2. What is HRM?
Human resources management or HRM as it is commonly
abbreviated, is concerned with the activities, which are intended to
facilitate the effective utilization of people in the performance of
Human resources management can also be defined as a managerial
thinking, policies, procedures, and practices that are related to the
effective management of people for purposes of facilitating the
achievement of results in work organizations
It can also be defined as the set of management activities intended
to influence the effective utilization of human resources in the
performance of work organization
3. Human Resource vs. Personnel
It is an older and outdated
name of the occupation of
managing people at work
Performed basic roles of
recruitment, training, and
Personnel management is an
administrative function and
thus it is more reactive than
Human Resources Management
is a modern name of the
occupation of managing people in
places of work
encompasses seven core
functions, namely: planning,
recruiting, training and
evaluation, compensation, health
and safety, and labor relations.
4. Human Resource vs Personnel
It is simple and straightforward
thus performed as clerical
function which is not
necessarily linked with other
functions in the organization.
Human Resources Management
It is complex and in this way,
consistent with the systems idea
is a strategic function at par
with other functions e.g.
Marketing, Procurement e.t.c thus
a proactive function on which all
the implementation processes of
the organization's strategy
HRM differs with Personnel
In these aspects
Age(Old vs Modern)
Number of Functions(3 vs 7)
Strategic Functions(Admin vs
5. Evolution of HRM
The Guild System
• In the middle Ages the
guild system provided
the beginning of
initiatives to organize
the training of
apprentices and the
skills. Craftsmen were
able to organize and
exercise control over
their respective trades
through their guilds
• During the 19th century,
the discovery of
development of the
factory system of
• The increase in
production (due to
led to increased
overhead costs and
higher wages bills
which forced work
start looking for
ways of making a
utilisation of their
6. Mass Production
The Hawthorne Studies
The Human Relations Movement
The Behavioral Sciences
Development of High Technology
7. Objectives of HRM
Economic level of service
8. Role of HR Manager
Advise and counsel line managers on the correct approaches of
implementing human resources policies and procedures and solving
specific human resources problems.
Maintain a healthy organization by using various indices such as
absenteeism, production efficiency, accident indices, labor turnover,
complaints and grievances.
Design human resources procedures and services that ensure
standardised humane treatment for all employees in the whole
organisation. Such procedures and services include schemes of service,
recruitment procedures, interviewing, and testing of new employees,
induction or orientation programmes, designing training programmes,
wage and salary surveys, wages and salaries administration, change
management, health and safety engineering, safety services, and
employee benefit programmes.
Co-ordination and control of the implementation of personnel
policies. This task involves discussions with managers, inspection,
interviewing, and research both in the organisation and outside.
9. Role of HR Manager
Plan for the recruitment, transfers, re-designation, promotions,
demotions, and exit of employees.
Design and analyze jobs for purposes of redesign.
Co-ordinate the management of employee performance.
Manage the training and development of employees in order to
ensure the right match between job demands and employees’
Manage employee relations in the workplace i.e. industrial relations,
employee participation and communication.
Manage employee health and safety programmes.
10. Role of HR Department
Job Design & Analysis
Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Recruitment
Training and Development
Orientation & Placement(Induction)
Career Planning and Development
Employee satisfaction(Reward &
Health and Safety at work place
Compensation and Benefit
Termination of contracts
Human Resource Account &
Human Resource Information
Human Resource Policies &
11. Challenges facing HRM
Diversity(Age, race,sex,Religion e.t.c)
Speed and Service Quality
Structural changes(Re-engineering, Downsizing, Outsourcing e.t.c)
South-African Influence of African Economies
Organizational culture(Value system)
In the coming slides we shall discuss each of the functions of Human
resources Management one by one
13. Human Resource Planning
Human resources planning, commonly abbreviated as HRP and
variously referred to as workforce planning, or personnel planning, may
be defined as the process of anticipating and making provision for the
acquisition and maintenance of the right numbers and qualifications for
meeting the performance needs of the work organisation
The primary purpose of HRP is to enable the work organisation to
maximise the utilisation of its human resources by ensuring that the
right number of people, of the right abilities, are available to perform in
correspondingly right job positions at the right time
In essence HRP is a component of the entire Organizations' strategic
planning process.HRP should be done in alignment with the ‘Big
picture’ that the Organisation is trying to achieve.
14. Strategic Planning
A clear statement of the organisation’s vision and mission.
A commitment from the organisation’s members to the
organisation’s vision and mission.
An explicit statement of the basic assumptions in the
organisation’s operating environment.
An action plan based on available and acquirable
resources. Such resources include sufficient numbers of
qualified people i.e. people with the desired performance
Organisational Strategic planning(where HRP is part of ) process must be
able to provide ,align and achieve the following
HRP contributes to strategic management by providing the means for
operationalising the organisation’s strategic plan i.e. the means for
accomplishing the outcomes identified by the planning process
15. Advantages of HRP
It enables the organisation to maximise the utilisation of its human
It enables better achievement of the organisation's objectives by
ensuring that management efforts are made in good time to avail the
requisite labour power for the organisation's performance processes.
It enables the organisation to economise on its recruitment function
It enables the organisation to organise successful exit plans for the
advantages of the employees and the organisation
It increases the organisation's information base to the advantage of
the human resources department and other departments
It enables the organisation to make a more effective and efficient use
of the labour market
It facilitates career or personal development
16. Factors affecting HRP
Nature of Tasks
Labour Market conditions
Change in Technology
17. Human Resource Planning Process
Choice of Planning Period
Determine Impact of Organisational objective
Define HR Capability(capability indexing)
Determine Total HR needed
Determine Net HR needed(extra provision)
Action Planning –This can involve the use of Firing or Non firing
options as indicated below.
and Job Transfer
Lay offs,Termination,Early Retirement
plans, Voluntary resignation plans, Job
19. If Human resource is not clearly forecasted and planned for it might lead
to Overstaffing or understaffing.
Overstaffing can be defined as a situation whereby the organization carries
too many employees in relation to the available amounts of work.
Understaffing can be defined as a situation whereby the organization
carries less employees in relation to the available amount of work.
Overstaffing & Understaffing
The following are the most common symptoms that indicate the existence
of an overstaffing problem in a work organisation.
General failure of the organisation to accomplish its goals
20. Overstaffing can be a disturbing management problem due to the
following main reasons:
1-It normally takes the form of three interrelated situations: job categories
where the organisation is overstaffed, adequately staffed, and even
understaffed. This situation requires the services of an expert human
resources management consultant to sort out. It is imperative that all jobs
are analysed and grouped under the three categories before any further
action can be taken.
2-Knowledge that there exists an overstaffing problem in the organisation
scares the employees because they interpret its existence as a sign of
3-Low employee morale and even subortage.
4-Poor labour union relations with management.
5-Ambiguity of roles and accountability
6-Rising operational costs
The Overstaffing Problem
21. The following management actions are usually taken to manage the
•Job analysis in order to establish which job categories fall under each of
the three situations (i.e Understaffed, Overstaffed or adequate staffed)
•Negotiate job recategorisation in order to reduce overstaffed jobs and fill
•Retrain recategorised employees in order to enable them fit well in their
•Retrench employees not willing to be recategorised.
•Recruit new employees to fill vacancies in remaining understaffed jobs.
•Retain overstaffed core employees but adopt strategies of increasing
output to accommodate the employees and spare any investment made on
them as well as maintain potential competitive edge.
•Rationalise support services and adopt strategies e.g. outsourcing.
•Redesign jobs to ensure that employees are adequately employed. Use job
redesign methods e.g. job combination which could eventually lead to
Measures of Managing Overstaffing
22. Problems facing HRP
Insufficient Top Management support
Shortage of Experts
Inactive Human Resources Department
Poor Information base
Integration with Organisational Plans
Poor Involvement of line Managers
23. Human Resource –Job Design
Job DesignJob Analysis Training&DevelopmentRecruitment
24. Job design is defined as specification of the contents, methods and
relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational
requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job
Job design is the systematic and purposeful allocation of tasks to
individuals and groups within an organization. Allocating jobs and tasks
means specifying the contents, method, and relationships of jobs to satisfy
technological and organizational requirements, as well as the personal
needs of jobholders
25. Task: A task is a distinct activity of work that constitutes logical and
necessary steps in the performance of work. A task consists of a number of
elements. It is performed whenever human effort, physical or mental is
exerted for a specific purpose.
Duty: A duty consists of one or more tasks that are performed in carrying
out a job responsibility. It is not always easy to distinguish between tasks
and duties. It is safe and simple to view tasks as subsets of duties.
Job: A job consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an
organization to achieve its goals. It may also be defined as the allocation of
related duties and responsibilities of to an individual or individuals. The
simplest unit of a job is referred to as micro motion, and this involves a
very elementary movement such as reaching, grasping or placing an
object. An aggregation of two or more micro motions forms an element.
Job Position: A job position refers to the collection of tasks and
responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every
individual in an organization. It is a combination of the duties and
responsibilities of an employee define his/her job position. The number of
job positions in an organisation at a given time equals the number of
Definition of terms
26. Job Family: A job family is a collection of related jobs that either require
similar employee characteristics or contain parallel tasks, as determined by
the job analyst.
Occupation: An occupation is a grouping of similar jobs existing in
different organizations. Examples of occupations are accounting, civil
engineering, and procurement.
Career: A person's career comprises a sequence of positions, jobs, or even
occupations, which he or she has held during his or her working life.
Job design: Job design is the specification of the contents, methods and
relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational
requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job
Job analysis: Job analysis is the systematic process of determining the
skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an
Job Description: A job description refers to a document providing
information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job.
Job Specification: A job specification is a statement of the minimum
acceptable qualifications that an employee must have to be able to perform
a given job well.
27. Dimensions of Job Design
Scope: Job scope refers to
the number and variety of
different tasks performed
by the jobholder
Depth: The depth of a job
refers to the freedom of the
job-holder to plan and
organize their own work, to
work at their own pace, and
move around and
Dimensions of Job Design
31. Job analysis is defined as the systematic process of determining the skills,
duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization.
There are 2 Job analysis essentials as shown below.
Job Description Job Specification
Job Description is a summary of information relating to a particular job or “a written
statement of those facts which are important regarding the duties, responsibilities,
and their organizational and operational interrelationships
Job specifications are the human requirements deemed necessary for minimally
acceptable performance on the job. Job specifications can include skills, abilities,
education level, experience, interests, personality traits, or other physical
32. Job analysis provides the basis of performance review and development,
training, reward system, staff development and career progression as well as
the design of working methods and standards. Various uses of job analysis
can be identified which can be explained as follows:
•Production of job descriptions and job specifications for use in
recruitment and selection
•Definition of job responsibilities and work criteria for use in individual
performance planning and reviews
•Organization and management of training and development programs
to meet performance related skills and knowledge needs
•Assessment of organizational and individual needs, abilities and
potential for use in human resources planning
•Provision of factual data as a basis for job evaluation and remuneration
•Analysis of work and structural relationships for use in job design and
•Health and safety planning - identifies hazardous jobs
•Employment relations - Job descriptions and job specifications can
reduce conflict over job content decisions.
Job Analysis Essentials
33. There are different types of information that are needed for the successful
accomplishment of job analysis. The job analyst identifies the job’s actual duties
and responsibilities and gathers the other types of data necessary.
Work activities obtained through work activities and processes, activity
records, procedures used and personal responsibility
Worker-oriented activities obtained through: human behaviours, such as
physical actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for
methods analysis and personal job demands, such as energy expenditure
Types of machines and tool obtained through the machines, tools,
equipment, and work aids used.
Job-related tangibles and intangibles which includes: knowledge dealt
with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or
services performed; Work performance; error analysis; work standards; work
measurements, such as time taken for a task
Job context obtained from the; work schedule; financial and non-financial
incentives; physical working conditions; organisational and social contexts
Personal requirements for the job obtained through; personal attributes
such as personality and interests; educational and training required as well
as work experience
Other work aids used
Job analysis information and their data
35. A:Observation Methods
Observation of work activities and worker’s behaviors is a method of job
analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other
methods of job analysis. Three methods of job analysis based on
observation are: (1) direct observation; (2) work methods analysis,
including time and motion study and micro-motion analysis; and (3) the
critical incident technique. Though they employ the same method, these
methods differ in terms of who does the observing, what is observed, and
how it is observed.
(1)Direct observation: in this method, a person conducting the analysis
simply observes employees in the performance of their duties, recording
observations as they are made. The observer either takes general notes or
works from a form which has structured categories for comment.
Everything is observed: what the worker accomplishes, what equipment
is used, what the work environment are like and any other factors
relevant to the job.
Job Analysis technique: Observation
36. (2)Work methods analysis; this describes manual and repetitive
production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. These methods are
used by industrial engineers to determine standard rates of production
which are used to set pay rates. Two types of work methods analysis are
time and motion study and micro-motion analysis. In time and motion
studies, an industrial engineer observes and records each activity of a
worker, using a stopwatch to note the time it takes to perform separate
elements of the job. Micro-motion analysis uses a movie camera to record
worker activities. Films are analyzed to discover acceptable ways of
accomplishing tasks and to set standards relating to how long certain tasks
(3)Critical incident technique: This involves observation and recording of
examples of particularly effective or ineffective behaviors. Behaviors are
judged to be "effective" or "ineffective" in terms of results produced by the
Interview techniques involve discussions between job analysts (or other interviewers)
and job occupants or experts. Interviews held on a one-to-one basis are called
individual interviews. Interviews with groups of two or more job occupants are called
group interviews. Job analysis data from individual and group interviews with
employees are often supplemented by information from supervisors of employees
whose jobs are analyzed. Job analysis interviews can also be held with a small panel
of experts, such as supervisors or long-time employees who are very familiar with the
job. Interviews of this type are called technical conferences. The end product of a
technical conference is a job description that reflects a consensus of the experts'
Interviews can be unstructured, with questions and areas of discussion unspecified,
or they can be more highly structured, spelling out each point for discussion. Using a
structured format increases the likelihood that all aspects of a job will be covered in
an interview. Furthermore, using a more structured format enables collection of
comparable data from all persons interviewed, making information classification
Job Analysis technique: Interview
Questionnaires can be filled out by employees on an individual basis or by
job analysts for a group of employees. Questionnaires vary in the degree to
which they are structured. Relatively unstructured questionnaires ask
questions that are open-ended, or seek an unspecified answer.
This involves looking at the record of the employees in the organization.
This provides the different activities that are being done by that employee
at that particular time allowing an analysis of the entire job to be
E:A Combination of methods
Different methods may be used concurrently. Observation, records,
interview and or questionnaires may be used in analyzing jobs.
Job Analysis Technique…cont
39. Some of the most common problems that are associated with job analysis
Lack of top management support. During a job analysis process, top
management should make it clear to all employees that their full and
honest participation in the process is extremely
important. Unfortunately in many instances this message is often not
Lack of or insufficient involvement of supervisors and jobholders in
the process. Unfortunately, many analyses are planned and
implemented by one person who assumes exclusive responsibility for
the exercise. Job analyses will succeed if the jobholder and his or her
supervisor are fully involved in the planning and implementation of the
Use of a single method and source of collecting data. As discussed
earlier in this chapter, there are many methods for gathering job
data. Unfortunately, analysts use only one of these methods instead of a
combination, which might provide more reliable data.
Problems associated with job Analysis
40. Lack of training for jobholders. Job incumbents are potentially a rich
and most reliable source of information about their jobs. They should
be trained or prepared to generate quality data for job analyses. Where
possible, jobholders should be informed of the importance and purpose
of the data they are requested to generate. They also deserve to be
rewarded for providing quality data.
Shortage of qualified HRM experts in job analysis. Job analysis is a
professional job and must be performed by experts if its results are to
be a helpful input in decision-making processes.
Job Analysis Problems…cont
41. In practice it is common that an employee that was hired a few years back
will be doing much more than what was in his job description when first
employed. This is what brings about the dynamic nature of jobs. The
Human resource department therefore is required to undertake the job
analysis activity more frequently, to ensure that there is a match between
what is being advertised as well as what is actually being done in an
organization. HR department is required to analyse a job as soon as a
vacancy appears in an organization.
Dynamic nature of the jobs is due to the following observable factors:
The process of hiring the right person of the job
43. The term recruitment refers to the process of searching the candidates for
employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. It is
the activity that links between the employers and the job seekers. Some view
recruitment as a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for
The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their
applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which
new employees are selected.
It is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of
qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though
specific vacancies do not exist.
Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manager initiates an employee
requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.
44. •Attracting and encouraging more and more candidates to apply in the
•A need to replace retired employees- As they work in organisations employees
advance in age up to a limit
•when they must retire and give way to new ones. The organization will
begin identifying and preparing possible job applicants who will be
•Employee Turnover- Employees are nowadays too mobile. They leave their
work organisations for various reasons and new ones must be recruited to fill
the positions of those that are leaving.
Why Recruit in a continuous basis?
45. •Technological Development-Technological developments may force an
organisation to recruit new employees. For instance the introduction of
new technology say, a computer, creates roles for computer
administrators, computer programmers, and computer repairers.
• Meeting the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the
composition of its workforce.
•Health Reasons-Some employees are forced to leave their work
organisations due to health problems and their employers must recruit
healthy employees to replace them
•A need to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best
candidates for the organisation.
…..Why Recruit in a continuous basis?
46. Identifying the vacancy-The recruitment process begins with the human
resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any
department of the company. These contain: Posts to be filled, number of
persons, duties to be performed, qualifications required.
Preparing the job description and job specification. Starting a recruitment
with an accurate job analysis ensures the recruitment effort starts off on a
proper track for success
Communicating the Vacant Job-at this juncture the work organisation
notifies the public on the existence of a vacant job. This information can be
communicated either to the organisation's current work force, or to the
general public depending on whether the policy is recruitment from within
or from outside or both.
The Selection Process-The selection process should be understood as a
series of steps beginning with receipt of applications, including all
functions up to the hiring of the chosen candidate. The number of steps in
the selection process varies with the nature of the organisation, type and
level of job to be filled. Large organizations are more formal than the small
48. An organisation has the option to choose the candidates to recruit either
from internal or external sources.
Sources of Job Applicants
49. Internal recruitment is a process of recruiting people internally within the
organization. Applicants are picked from the organization in question
a) Advantages of Recruiting from within the organization
Recruiting employees from within the organization has the following advantages:
It is cheaper and quicker to recruit, people already familiar with the business and
how it operates, it provides opportunities for promotion within the business – can be
motivating, the process signals to employees that career opportunities exist in
organization, and may improve employee morale and organization loyalty. Further,
the business already knows the strengths and weaknesses of candidates
b) Disadvantages of recruiting from within the organization
On the other hand, recruiting from within the organization has some limitations.
There are no new ideas which can be introduced from outside the business, external
candidates might be better suited / qualified for the job than those internal, the
process may cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed, creates another
vacancy which needs to be filled, difficult to do with rapid growth, and affirmative
action goals may be more difficult to achieve.
50. External Recruitment- with external sources of recruitment, applicants
have to be solicited from outside the organization.
a) Advantages of External Recruitment
As it is for internal recruitment, outside people bring in new ideas / fresh
perspectives, reduce expensive training by hiring experienced employee, may be less
upsetting to present organizational hierarchy, and provide larger pool of workers
from which to find the best candidate and allows rapid growth. It further increases
diversity with wider range of experience.
b) Disadvantages of external recruitment:
On the other side of the coin, external recruitment has some limitation as we had
seen for internal recruitment. Takes longer and costs more. More expensive process
due to advertisements and interviews required, little information about candidate’s
ability to fit with rest of organization, and so selection process may not be effective
enough to reveal the best candidate, destroys incentive of present employees to strive
for promotion, and outsider takes time to become familiar with current systems.
Further, the current organization members may fight new ideas thus affecting the
relationship among employees and the management
51. In the ever changing world we are living in, recruitment function faces a
number of challenges. These include the following:
•Adaptability to globalization – The HR professionals are expected
and required to keep in tune with the changing times, i.e. the
changes taking place across the globe. HR should maintain the
timeliness of the process
•Lack of motivation – Recruitment is considered to be a thankless
job. Even if the organisation is achieving results, HR department or
professionals are not thanked for recruiting the right employees and
•Process analysis – The immediacy and speed of the recruitment
process are the main concerns of the HR in recruitment. The process
should be flexible, adaptive and responsive to the immediate
requirements. The recruitment process should also be cost effective.
52. •Extra-curricula work- the realities of the general pay structures versus the
cost of living in most African countries for example, necessitates that
employees run private income-generating projects side-by-side their jobs.
For apparently good reasons, some work organisations have policies that
prevent their employees from doing any job other than that which they
hold in the organisation. In such a case, an employer may fail to recruit a
suitably qualified candidate, because the candidate owns and runs an
•Legal and political constraints-There is in every country legal and
political policies, which compel employers to maintain a certain percentage
of the work force for women, or specified jobs for the disabled. The realities
of the supply market do not consistently make this possible for employers.
•Job requirements-most highly skilled jobs are difficult to staff because
they demand skill levels for which suitable candidates are not easy to get.
•Competition in the labour market
•Poor/lack of human resources planning
•Size of the firm and cost of recruitment
54. Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for
performing the job assigned to him. In general, training can be defined as
the as a learning process in which people acquire knowledge, skills,
experience, and attitudes that they need in order to perform their jobs well for
the achievement of their organization's goals.
Training must be viewed as a planned process to modify attitude,
knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve
effective performance in an activity or range of activities
Development refers to the process of becoming increasingly complex, more
elaborate and differentiated, by virtue of learning and maturation. In the
individual, this grater complexity opens up the potential for new ways of
acting and responding to environment.
Training & Development defined
55. Employee obsolescence- It is important to update employee skills, which become
out of date or obsolete with time and changes in the environment. Employees
require new skills and experience to cope with the ever changing tasks.
Improvements in technology- The change or introduction of new technology in an
organization calls for employee training. For example when an organisation
decides to automate its manual production process, it must train its employees how
to correctly operate its new process. Avoiding training for excuse of cutting down
operational costs may result to decrease in output, a higher number of rejects,
machinery wreckage, constant repairs, and reduced job satisfaction etc.
Change of business-In liberalised economies, the practical rule of life for private
business proprietors appears to be “survival for the fittest”, where market forces
point to new opportunities, which make some businesses more lucrative than
others. As a result people become ever prepared to change from one business to the
other adding on new lines of business to existing ones as well as dropping
others. Such changes necessitate training of all affected employees otherwise the
gains anticipated from the new business fall through the fingers.
56. Job redesign-The redesign of a job very often necessitates retraining of existing
employees in order to avoid replacing them with new employees who possess the
necessary skills for the new job.
Transfers-Transfers of employees to other jobs or to other geographical locations
may necessitate training in order to equip the employees with new skills that may
be necessary to enable the employees maintain the desired levels of performance, or
orient themselves to the nuances of the new work environment.
Promotions-Promoted employees fit into new job positions where there is
significant uncertainty in the part of employee and the employer regarding the
promoted employee’s ability to perform to desired levels. Training significantly
reduces this uncertainty.
57. Competition-Competition forces work organisations to learn new techniques of
performing so that they can survive. These survival techniques may cause job
enrichment or enlargement, transfers, promotions, or general change of skill
requirements that may make training necessary.
Career plans- The employer’s role in executing career plans is to provide the
necessary conditions to facilitate the implementation of career plans. Career paths
very often require an employee to possess certain skills to be able to advance in his
or her career. The process of acquiring these skills often involves training.
Globalization-The globalisation of African economies has given rise to a changing
work environment in all work organisations. This fact means that organisations
must optimize the effective management of their employees in order to achieve
their strategic objectives and the satisfaction and development of their employees.
58. Levels of Needs Analysis
Training needs assessment is
diagnostic step, which seeks to
answer the basic question: what kind
of training the employees and the
organisation need. A TNA establishes
the current and potential difference
between the abilities, which
employees should possess, and the
abilities, which they possess in order
to perform their jobs effectively and
59. Benefits of Training
Improves employee morale
Builds positive corporate
Improves boss to subordinates
Reduces dependence on
Reduces dependence on
recruitment from outside
Performs the job better
Increased chances of
Training is Refreshing
Upgrade personal skills
Easily adjust to change
Increased self confidence
A well managed Training and Development program may be of a great benefit
to both the employer and Employee as stipulated below
60. Training Methods
On Job Training
Off the Job Training
Interactive e.g. Multimedia
Self Study(e.g e-learning)
61. Training and Development Challenges
Poor Data Bank
Viewing Training as an Event rather than Process
Poor choice of Trainers
Ad Hoc & Unplanned Training
Shortage of funds
Shortage of Training institutions and programmes
Poor support from top Management
Inadequate Competence fit
Absence of Policies and Procedures
Inadequate Evaluation of Training
Poor employee participation
63. Performance appraisal is viewed as the formal assessment and rating of
individuals by their managers at usually, an annual review meeting. It can also be
defined as a process of assigning judgmental value to the performance of an
employee during a given period of time.
Continuous performance appraisal is part of the manager's responsibility in
ensuring that the employees in his or her area of responsibility perform their duties
Performance appraisal eventually impacts on employees’ self image, group status,
motivation, career opportunities, staff development opportunities, as well as
remuneration. Ideally, the evaluation of the task performance forms the basis for
paying the performer of the task, though in practice, work can be paid for before it
The main objective of performance appraisal is to improve employee performance,
and through it to improve the performance of the organisation.
Performance Appraisal defined
64. Provides the employee with feedback about his or her performance during the
period of appraisal.
Provides the management with information about all its core functions of human
resources management i.e. recruitment, training and development, compensation,
labour relations, and health and safety.
Provides a basis for judging whether the organisation recruited the right people
for its jobs.
Provides the basis from which the organisation can judge if the selection process
produced the right quality of employees in terms of the job requirements.
Suggests the organization's training and development needs.
Provides feedback to employees about their progress and the skills they need to
become eligible for advancement in their career.
Validates the compensation scheme in use. e.g. increment, bonus e.t.c
Determines employee movements i.e. transfers from one job to another,
Benefits of Performance Appraisal
65. Performance standards refer to measurable indexes of the performance of an
individual or group. In this sense, a performance standard defines a performance
relationship between the employer and the employee
Commonly Used Performance Standards
67. Rating Scales-This is basically an appraisal instrument that consists of a list of traits
against which employees' performance is evaluated. The rating scales can be in a
series of boxes or a continuous scale.
Essay Method-The essay method is the opposite of the ratings method. This
method requires the appraiser to describe in essay form statements that describe
the appraisee's strengths and weaknesses.
The Checklist Method- Consists of a list of carefully formulated statements that are
judged to be representative of the employee's performance.
