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Modelling Digital Editing: of
Texts, Documents and Works
Elena Pierazzo & Geoffroy Noël
King’s College London
@kingsDH
Models (McCarty)
•  “a representation of
something for purposes of
study, or a design for realizing
something new”
•  “sma...
Models and texts
•  Texts are models : they present an
organised selection of some of the infinite
facts that can be deriv...
Describing the content: OHCO
Text
Section
ParagraphParagraph
Section
Paragraph
4
Describing relations among
bibliographical entities: FRBR
5
D.E.M.
•  Digital Editing Model
•  Modelling the documents/texts/works from
an editorial point of view
•  Modelling the ed...
Entities
•  Document
•  Text
•  Readers
•  Author
•  Editors
•  Editions
•  …
7
Documents
A document is defined by three sets of
characteristics:
•  It has, or had in the past, some physical
dimensions ...
Verbal Text Bearing Objects
A document may contain loads of stuff:
words, jots, stains, music, illuminations,
dead flies…
...
Facts and dimensions
•  Documents are made of facts: dimension,
decoration, material, marks, signs, colours,
words, punctu...
Some dimensions
•  Linguistic
•  Semantic
•  Graphematic
•  Literary
•  Genetic
•  Iconic
•  Artistic
•  Historical
•  Cod...
Texts and model
•  Texts are made up by Readers by selecting some
facts from the infinite set, organising them
according t...
First step: texts and documents
13
Generalising and specialising
•  Editors are specialised readers
•  …and so are paleographers, art historians,
codicologis...
15
DOCUMENT
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F∞
User-F∞
Editorial assertion
LinguisticDimension
SemanticDimension
Li...
Document
Text
model
Document
model
Model
Fact
Dimension
User-Function
Editorial
assertion
1…*
1…*
1…*
made of
type of
type...
Documents(s)/Text(s)/Version(s)
•  Many documents can transmit more or
less* the same** text
* More or less/**same: how ma...
A new entity: the work
When we (=editors) state that
Ø  many documents present *the same text*
even with variants;
Ø and...
The work
•  An editorial statement: “a regulative principle” (Eggert)
•  The abstract “idea” that determines if many docum...
Model-text and model-critical
text
•  Text Model (TM): textual model derived
from one document (edition given one
witness)...
Document
Text
model
Document
model
Model
Fact
Dimension
User-Function
Work
Editorial
assertion
1…*
1
1…*
1…*
1…*
1…*
1…*
1...
Where’s the author?
Good question…
•  Do we need one? Yes and no
•  The Author (function) is necessary to
produce the firs...
Document
Text
model
Document
model
Model
Fact
Dimension
User-Function
Author
Work
Author as
producer
Author as
hypothesis
...
Versions
•  Works exist in versions, at least one
(Shillingsburg)
•  A version represents a stage of
composition of the wo...
Document
Text
model
Document
model
Model
Fact
Dimension
User-Function
Author
Work
Author as
producer
Author as
hypothesis
...
What’s next
•  Does this model work?
•  Is this model useful?
•  Does it need more entities?
•  Does it works for music or...
Elena Pierazzo & Geoffroy Noël
With many thanks to Peter Stokes
Department of Digital Humanities
King’s College London
@ki...
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  1. 1. Modelling Digital Editing: of Texts, Documents and Works Elena Pierazzo & Geoffroy Noël King’s College London @kingsDH
  2. 2. Models (McCarty) •  “a representation of something for purposes of study, or a design for realizing something new” •  “smaller than the object” •  “the fundamental dependence of any computing system on an explicit, delimited conception of the world or ‘model’ of it” 2
  3. 3. Models and texts •  Texts are models : they present an organised selection of some of the infinite facts that can be derived from documents (Sperberg-McQueen) •  How are texts-as-models created? Can we model the modelling process necessary to create texts as models? •  Existing Models: OHCO, FRBR
  4. 4. Describing the content: OHCO Text Section ParagraphParagraph Section Paragraph 4
  5. 5. Describing relations among bibliographical entities: FRBR 5
  6. 6. D.E.M. •  Digital Editing Model •  Modelling the documents/texts/works from an editorial point of view •  Modelling the editorial act 6
  7. 7. Entities •  Document •  Text •  Readers •  Author •  Editors •  Editions •  … 7
  8. 8. Documents A document is defined by three sets of characteristics: •  It has, or had in the past, some physical dimensions which can be measured (length, weight, number of leaves, so on). •  It can, or could in the past, be found somewhere. •  It has, or had in the past, some signs on it that can be recognised by a competent reader as words written in a language. 8
  9. 9. Verbal Text Bearing Objects A document may contain loads of stuff: words, jots, stains, music, illuminations, dead flies… However it HAS (for this model only!) to contain words, the rest is optional 9
  10. 10. Facts and dimensions •  Documents are made of facts: dimension, decoration, material, marks, signs, colours, words, punctuation, strokes, stiches, gatherings, folios, pages, weight, drop capitals… •  Facts are grouped according to any organizing principles •  Each reader selects and groups such facts in different ways •  We call these groups dimensions 10
