky Balboa . . . FEMINIST IDEOLOGY
  21.  Interpretive approaches that lend credence to authorial or rhetorical intentionality, that concern themselves with laying bare the verbal sense in all of its dynamics.  Examples: formalism, reader-response HERMENEUTICS OF TRUST
  22.  involves a resistance to author's intentions or textual design to unearth hidden ideologies or aporia (anomalies). Less what the text says; more what the text hides.  Examples: Deconstruction, Feminist Literary Criticism, Marxist literary criticism HERMENEUTICS OF SUSPICION
  24.  Kent, Susan Kingsley. Making Peace: The Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar Britain. Princeton, N.J. 1993  ^ Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Reich, Laing, and Women. New York 1975  ^ Stocking, George W. Jr. After Tylor: British Social Anthropology, 1888–1951. Madison, Wisconsin 1995  ^ "Le Deuxième Sexe (online edition)".  ^ Moi, Toril. What is a Woman? And Other Essays. Oxford 2000  ^ Bergoffen, Debra B. The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Gendered Phenomenologies, Erotic Generosities. SUNY 1996 ISBN 0-7914-3151-7  ^ Sullivan, Shannon. The work of Simone de Beauvoir: Introduction Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2000 14(2):v  ^ Rich, Adrienne. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution New York 1976  ^ French, Marilyn. Beyond Power: On Women, Men, and Morals. New York 1985  ^ Reed, Evelyn. Woman's Evolution: From Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Family. New York, 1975  ^ a b http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.or REFERENCES