3. SECTION 1. The following are citizens
of the Philippines:
(1) Those who are citizens of the
Philippines at the time of the
adoption of this Constitution;
(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are
citizens of the Philippines;
(3) Those born before January 17, 1973,
of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine
citizenship upon reaching the age of
(4) Those who are naturalized in
accordance with law.
- a member of a
enjoys full civil and
political rights and is
inside and outside
the territory of the
- denotes membership
of a citizen in a political
society , which
reciprocally, a duty of
allegiance on the part
of the members and
duty of protection on
the part of the state.
5. General ways of acquiring citizenship:
- by birth because of
blood relationship (jus sanguinis) or
place of birth (jus soli or loci ).
-by naturalization, cessation, conquest or
6. (1) Those who are citizens of the
Philippines at the time of the adoption of
The citizens referred to are those
considered Filipino citizens at the time
of the effectivity of the present
Constitution on February 2, 1987.
7. (2) Those whose fathers or mothers are
citizens of the Philippines
The Philippines follows the principle of jus
sanguinis. In determining the citizenship
of the child, Filipino mothers are placed
on equal footing with their husbands.
8. (3) Those born before January 17, 1973, of
Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine
citizenship upon reaching the age of majority
Under the 1935 Constitution, a child born of
a Filipino mother, who was married to a
foreigner, is born an alien and remains an
alien during his minority until he elects
9. (4) Those who are naturalized in
accordance with law.
Those who are not Filipino citizens at birth
may become citizens by
NATURALIZATION which is a voluntary
method of acquiring citizenship by
renouncing his former citizenship and
embracing a new one.
The act of formally adopting a
foreigner into the political body of
the state and giving him rights and
privileges of citizenship.
11. Kinds of Citizen
Natural-born are those who do not need to
perform any act to acquire his Philippine
Naturalized are those who were originally
citizens of another country, but who, by an
intervening act, have acquired new
citizenship in a different country.
12. SECTION 2.
Natural-born citizens are those who
are citizens of the Philippines from
birth without having to perform any
act to acquire or perfect their
14. Ways of losing citizenship
a.) by naturalization in a foreign country
b.) by express renounciation of citizenship
c.) by supporting the constitution and laws of a
d.) by rendering service to the armed forces of
a foreign country
a.) by cancellation of his certificate of
naturalization by the court
b.) by having been declared as a deserter in the
Philippine armed forces in time of war.
15. Ways of reacquiring lost
a.) by naturalization
b.) by repatriation of deserters of the
Philippine armed forces
c.) by direct act of the Congress.
16. SECTION 4.
Citizens of the Philippines who
marry aliens shall retain their
citizenship, unless by their act or
omission they are deemed, under
the law, to have renounced it.
18. NOTE: What Section 5 prohibits is not
dual citizenship but dual allegiance.
Dual citizenship arises because our
laws cannot control laws of other
countries on citizenship.
19. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9225
Citizenship Retention and
Re-acquisition Act of 2003
Natural-born citizens of the Philippines who
have lost their Philippine citizenship by
reason of their naturalization as citizens of
a foreign country are hereby deemed to
have re-acquired Philippine citizenship
upon taking the oath of allegiance to the
20. Important Terms
Expatriation refers to the voluntary loss or
renunciation of citizenship.
Expatriate are those who voluntarily lost or
renounced their citizenship.
Repatriation is the reacquisition of one's
nationality by taking the necessary oath of
21. Important Terms
Dual allegiance refers to the continued
allegiance of naturalized nationals to
their mother country even after
acquiring Filipino citizenship.
Dual citizenship refers to the
possession of two citizenships by an
Alien is a citizen of a country who is
residing in or passing through another
22. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN CITIZENSHIP AND
• Legal or juristic
• Can be
• Ethnic or racial