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How to Be a Hit on YouTube.pdf

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How to Be a Hit on YouTube.pdf

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If you want create video content and have people find it, You Tube is the best service around and because YouTube is supported by advertising, it’s possible to make money from it two. There are hundreds may be thousands of YouTube “Stars” globally making six-figure amounts from their channel, with sum of the best channel earning much larger sums.

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If you want create video content and have people find it, You Tube is the best service around and because YouTube is supported by advertising, it’s possible to make money from it two. There are hundreds may be thousands of YouTube “Stars” globally making six-figure amounts from their channel, with sum of the best channel earning much larger sums.

how to get views on youtube,how to viral video on youtube,how to get views on youtube fast,how to get more views on youtube,how to get more views on youtube 2021,how to increase youtube views,how to get youtube views,how to grow youtube channel,how to get more youtube views,how to grow youtube channel from 0,how to grow youtube channel gaming,how to grow youtube channel fast 2021,get views on youtube,how to get 4000 hours watch time on youtube channel quickly

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How to Be a Hit on YouTube.pdf

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  8. 8. IEeEea IC yIiei /1e  ŷťȔâťȔǯ ĻƒƨȔâǩ žÆ uĻƒȔ ŀǯ yŷȱeȱ¦âNj ç /ŷȹ Ïŷ ƨâŷƨōâ ȱǯâ yŷȱeȱ¦âNj ŽĈ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉ ȤƬƌĈ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ÈĈȤɉ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽȤǬ žȦ ĻƒťťâōǯÉ ȸŀÏâŷǯ  ƨōƒȻōŀǯȔǯ KĈ£ȞƘ ɉŤĈ È£ȤŪà ÈɦŪŽñŪƘŌ ÈŽƬàŻȤǬ žȂ _ƒťŌŀťģǯÆ ȹĻƒȔ ŚƒŌâǯ yŷȱeȱ¦â ǯâƒǩ¾Ļ Ȕŀ¾Ō 6Ĉɉ ɉƬ ɉŤĈ ɉƬǝ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ Ȟ£ƘŻŪƘŌȤǬ ĻƒƨȔâǩ ȦÆ CƒŌŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ȦȦ uĻƒȔ ŚƒŌâǯ ƒ ģǩâƒȔ ¾ĻƒťťâōNj KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ ÈɦŪŽñ £ àƬƌƌɦƘŪɉɹǬ ȦĘ uĻƒȔ ŌŀťÏ ŷă ¾Ļƒťťâō ƒǩâ Ȼŷȱ ŚƒŌŀťģNj ŤƬƬȤĈ £ ɉƬǝŪà £Ƙñ ɉ£ȞŌĈɉ £ɦñŪĈƘàĈǬ Ȧç ǩâƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ĻƒťťâōÆ ƒǩȔ  Ïâǯŀģť sĈɉ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ £ǝ£Ȟɉ ĩȞƬƌ ɉŤĈ ȞĈȤɉǬ ȖȦ ǩâƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ĻƒťťâōÆ Ïâǯ¾ǩŀƨȔŀŷť  ōŀťŌǯ O£ŻĈ ȤɦȞĈ ɹƬɦȕȞĈ ȤĈŽŽŪƘŌ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ ȖȂ yŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ǯȱ¦ǯ¾ǩŀ¦âÏȌ ȱťǯȱ¦ǯ¾ǩŀ¦âÏ ȸŀâȹǯ |ȤĈ ɉŤŪȤ ɉƬƬŽ ɉƬ Ō£ŪƘ ȤɦÈȤàȞŪÈĈȞȤǬ ĘɃ aâ¾Ȕŀŷťǯ ŷť Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ƨƒģâ |ȤĈ ȤĈàɉŪƬƘȤ ɉƬ ƬȞŌ£ƘŪȤĈ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ ĻƒƨȔâǩ ȖÆ CƒŌŀťģ ģǩâƒȔ ȸŀÏâŷ ĘĘ eĻâ Ȕŷŷōǯ Ȕŷ ŚƒŌ⠃ ģǩâƒȔ ȸŀÏâŷ O£ŻĈ ɹƬɦȞ ɳŪñĈƬȤ ŽƬƬŻ ǝȞƬĩĈȤȤŪƬƘ£ŽǬ Ęç ƒƨȔŀȸƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ƒȱÏŀâť¾â HĈĈǝ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ɵ£ɉàŤŪƘŌ ɹƬɦȞ ɳŪñĈƬȤǬ ćȦ ƒōōǯ Ȕŷ ƒ¾Ȕŀŷť jȞƬƌǝɉ ɦȤĈȞȤ ɉƬ ɵ£ɉàŤŪƘŌ ƌƬȞĈǬ ćȂ ťťŷȔƒȔŀŷťǯ KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ ƬɳĈȞŽ£ɹ ɉĈɷɉǬ ȂȦ ƒƨȔŀŷťŀťģ $ɷɉĈƘñ ɉŤĈ ȞĈ£àŤ Ƭĩ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ ȂĘ ƒƨȔȱǩŀťģ ȸŀÏâŷ ăǩŷŚ ƒť w¦ŷȺ pĈàƬȞñ ŪƘŧŌ£ƌĈ ĩƬƬɉ£ŌĈ £Ȥ ɹƬɦ ǝŽ£ɹǬ ĻƒƨȔâǩ ĘÆ [ǩŷģǩƒŚŚŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō Ȃç uĻƒȔ ŀǯ ƨǩŷģǩƒŚŚŀťģNj O£ȤɉĈȞ ɉŤŪȤ ɉƬ àȞĈ£ɉĈ £ ŌȞĈ£ɉ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽǬ ǷɃ aâȔȔŀťģ ƒ ǯ¾ĻâÏȱōâ HĈĈǝ ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤ àƬƌŪƘŌ È£àŻ ȞĈŌɦŽ£ȞŽɹǬ ǷĘ eŀŚâōŀťâǯǯ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ɉŤȞŪɳĈȤ ƬƘ ɉƬǝŪ࣎ŪɉɹǬ žɃ ćɃ ȦǷ ćĘ ĘɃ Ȃç
  9. 9. IC yIiei /1e IC yIiei /1e ‡ ǷȂ [ōƒȻōŀǯȔǯ ɦȞ£ɉĈàƬƘɉĈƘɉɉƬŪƘàȞĈ£ȤĈɵ£ɉàŤɉŪƌĈȤǬ çɃ eâťȔĽƨŷōâ ƨǩŷģǩƒŚŚŀťģ O£ŻĈ ɉŤĈ ƌƬȤɉ Ƭĩ ÈŪŌ ĈɳĈƘɉȤǬ çĘ yŷȱeȱ¦â ?ŀȸâ KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ àȞĈ£ɉĈ £ ŽŪɳĈ ȤɉȞĈ£ƌǬ ĻƒƨȔâǩ ćÆ +ŀťÏŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ƒȱÏŀâť¾â çç IƨȔŀŚŀǯŀťģ ŚâȔƒÏƒȔƒ O£ŻĈ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉ ȤĈ£ȞàŤ£ÈŽĈǬ ŧȦ ǩâƒȔŀťģ ¦ǩŀōōŀƒťȔ ȔĻȱŚ¦ťƒŀōǯ ȞĈ£ɉĈ ĈƘɉŪàŪƘŌ ɉŤɦƌÈƘ£ŪŽȤǬ ŧȂ aŷ¾ŀƒō ŚâÏŀƒ ƨǩŷŚŷȔŀŷť |ȤĈ ȤƬàŪ£Ž ƘĈɉɵƬȞŻȤ ĈĩĩĈàɉŪɳĈŽɹǬ žɃȦ iǯŀťģ -ŷŷģōâǂ O£ŻĈ ɉŤĈ ƌƬȤɉ Ƭĩ ŪɉȤ ɦƘŪǿɦĈ ɉƬƬŽȤǬ žɃȂ -ŷŷģōâǂ /ƒťģŷȱȔǯ pĈ£àŤ Ƭɦɉ ɉƬ ĩ£ƘȤ ɵŪɉŤ ɉŤŪȤ ɉƬƬŽǬ žžɃ uĻŷ ƒǩâ Ȼŷȱǩ Ȕŷƨ ポǯNj KĈ£ȞƘ £ÈƬɦɉ ɹƬɦȞ ĩ£ƘȤǬ žžĘ ǩŷǯǯĽƨǩŷŚŷȔŀŷť ƒťÏ ¾ŷōōƒ¦ŷǩƒȔŀŷť pĈ£àŤ Ƭɦɉ ɉƬ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƌǝĈɉŪɉƬȞȤǬ ĻƒƨȔâǩ ȂÆ iťÏâǩǯȔƒťÏŀťģ ƒťƒōȻȔŀ¾ǯ žžç =ťŷȹŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ȸŀâȹâǩǯ |ƘñĈȞȤɉ£Ƙñ ɵŤƬ ɹƬɦȞ £ɦñŪĈƘàĈ ŪȤǬ žȦɃ /ŷȹ ƒǩâ Ȼŷȱǩ ȸŀÏâŷǯ ăŷȱťÏNj KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ĩŪƘñ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ žȦĘ ȱÏŀâť¾â ǩâȔâťȔŀŷť HĈĈǝ ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤ ɵ£ɉàŤŪƘŌ ĩƬȞ ŽƬƘŌĈȞǬ žȦç iǯâǩ ¾ŷťǯȱŚƨȔŀŷť KĈ£ñ ɦȤĈȞȤ ƬƘ ɉƬ ƌƬȞĈ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ žȖɃ ťģƒģâŚâťȔ  ŀťȔâǩƒ¾Ȕŀŷť ɦŪŽñ £ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ àƬƌƌɦƘŪɉɹǬǬ žȖȦ ƒƨȔŀȸƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ƒȱÏŀâť¾â 8Ƭɵ £ȞĈ ɹƬɦ £ɉɉȞ£àɉŪƘŌ ȤɦÈȤàȞŪÈĈȞȤȀ ĻƒƨȔâǩ ǷÆ CŷťâȔŀǯŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō žȖȂ aâȔȔŀťģ ȱƨ ƒÏȸâǩȔŀǯŀťģ KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ Ĉ£ȞƘ ĩȞƬƌ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽǬ žȖç ÏȸâǩȔŀǯŀťģ ŷƨȔŀŷťǯ |ƘñĈȞȤɉ£Ƙñ ɉŤĈ ñŪĩĩĈȞĈƘɉ £ñ ĩƬȞƌ£ɉȤǬ žĘȦ Ļâ¾Ōŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ âƒǩťŀťģǯ ȤȤĈȤȤ ɹƬɦȞ ĩŪƘ£ƘàŪ£Ž ǝĈȞĩƬȞƌ£ƘàĈǬ žĘĘ iǯâăȱō ōŀťŌǯ KƬƬŻ ŤĈȞĈ ĩƬȞ ĩɦȞɉŤĈȞ ȞĈ£ñŪƘŌǬ Ƿć ŧȖ žɃȂ žĘć žĘž žȦɃ
  10. 10. Ɓ Ȕ ŀȔǯ ǯŀŚƨōâǯȔÉ yŷȱeȱ¦â ŀǯ ƒ ǯâǩȸŀ¾â ȔĻƒȔ ƒōōŷȹǯ Ȼŷȱ Ȕŷ ȱƨōŷƒÏ ƒťÏ ǯĻƒǩâ ȸŀÏâŷ ȹŀȔĻ ƒťȻŷťâ ŷťōŀťâƷ /ŷȹâȸâǩÉ ȔĻâǩâǠǯ Śȱ¾Ļ Śŷǩâ Ȕŷ ŀȔ ȔĻƒť ȔĻƒȔƷ 1ť ȔĻŀǯ ¾ĻƒƨȔâǩÉ ȹâǠōō ōŷŷŌ ƒȔ ǯŷŚâ ŷă ȔĻâ ¾ŷǩâ ƨƒǩȔǯ ŷă ȔĻâ ǯâǩȸŀ¾âÉ ǯȱ¾Ļ ƒǯ ¾Ļƒťťâōǯ ƒťÏ ƨōƒȻōŀǯȔǯÉ ƒťÏ âȺƒŚŀťâ Ļŷȹ ƨâŷƨō⠃ǩâ ȱǯŀťģ yŷȱeȱ¦âÉ ƨǩŷȸŀÏŀťģ âȺƒŚƨōâǯ ŷă ģǩâƒȔ ¾Ļƒťťâōǯ ăŷǩ ťâȹǯÉ âťȔâǩȔƒŀťŚâťȔ ƒťÏ ŚŷǩâƷ uâǠōō ƒōǯŷ âȺƨōƒŀť ȔĻâ ¦ƒǯŀ¾ǯ ¦âĻŀťÏ ģâȔȔŀťģ Ȕŷ ȔĻâ Ȕŷƨ ŷă ȔĻâ ǯâƒǩ¾Ļ ǩƒťŌŀťģǯƷ uĻƒȔ ŀǯ yŷȱeȱ¦âNj IC yIiei /1e ý 1Ee_Iie1IE ƶ
  11. 11. IC yIiei /1e ê/ŷȹ Ïŷ ƨâŷƨōâ ȱǯâ yŷȱeȱ¦âNj ŽĈ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉ ȤƬƌĈ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ƌƬȤɉ ȤɦààĈȤȤĩɦŽ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽȤ £Ƙñ ɵŤ£ɉ ƌ£ŻĈȤ ɉŤĈƌ ŌȞĈ£ɉǬ ƁȩĻƒťťâōǯÉ ȸŀÏâŷǯ ƒťÏ ƨōƒȻōŀǯȔǯ 4ŪƘñ Ƭɦɉ ŤƬɵ ɉŤĈ ŻĈɹ ÈɦŪŽñŪƘŌ ÈŽƬàŻȤ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ȤĈȞɳŪàĈ ɵƬȞŻǬ Ɓȅ_ƒťŌŀťģǯÆ ȹĻƒȔ ŚƒŌâǯ yŷȱeȱ¦â ǯâƒǩ¾Ļ Ȕŀ¾Ō KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ ŌĈɉ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉ ɉƬ ɉŤĈ ɉƬǝ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ȤĈ£ȞàŤ ȞĈȤɦŽɉȤǬ 1E e/1a /[e_ IC yIiei /1e ù
  12. 12. 1Ee_Iie1IE ƶ /ŷȹ Ïŷ ƨâŷƨōâ ȱǯâ yŷȱeȱ¦âNj eĻâǩ⠃ǩâ ŚƒťȻ ÏŀăăâǩâťȔ ȹƒȻǯ Ȕŷ ȱǯâ yŷȱeȱ¦âƷ uâ ōŷŷŌ ƒȔ ǯŷŚâ ŷă ȔĻâ ŚŷǯȔ ǯȱ¾¾âǯǯăȱō ¾Ļƒťťâōǯ ƒťÏ ȹĻƒȔ ŚƒŌâǯ ȔĻ⌠ģǩâƒȔƷ u ŤĈƘ ɹƬɦ ɉŤŪƘŻ £ÈƬɦɉ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈë ɹƬɦ ǝȞƬȣȎɹ Ť£ɳĈ £ àĈȞɉ£ŪƘ ŻŪƘñ Ƭĩ ɳŪñĈƬ ŪƘ ƌŪƘñǬ jĈȞŤ£ǝȤ ŪɉȕȤ ɉŤ£ɉ ɳŪȞ£Ž ɳŪñĈƬ Ƭĩ £ à£ɉ àŤ£ȤŪƘŌ £ Ž£ȤĈȞ ǝƬŪƘɉĈȞë ƬȞ £ Ȥƌ£ŽŽ àŤŪŽñ ĩ£ŽŽŪƘŌ ƬɳĈȞǬ jĈȞŤ£ǝȤ ŪɉȕȤ £ ɉȞ£ŪŽĈȞ ĩƬȞ £ w‹ ȤŤƬɵë ƬȞ £ ȤǝƬȞɉȤ àŽŪǝǬ ɦɉ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ŪȤ £ÈƬɦɉ ƌƬȞĈ ɉŤ£Ƙ ɳŪȞ£Ž ɳŪñĈƬȤǬ ;ɉȕȤ £ ǝŽ£ɉĩƬȞƌ ĩƬȞ àȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ £Ƙñ ñŪȤɉȞŪÈɦɉŪƘŌ źɦȤɉ £ÈƬɦɉ £Ƙɹ ŻŪƘñ Ƭĩ ɳŪñĈƬ àƬƘɉĈƘɉë ƬĩĩĈȞŪƘŌ ɉŤĈ £ÈŪŽŪɉɹ ɉƬ £ññ ŪƘɉĈȞ£àɉŪɳĈ ĈŽĈƌĈƘɉȤǬ Ƭƌǝ£ƘŪĈȤ ƌ£ŻĈ ɳŪñĈƬȤ ɉƬ ǝȞƬƌƬɉĈ ɉŤĈŪȞ ǝȞƬñɦàɉȤë ƬȞ ĈɷǝŽ£ŪƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ ɦȤĈ ɉŤĈƌǬ sǝƬȞɉȤ ɉĈ£ƌȤ àȞĈ£ɉĈ ÈĈŤŪƘñŧɉŤĈŧȤàĈƘĈȤ àƬƘɉĈƘɉ ɉƬ ŌŪɳĈ ĩ£ƘȤ £Ƙ ŪƘȤŪŌŤɉǬ Ƙñ ŪƘñŪɳŪñɦ£ŽȤ ɉɦȞƘ ŤƬÈÈŪĈȤ ŪƘɉƬ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽȤ ñĈɳƬɉĈñ ɉƬ £ŽƌƬȤɉ £Ƙɹ ŻŪƘñ Ƭĩ £àɉŪɳŪɉɹǬ ŽɉŤƬɦŌŤ ŪɉȕȤ ƬĩɉĈƘ ɉŤƬɦŌŤɉ ɉŤ£ɉ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ĩƬàɦȤĈȤ ƬƘ ɹƬɦƘŌ ǝĈƬǝŽĈë ɉŤ£ɉȕȤ ƘƬɉ ɉȞɦĈè ɵŪɉŤ ƌƬȞĈ ɉŤ£Ƙ £ ÈŪŽŽŪƬƘ ɦȤĈȞȤ Ĉ£àŤ ƌƬƘɉŤë ɉŤĈȞĈȕȤ ȤƬƌĈɉŤŪƘŌ ƬƘ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ĩƬȞ ĈɳĈȞɹ £ŌĈë ĈɳĈȞɹ ñĈƌƬŌȞ£ǝŤŪà £Ƙñ ĈɳĈȞɹ ŻŪƘñ Ƭĩ ŪƘɉĈȞĈȤɉǬ ;Ƙ ƬȞñĈȞ ɉƬ ɦƘñĈȞȤɉ£Ƙñ ɵŤ£ɉ ɹƬɦ à£Ƙ ñƬ ƬƘ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈë ŪɉȕȤ ɵƬȞɉŤ ɉ£ŻŪƘŌ £ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉ ɉŤĈ ñŪĩĩĈȞĈƘɉ ŻŪƘñȤ Ƭĩ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ ɉŤ£ɉ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ Ť£ɳĈ àȞĈ£ɉĈñë £Ƙñ ȤĈĈŪƘŌ ȤƬƌĈ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ÈĈȤɉ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽȤ £ȞƬɦƘñǬ sª ě Bē³‘BðĄºsðíô ¨ē³Ö „ðij ό ³ ªsô ēÖ ĚBô ĚBĄ]œsh ª ęs SĜ ³Äðs ĄœBº s ‘œĄ ³ ªª Äº ÖsÄÖªs ĺ =Äē3ēSsÜ IC yIiei /1e y
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  17. 17. IC yIiei /1e IC yIiei /1e Ìć
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  21. 21. IC yIiei /1e u/e IiEea a aaa1IEǍ ƬĈȤƘȕɉ ɉŤŪȤ ƌĈ£Ƙ ŽƬƘŌ ɳŪñĈƬȤ ɉŤ£ɉ £ȞĈ ɵ£ɉàŤĈñ ĩƬȞ £ ŤŪŌŤĈȞ £ɳĈȞ£ŌĈ ǝĈȞàĈƘɉ£ŌĈ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈŪȞ ŽĈƘŌɉŤ ɵŪŽŽ Ȟ£ƘŻ ƌƬȞĈ ŤŪŌŤŽɹȀ RƬɉ ƘĈàĈȤȤ£ȞŪŽɹǬ ŽɉŤƬɦŌŤ ŽƬƘŌ ɳŪñĈƬȤ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ɵ£ɉàŤ £ ŽƬɉ Ƭĩ ɵŪŽŽ ñƬ ɵĈŽŽë ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ɉ£ŻĈȤ ŪƘɉƬ àƬƘȤŪñĈȞ£ɉŪƬƘ ɉŤĈ ɵŤƬŽĈ ȤĈȤȤŪƬƘ ɉŪƌĈë ƘƬɉ ƬƘŽɹ ɉŤ£ɉ Ƭĩ £Ƙ ŪƘñŪɳŪñɦ£Ž ɳŪñĈƬǬ 4ƬȞ Ĉɷ£ƌǝŽĈë Ūƌ£ŌŪƘĈ ɹƬɦ Ť£ɳĈ £ ȤŤƬȞɉ ɳŪñĈƬ Ĝ Ȥ£ɹ ɉɵƬ ƌŪƘɦɉĈȤ ŽƬƘŌǬ wŤŪȤ ɳŪñĈƬ Ť£Ȥ £Ƙ £ƘƘƬɉ£ɉŪƬƘ ƬƘ Ūɉ ɉŤ£ɉë ɵŤĈƘ àŽŪàŻĈñ ƬƘë ɉ£ŻĈȤ ɦȤĈȞȤ ƬƘ ɉƬ ɉŤĈ ƘĈɷɉ ĈǝŪȤƬñĈ ŪƘ £ ȤĈȞŪĈȤë ɵŤŪàŤ ŪȤ ĩŪɳĈ ƌŪƘɦɉĈȤ ŽƬƘŌǬ |ȤĈȞȤ ɉŤĈƘ ɉĈƘñ ɉƬ ŌƬ ƬƘ ɉƬ £ƘƬɉŤĈȞ ɳŪñĈƬ £ĩɉĈȞ ɉŤŪȤ ƬƘĈǬ $ɳĈƘ ɉŤƬɦŌŤ ɉŤĈ ĩŪȞȤɉ ɳŪñĈƬ ŪȤ ǿɦŪɉĈ ȤŤƬȞɉë ɉŤĈ £ɳĈȞ£ŌĈ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ƬɳĈȞ£ŽŽ ȤĈȤȤŪƬƘ Ĝ ɉŤĈ ɉŪƌĈ ȤǝĈƘɉ ɵ£ɉàŤŪƘŌ £ŽŽ ɉŤĈ ɳŪñĈƬȤ Ĝ àƬɦŽñ ÈĈ ŽƬƘŌǬ ;ĩ ɉŤŪȤ ɵĈȞĈ ɉŤĈ à£ȤĈë ɉŤĈ ȤŤƬȞɉ ɳŪñĈƬ àƬɦŽñ ƬɦɉȞ£ƘŻ £ ȤŪƘŌŽĈ ŽƬƘŌĈȞ ɳŪñĈƬǬ C=1E- yIi_ s1Ia _E= ee_ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ Ƙ£ŽɹɉŪàȤ ŌŪɳĈȤ ɹƬɦ ǝŽĈƘɉɹ Ƭĩ ɉƬƬŽȤ ɉƬ ŤĈŽǝ ɹƬɦ ɦƘñĈȞȤɉ£Ƙñ ŤƬɵ ɵĈŽŽ £ ɳŪñĈƬ ŪȤ ŽŪŻĈŽɹ ɉƬ ǝĈȞĩƬȞƌ ŪƘ ȤĈ£ȞàŤǬ wŤĈ ŻĈɹ ɉƬƬŽ ŪȤ ɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŪƌĈë ɵŤŪàŤ ŽĈɉȤ ɹƬɦ ȤĈĈ £ ɉƬɉ£Ž Ƭĩ ƌŪƘɦɉĈȤ ɵ£ɉàŤĈñ ĩƬȞ Ĉ£àŤ ɳŪñĈƬǬ wŤŪȤ ȤŤƬɦŽñ ÈĈ ɉŤĈ ŻĈɹ ǝĈȞĩƬȞƌ£ƘàĈ ŪƘñŪà£ɉƬȞ ĩƬȞ £ŽŽ ɹƬɦȞ ɵƬȞŻè ɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŪƌĈë ƘƬɉ ɳŪĈɵȤë ŪȤ ɉŤĈ ƌƬȤɉ ŪƌǝƬȞɉ£Ƙɉ ɉŤŪƘŌ ɉƬ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉǬ wŤĈ È£ñ ƘĈɵȤ ŪȤ ɉŤ£ɉ ɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŪƌĈ ŪȤ ƬƘŽɹ £Ƙ ŪƘñŪà£ɉƬȞë ƘƬɉ £Ƙ £ÈȤƬŽɦɉĈŽɹ ȞĈŽŪ£ÈŽĈ ƌĈ£ȤɦȞĈ Ƭĩ ŤƬɵ ɵĈŽŽ ɉŤĈ ɳŪñĈƬ ɵŪŽŽ ñƬǬ pĈƌĈƌÈĈȞ ɉŤ£ɉ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ŽƬƬŻȤ £ɉ ƬɳĈȞ£ŽŽ ȤĈȤȤŪƬƘ ɉŪƌĈë ƘƬɉ ƬƘŽɹ ŤƬɵ ƌɦàŤ Ƭĩ £ ȤŪƘŌŽĈ ɳŪñĈƬ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ɵ£ɉàŤǬ 8ƬɵĈɳĈȞë ɦƘɉŪŽ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ £ŽŽƬɵȤ ɦȤ ɉƬ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉ ɉŤĈ ƬɳĈȞ£ŽŽ ȤĈȤȤŪƬƘ ɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŪƌĈ Ƭĩ £ ɳŪñĈƬ Ĝ ȤƬƌĈɉŤŪƘŌ ɉŤ£ɉ Ūɉ ƌŪŌŤɉ ñƬ ŪƘ ĩɦɉɦȞĈ Ĝ ɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŪƌĈ ŪȤ ɉŤĈ ÈĈȤɉ ƌĈɉȞŪà ɵĈ Ť£ɳĈ ĩƬȞ ƌĈ£ȤɦȞŪƘŌ ɉŤĈ ǝĈȞĩƬȞƌ£ƘàĈ Ƭĩ ȤŪƘŌŽĈ ǝŪĈàĈȤ Ƭĩ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ ɦɉ ɉŤĈȞĈ £ȞĈ ɉŤŪƘŌȤ ɹƬɦ à£Ƙ ñƬ ɉƬ ŤĈŽǝ ÈɦŪŽñ ɦǝ ɉŤĈ ƬɳĈȞ£ŽŽ ȤĈȤȤŪƬƘ ɉŪƌĈ ƬƘ ĈɳĈȞɹ ɳŪñĈƬ ɹƬɦ ǝƬȤɉǬ uƒȔ¾Ļ ȔŀŚâÉ ťŷȔ ȸŀâȹǯÉ ǯĻŷȱōÏ ¦â ȔĻâ ŌâȻ ƨâǩăŷǩŚƒť¾â ŀťÏŀ¾ƒȔŷǩ ăŷǩ ƒōō Ȼŷȱǩ ȹŷǩŌ IC yIiei /1e Ìù