Performance Standards-Many organisations set performance standards that define
the acceptable performance standards in many of their jobs
Ranking-This method requires the appraiser to arrange the employees in rank
order from the best to the poorest performer. In the ranking method, the emphasis
of the appraisal is on ranking the performance of all employees, rather than on the
analysis and evaluation of the individual's performance.
Performance Tests- An organization designs a good performance test. The
employees are required to do this test, and depending on how well they perform in
the test, they are recommended for or denied promotion. The method is widely
used by the army, particularly in the air force.
Performance Appraisal Methods
68. The halo error/halo effect
The rater's personal opinion of the appraisee influences the rater. For instance, if a
manager personally likes an employee, that opinion may affect the manager's
evaluation of that employee's performance.
This is about awarding someone high ratings, this brings inconsistencies.
This is all about being extraordinarily strict raters rating very lowly.
This is about the appraiser issuing only average scores(median) to appraisee. It is
about reluctantly neither awarding high ratings nor low ratings. The grades of
such raters cluster around the middle only.
Common mistakes while Appraising
Guild system--In the middle Ages the guild system provided the beginning of initiatives to organise the training of apprentices and the employment of workers who possessed some skills. Craftsmen were able to organise and exercise control over their respective trades through their guilds
Factory System--During the 19th century, the discovery of mechanical power facilitated the development of the factory system of production. The invention of power-driven equipment and improved methods of production enabled products to be manufactured in greater quantities, and therefore more cheaply than in the small homes of the guild system.
Mass Production system--The increase in scales of production however, resulted into increased overhead costs and higher wages bills which forced work organisations to start looking for ways of making a more efficient utilisation of their production facilities and human resources
Job design should accommodate human engineering considerations of the job that is the design of the job should consider the human capabilities and limitations of those who are to perform the job.
Labour Union Policies
Jobs should be designed in a manner that respects any specific labour union policies there may be about the design of certain jobs
Jobs should be designed in a manner that fulfils the requirements of current government policies regarding the design of particular jobs.
Jobs should be designed in a manner that deliberately avoids conflicts with the expectations of society.
Autonomy means the ability for an employee to take responsibility for what he or she does, plus how and when he or she does it.
All people like jobs that have variety in their component tasks. Shortage or lack of variety can cause boredom, which causes fatigue, which in turn leads to errors. Jobs should be deliberately designed in such a way as to permit variety.
Job designers should deliberately build values of job significance into the jobs they design. Job significance refers to the knowledge that the job is significant to others in the organisation and or outside it.
Feedback is the extent to which the job allows employees to get informed about the effectiveness of their performance.
i) Preliminary Reception- The first step in the selection process is the receipt by the human resources department of either the applicant (walk in) or the letter of application after communicating to the public
ii) Scrutiny of Applicant's Biodata-The second step involves a closer scrutiny of the applicant's personal data by the human resources department and by the user department. This step is all about Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics.
Testing-Employment tests are methods of assessing the correspondence between the applicants' capabilities and the requirements of the jobs.
Selection Interview-This is a formal conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant's suitability for the job applied. The interviewing panel seeks to answer two key questions: Can the candidate do the job? How good is the candidate in relation to others who are aspiring for the job?
Medical Examination-The medical examination is one of the advanced processes, which involves candidates that have been sieved through the other processes and whose prospects of being recruited are very promising. The main objectives of conducting a medical examination are to; determine the physical suitability of the candidate to job demands, establish the employee's physical condition on entry into the organisation and to verify job-caused disabilities under workers' compensation law.
Supervisor's Interview-The immediate supervisor is the officer in the organisation who is ultimately responsible for the candidate that is being screened for recruitment. The supervisor is technically better placed to evaluate the candidate's technical abilities for the job.
vii) Hiring Decision- A decision is made and the appointment formalities put in place.
Employment at factory gate-Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. Advertisements-Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment.Employment exchanges-Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.Placement agencies-Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. Educational institutes-Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etlabour contractors-Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs.Employee Referrals / Recommendations-Many organisations have structured system where the current employees of the organisation can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organisation. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates
Job instruction is training that is conducted directly on the job, i.e. the trainer and the trainee are both on the job. It is used to teach employees practically how to perform their job. The trainer could be either a professional trainer, but very often, the supervisor or a selected fellow employee. The trainee receives an overview briefing of the job i.e. its purpose and desired outcomes, the trainer demonstrates the actions of the job to the trainee, with the intention of providing him or her with a model to copy, then the trainee is allowed to perform the job, imitating the trainer's model. This method is commonly used when training non-managerial employees.
ii) Job Rotation
This is training by switching roles. The method is popular as it helps to relieve boredom and thereby raise the productivity of shop floor workers. This method of training is known as job rotation. Each move in job rotation is normally preceded by job instruction.
Job rotation has some advantages; it makes the employee be capable of performing more than one job, improves the transferability as well as the promotability of the employee, reduces employee turnover, by giving the employees consistent anticipation for promotion and transfer. Further, it enables the employees get a wide view of the organisation’s performance processes, which increases their appreciation of inter-process demands and expectations.
The method has some limitations; it is costly and time-consuming, trainees spend a short time on each job during the rotation period and do not feel sufficient sense of commitment and accountability for their actions, and at the end employees do not develop specific skills, the become ‘masters of none’.
Apprenticeship is a training method, which involves learning from an expert employee or employees. This method may be supplemented by classroom training away from the job, where the apprentices attend formal training programmes in or outside their organisation.
