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Artificial intelligence (1)

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Artificial intelligence (1)

  1. 1. Welcome To My Presentation Presented By Md. Ehteshamul Hoque Jardani
  2. 2. Artificial intelligence Name:- Md. Ehteshamul Hoque Jardani Student Id:- 203-15-14482 Section:- Eve-A Subject:- Data Communication Faculty:- Abbas Ali Khan
  3. 3. Introduction Artificial intelligence is already all around us, from web search to video game. AI methods plan your driving direction, filter ours spam, and focus ours cameras on faces. AI lets us guide our phone with our voice and read foreign newspapers in English. Beyond today’s applications, AI is at the core of many new technologies that will shape our future. From self-driving cars to household robots, advancement in AI help transform science fiction into real systems.
  4. 4. Artificial intelligence cont. AI research is highly technical and specialised, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Other focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.
  5. 5. History Of Artificial Intelligence ● About 400 years ago people started to write about the nature of thought and reason. Hobbes (1588-1679), who is described as the “ Grandfather of AI, “ espoused the position that thinking was symbolic reasoning like thinking out loud or working out an answer with pen and paper. The idea of symbolic reasoning was further developed by Descartes ( 1596- 1650), Pascal (1623-1662), Spinoza (1632-1677), Leibniz (1646-1716), and others who were pioneers in the philosophy of mind. ● The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain.
  6. 6. History Artificial intelligence Cont. ● The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth college in the summer of 1956. Those who attended would become the leaders of AI research for decades. Many predicted that a machine as intelligent as a human being would exist in no more than a generation and they were given millions of dollars to make this vision come true. ● However, no machine has been built with a human level of intelligence, contrary to the optimistic predictions of the first generation of AI researchers.
  7. 7. Applications of Artificial intelligence ● Computer science AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and are no longer considered a part of AI time sharing, interactive interpreters, graphical user interfaces and the computer mouse, rapid development environments, the linked list data structure, automatic storage management, symbolic programming, functional programming, dynamic programming and object-oriented programming. ● Finance Banks use artificial intelligence system to organise operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition. Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation.
  8. 8. Applications of artificial intelligence Cont. ● Hospitals and medicine A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information and other important tasks. Artificial neural network are used as clinical decision support systems for medical diagnosis, such as in Concept processing technology in EMR software. Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence include: Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help can digital images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the detection of a tumor. Heart sound analysis.
  9. 9. Applications of artificial intelligence Cont. ● Transportation Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles ● Telecommunications maintenance Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of their workforces, for example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers. ● Other Various of artificial intelligence are also being widely deployed in homeland security, speech and text recognition, data mining, and e-mail spam filtering. Applications are also being developed for gesture recognition (Understanding of sign language by machines), individual voice recognition, global voice registration (from a variety people in a noisy room), facial expression recognition for interpretation of emotion and non verbal cues. Other applications are robot navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object recognition.
  10. 10. Major branches of artificial intelligence ● Computational Intelligence: Computational Intelligence aims to solve real world problems that are computationally expensive or not at all possible to solve by traditional means (mathematical models). The guiding principle of soft computing is exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and Partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low cost solution with improved adaptability. Common branches of computational Intelligence are but not limited to. ● Artificial Neural Network ● Fuzzy logic ● Heuristic Search ● Pattern Recognition
  11. 11. Major branches of artificial intelligence Cont. ● Genetic programming Genetic programming resolves around that functions that get programmes to perform specific tasks and solve specific problems. This done by ‘stitching together’ random lips programs and choosing amongst millions of generations. By definition, genetic programming is a revolutionary algorithm-based methodology that can trace its roots to the biological evolution that involve the search for computer programs that user defined tasks. The world can thank John Koza and his group of expert in “Artificial intelligence” for the methodology of genetic programming. If it wasn’t for the team’s pioneering work, the advantages of genetic programming would have probably been undiscovered by man. ● Ontology Ontology is a branch of artificial intelligence that is concerned with the study of various kinds of objects. As a branch of AI, it is a set of concept that are formally represented within a domain. Light is then thrown on their relationship between the concepts in their specific domain. Ontology can also be used to reason about entities within a particular domain and describe the particular domain in detail. Ontology only recently became a science that started to receive a great deal of importance.
  12. 12. Major branches of artificial intelligence Cont. ● Other Major Branches are : Learning, Planning and Reasoning in Machines Pattern, Object, Character, Voice - Recognition Knowledge Representation Epistemology Heuristics
  13. 13. Thanks to All The end. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1gFs1ZRItmGY Z4N0-bKEOefSpIweQKYaP/view?usp=sharing

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