  11. 11. Some dimensions •  Linguistic •  Semantic •  Graphematic •  Literary •  Genetic •  Iconic •  Artistic •  Historical •  Codicological •  Cultural Any particular point of view / purpose / organising principle will select different sets of facts grouping them in different sets of dimensions 11
  12. 12. Texts and model •  Texts are made up by Readers by selecting some facts from the infinite set, organising them according to their needs/preferences/purposes, making editorial assertions •  A Text is a model that includes the verbal dimension (TM) •  Models that do not include the verbal dimension are not text*, they are other types of models (“document’ model” or DM) *Remember! Our point of view is the point of view of an editor 12
  13. 13. First step: texts and documents 13
  14. 14. Generalising and specialising •  Editors are specialised readers •  …and so are paleographers, art historians, codicologists, etc. •  Not all ‘users’ actually read the words •  Not all ‘users’ read the words only •  Users can be interested in different facts, in any combination •  Reader à user function 14
  15. 15. 15 DOCUMENT F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F∞ User-F∞ Editorial assertion LinguisticDimension SemanticDimension LiteraryDimension GeneticDimension ArtisticDimension CodicologicalDimension CulturalDimension DimensionNMODEL M-D1, M-D2, M-D∞, M-T1, M-T2, M-T∞
  16. 16. Document Text model Document model Model Fact Dimension User-Function Editorial assertion 1…* 1…* 1…* made of type of type of type of made of made of Edition 1…* 1…*presentation of expresses asserts User type of
  17. 17. Documents(s)/Text(s)/Version(s) •  Many documents can transmit more or less* the same** text * More or less/**same: how many variants are allowed before we can speak of a different text? *** how many variants before we can speak of a different version? 17
  18. 18. A new entity: the work When we (=editors) state that Ø  many documents present *the same text* even with variants; Ø and/or a text exists in many versions; We recognise the existence of a super- entity with respect to the one of the documents and of the text: the work 18
  19. 19. The work •  An editorial statement: “a regulative principle” (Eggert) •  The abstract “idea” that determines if many documents present more or less the same* text •  The sum of all documents that present the same* text •  The sum of all texts derived from the documents that present the same* text •  The sum of all texts resulting from the combination of texts derived from multiple documents that present the same* text *same: editorial statement; in spite of some “minor” differences 19
  20. 20. Model-text and model-critical text •  Text Model (TM): textual model derived from one document (edition given one witness) •  Critical Text Model (CTM): textual model produced by combining facts derived from different documents (edition given multiple witnesses) 20
  21. 21. Document Text model Document model Model Fact Dimension User-Function Work Editorial assertion 1…* 1 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* Critical text model made of type of type of type of type of made of made of Edition 1…* 1…*presentation of expresses embodies asserts asserts 1…* User type of 1…* 1
  22. 22. Where’s the author? Good question… •  Do we need one? Yes and no •  The Author (function) is necessary to produce the first text (document?) •  The Author intention, the one that produced the work as an idea, is necessary only if you want it 22
  23. 23. Document Text model Document model Model Fact Dimension User-Function Author Work Author as producer Author as hypothesis Conjectured authorial intention Editorial assertion 1…* 1…* 1…* 1 1…* 1 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* Critical text model made of type of type of type of type of type of type of type of made of made of Edition 1…* 1…*presentation of expresses embodies asserts asserts composes 1…* 1 hypothesises conjecturally intends 1…* User type of 1…* 1
  24. 24. Versions •  Works exist in versions, at least one (Shillingsburg) •  A version represents a stage of composition of the work •  A version is an authorial/editorial statement •  A version is preserved in document(s), which are made of facts, etc. and behaves as a sub-work 24
  25. 25. Document Text model Document model Model Fact Dimension User-Function Author Work Author as producer Author as hypothesis Conjectured authorial intention Editorial assertion 1…* 1…* 1…* 1 1…* 1 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* 1…* Critical text model made of type of type of type of type of type of type of type of made of made of Edition 1…* 1…*presentation of expresses embodies asserts asserts composes 1…* 1 hypothesises conjecturally intends contains 1…* User type of 1 1…*
  26. 26. What’s next •  Does this model work? •  Is this model useful? •  Does it need more entities? •  Does it works for music or other types of languages? A model is by definition a work in progress, and you are more than welcome to contribute 26
  27. 27. Elena Pierazzo & Geoffroy Noël With many thanks to Peter Stokes Department of Digital Humanities King’s College London @kingsDH https://www.facebook.com/kcl.ddh 27

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