Apprenticeship training is used as part of vocational training programmes in Tanzania and in Zambia. After attending the first part of their programme as full time students at vocational training colleges, trainees are attached to experienced employees in work organisations for a certain period of time. During this period, they work under close guidance and supervision of their "masters", as their trainers are called, until they master their work. The performance record during the apprenticeship period is treated as an integral part of the vocational training programme. Apprenticeship training is popular with university programmes as well. In Tanzania and Zambia, medicine and law graduates are required to take a one-year internship programme after their formal university education before they can be employed as qualified medical doctors or lawyers.
Apprenticeship training has a number of advantages to the trainee.
It involves high learner participation and therefore accelerates the apprentice's learning speed.Apprenticeship exposes the learner to real job experience, which accords him transferability of knowledge between theory and practice.
Apprenticeship gives the learner ample opportunities to repeat the tasks he is taught and thus faster mastery of the job.
The close interaction between the apprentice and the master enables the apprentice to receive prompt feedback, which he may use to reinforce correct job behaviour as well as rectify incorrect job behaviour if any.
With mentoring, a senior or experienced employee takes charge of the training and development of a new employee. It is sometimes referred to as coaching. Many organisations use this method to train and develop their employees. Mentoring is usually less formal than apprenticeship in that it is provided when required rather than being part of a formally drawn programme. The trainer acts as an adviser and protector to the trainee.
10.2.2 Off-the-Job Training
Off-the-job training methods are used because on the job training may be inadequate. Sometimes the management may want employees to be trained quickly because there are critical tasks to be completed. It may wish to train a large number of employees at the same time under a single trainer. The following methods fall under off-the-job training.
i) Lecturing Lecturing is mainly one-way communication from the speaker to the listeners. It involves a uni-directional presentation of learning material where the presenter speaks and allows limited interaction with the participants who listen and making notes out of the materials being presented
ii) Interactive computer learning packages, video PresentationsVideo, television, and slide presentations as methods of learning have great similarities with lecturing. In the place of a human being, under this method the participants are treated to an audio-visual presentation from a screen. The method serves time
iii) VestibulesSome organizations set up facilities and equip them with tools and equipment similar to those that trainees would find at their jobs. They use these facilities in training and development programmes. Such facilities are known as vestibules. Vestibules have the advantages of high transference, repetition, and participation as they resemble the real working environment. Vestibules are very common in hotel training programmes.
iv) Role PlaysThis is a technique of asking trainees to assume a desired identity and role. For instance, in a skill building workshop, a supervisor and a manager may be asked to switch roles. Then both would be given a typical work problem and asked to respond as each would expect the other to do. Each one gets an opportunity to see how one would respond to a similar live situation. Role-play isa useful method in attitude changing and interpersonal skills development.
v) Behaviour Modelling This is another training method, which is used by work organisations to change the behaviour and attitudes of their employees. Modelling behaviour means imitating, matching or copying behaviour through the process of observing an ideal person.Trainees may learn a new behaviour by observing the new behaviour or model behaviour and then being drilled by imitating it. Behaviour modelling has the advantages of high relevance, transference, repetition and feedback. It is often used in training managers on the correct skills for performance appraisal interviews and disciplining interviews.
vi) Case StudiesStudying a case involves analysing a real or hypothetical phenomenal situation where trainees learn the actions that other people have taken under the circumstances of the case. Besides learning the details of the case, the trainees get opportunities to employ their technical analytical principles during the analysis and discussions, and thus develop their decision-making skills. Case studies are very useful for management training and development programmes.
vii) SimulationSimulation is normally available in two forms: mechanical simulation, and computer games. A mechanical simulator is a facility that replicates the major features of the trainee’s actual work situation. Games are commonly used to train managers and other levels of business personnel. Under this method players take one role e.g. manager and the computer takes the other role e.g. union. The trainee and the computer may then bargain on such items as salaries and benefits.
viii) Self-StudyThe trainee is independent learner from carefully prepared instructional material. This method is applied where the learning process requires little interaction among the trainees and with the trainer. Examples of self-study materials are computer programmes learning materials on floppy disks, which are growing in importance among home users today. The method provides learners with high participation, repetition, relevance and feedback.
ix) Study ToursThe trainees are sent out for tour to observe or relate theories and practical life. Study tour is a useful training method if the tour is well planned and the venue carefully selected. In a study tour the trainees are able to relate concepts learnt earlier (probably theoretically) with practical processes. Study tours are common to the training of college students.
Poor data bank.-Viable employee training and development programmes must be based on accurate and up-to-date human resources and other data banks in the organisation. Some organizations lack important items of a typical human resources data bank, many of which have decision-making implications on the management of training programmes. Such items could include; total number of employees in the organisation, number of employees per job category and organisational units, job descriptions, career plans, gender profiles by job category and organisational units, age profiles, qualification profiles, employee seniority list organised according to job categories, list of available trainers, details of available training program etc.
Training & Development Viewed as an Event, Not a Process-Training is not a one-time event; it is a process. Whether it is on-site classroom training or blended learning, there is a need for something to happen before and after training, and we need to engage the employee throughout the process.
Poor choice of trainers- Training is a valuable investment whose returns are rarely realised in the short run. The human resources department should choose the trainers intelligently. Poor chosen trainers offer inferior training to employees. The HR department should appraise the competencies of trainers.
Ad Hoc and Unplanned Training -Ad hoc training can be far more damaging than no training at all. The lack of an individual development plan can lead to expensive training that provides no results. Training and development requires people’s readiness and alignment to the business. Annual training plans based on a competency perspective and systematic development plans minimize ad hoc training and elicit employee buy-in. Shortage of funds-Training and development is not a cheap human resources programme. Many work organisations cannot train their employees because they do not have sufficient money to meet the cost of the programme.
Shortage of training institutions and programmes- Another problem which faces training programmes in developing countries, Tanzania inclusive, is the shortage of suitable training institutions and relevant training programmes in the countries. Inadequate Needs Analysis-Training works only when a person needs to do something and is unable to do it and this inability stems from a lack of knowledge and skills. Without these two conditions, training will be ineffective. Hence, it is necessary for HR practitioners/professionals to analyze performance gaps and isolate the gaps that are due to a lack of knowledge and skills. Line managers have to be part of the training or performance intervention for them to engage employees. We also need to make employees aware of the need for learning, and only line managers can do that effectively. Without a needs analysis, training is likely to result in employees who are just going through the motions rather than learning. In such situations, the organization will be unable to reap the benefits of its investment in training.
Poor top management support As with most other human resources programmes, top management support is essential for the success of the programme. Top management often ignores this function for cost cutting measures. Some take it loosely, as a result its implementation becomes poorly supervised, and its resources become diverted to other business.
Inadequate Competency Fit-An organization's selection process should ensure that people are chosen for a job based on their fit with competencies required by the job. When placements are made just to fill a vacancy, regardless of whether there is a competency match, turnover is certain. Sometimes individuals may seem qualified yet turn out to be unsuited for the job. When employees leave after being hired and trained, the turnover cannot be attributed to training. It points to a critical need for competency-based selection.
Absence of Policies and Procedures -We say much about empowering people and cultivating their passion for the job, but such initiatives and qualities cannot succeed without supporting policies and procedures. For example, the information technology (IT) industry has been hit by record turnover rates, with expensive investments in employees going to waste because employees have left soon after being trained. Most IT organizations now have clear contracts, policies, and procedures to prevent employees from leaving immediately after training. Such preventive actions help to minimize employee turnover.
Inadequate Evaluation of Training- There is a need for a four-level evaluation framework: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. We want learners to be happy with their training and also learn, but more important, we want them to apply what they learned to achieve the desired results. The goal is to ensure that the learning makes a difference to the employee in that he or she finds the job easier than before training and the organization gains from better performance. When training makes a difference to employees, they are likely to be more committed to the organization.
Untrainable employees-In many of our work organisations it is not unusual to find a situation where employees have been promoted to supervisory or even middle level management positions on the basis of good job performance, age, and shortage of qualified staff in the organisation. Reference is made here of employees who for instance possess primary education, or a school leaving certificate with weak passes or complete failure. Such employees become a problem to the human resources department when the time comes for them to be trained, because they do not possess the entry qualifications stipulated by the training institutions.
Poor employee participation-If the training programme is not well designed and managed, it can become a source of employee complaints and dissatisfaction. Most work organisations in Tanzania form training committees to which they appoint representatives of different work groups. The pluralisation of the training committee is not intended to give the members opportunities to recommend themselves or their friends for training, but rather to democratise the decision making process related to the design and management of the training programme. The problems pertinent to training programmes that manifest themselves in the form of inadequate employee participation very often are discovered to be problems of insufficient transparency in the management of the training programme. The training programme should be explained to all employees so that they understand the basis and constraints of its design. When this information is not disclosed, employees accuse management and particularly the human resources department of favouritism, tribalism, and even bribery.
Quantity of work-Many jobs have measurable outputs. For example in manufacturing organisations, performance standards often state the total number of units that should be produced, the total number of reject or scrap units allowable, the percentage of production schedule to be achieved, and the number of hours the machine can normally be allowed to be idle,etc.
Quality of work-For many jobs, both those with quantifiable and unquantifiable outputs, it is useful to fix standards of performance based on the desired quality of output over a given period of time.
Expenditure Control-In many organisations, the performance of managers is partly based on how well the manager restricts expenditure within the approved budgeted allocations. Every year, a list of items of expenditure is discussed and approved by management. Each manager must use this list as a guide when making payments during the ensuing year. This however does not necessarily imply to cut down the budget for important functions such as health and safety and the like for cost cutting excuses.
Cost Control- The performance of managers could be partly based on how well the manager controls costsin his department. The costs for various items are reflected in the organisation's standard cost handbook. Other cost standards against which employees' performance could be appraised include the cost of wastage and cost of equipment maintenance. Cost standards are usually developed on the basis of past experience and judgement.
Profit-This is applied in business organization. Employees’ performance appraisal is based on the profits made by their section or department. Like costs standards, profit standards are usually determined in advance, and the employees' performance is appraised according to how they failed to reach the profit targeted or surpassed it.
Definable-The definability of a performance standard makes it easier for the appraiser to make a distinction among the various areas of performance and to avoid seeing all areas as similar. Also it enables the appraiser to discriminate good from poor performers. A clearly defined standard is not controversial. For performance standards to be definable; they must be stated in specific and measurable terms.
Acceptable to all parties-In order to increase their acceptability, performance standards are usually established through a democratic process involving the employees, the union, and management. Through this process, the necessary parties get to own the standards right from the early stages of their establishment.
Attainable-A performance standard should neither be set too high to be attained nor too low.
Relevant-A performance standard should be based strictly on the objectives of the job. It should also be an objective measure of the intended level of performance.
Reliable-The reliability of any measure depends on its stability and consistency. The reliability of a performance standard refers to the extent to which employees are able to maintain a steady level of performance within a given period of time.