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  23. 23. IC yIiei /1e ě[_I-_CC yIi_ IEeEe jȞƬŌȞ£ƌƌŪƘŌ ŪȤ £ ȞĈ£ŽŽɹ ŪƌǝƬȞɉ£Ƙɉ ǝ£Ȟɉ Ƭĩ àȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ £ àƬƌǝĈŽŽŪƘŌ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽë ɵŤŪàŤ ɵĈȕŽŽ àƬɳĈȞ Ž£ɉĈȞǬ $ȤȤĈƘɉŪ£ŽŽɹë Ūɉ ŪƘɳƬŽɳĈȤ àȞĈ£ɉĈñ £ ȞĈŌɦŽ£Ȟ ȤàŤĈñɦŽĈë ŽĈɉɉŪƘŌ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ŻƘƬɵ ŪƘ £ñɳ£ƘàĈ ɉŤ£ɉ ɹƬɦȕŽŽ ÈĈ ñƬŪƘŌ àĈȞɉ£ŪƘ ɉŤŪƘŌȤ £ɉ àĈȞɉ£ŪƘ ɉŪƌĈȤǬ ;ɉ ɵƬȞŻȤ ÈĈà£ɦȤĈ Ūɉ ÈɦŪŽñȤ ĈɷǝĈàɉ£ɉŪƬƘ £ƌƬƘŌ ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤè Ūĩ ɉŤĈɹ ŽŪŻĈ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉë ɉŤĈɹȕŽŽ àƬƌĈ È£àŻ ĈɳĈȞɹ ƌƬƘɉŤë ɵĈĈŻ ƬȞ ñ£ɹ ɉƬ ȤĈĈ ɵŤ£ɉ ɹƬɦȕȞĈ ñƬŪƘŌǬ ȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ ɉŤŪȤ ŻŪƘñ Ƭĩ ȤàŤĈñɦŽĈ ĈƘàƬɦȞ£ŌĈȤ ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤ ɉƬ ɵ£ɉàŤ ȤĈɉȤ Ƭĩ ɳŪñĈƬȤǬ wŤŪƘŻ Ƭĩ ɉŤŪȤ £Ȥ ȌɉŤĈ ÈƬɷŧȤĈɉ ĈĩĩĈàɉȏ Ĝ ɵŤĈƘ ȤƬƌĈƬƘĈ ȤŪɉȤ ñƬɵƘ ɉƬ ɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŤĈ ĩŪȞȤɉ ĈǝŪȤƬñĈ Ƭĩ £ ÈƬɷ ȤĈɉë £Ƙñ ĈƘñȤ ɦǝ ɵ£ɉàŤŪƘŌ ĩŪɳĈ ŪƘ £ ȞƬɵǬ ”Ƭɦ à£Ƙ ĈɷǝŽƬŪɉ ɉŤĈ Ȥ£ƌĈ ĈĩĩĈàɉǬ wŤŪƘŻ Ƭĩ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉ £Ȥ ĈǝŪȤƬñĈȤë Ȟ£ɉŤĈȞ ɉŤ£Ƙ ƬƘĈŧƬĩĩȤǬ £Ƙ ɹƬɦ ĈƘàƬɦȞ£ŌĈ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ɉƬ Ȍɵ£ɉàŤ ɉŤĈ ƘĈɷɉ ĈǝŪȤƬñĈȏȀ Ċ?1E= u1e/ EEIee1IEa 4ŪƘ£ŽŽɹë ñƬƘȕɉ ĩƬȞŌĈɉ ɉƬ ɦȤĈ £ƘƘƬɉ£ɉŪƬƘȤ ɉƬ ŽŪƘŻ ɉƬ ƬɉŤĈȞ ȞĈŽĈɳ£Ƙɉ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ ƘƘƬɉ£ɉŪƬƘȤ £ȞĈ £ññĈñ ɉƬ ɳŪñĈƬȤ £ĩɉĈȞ ɹƬɦȕɳĈ ɦǝŽƬ£ñĈñ ɉŤĈƌë £Ƙñ à£Ƙ ÈĈ ɦȤĈñ ɉƬ ŽŪƘŻ ɉƬ £Ƙɹ ǝƬŪƘɉ ŪƘ ɉŤĈ ɳŪñĈƬë È£àŻ ɉƬ ɹƬɦȞ ɵĈÈȤŪɉĈë ƬȞ Ĝ £Ƙñ ɉŤŪȤ ŪȤ ɉŤĈ ƌƬȤɉ ŪƌǝƬȞɉ£Ƙɉ ÈŪɉ Ĝ ɉƬ £Ƙɹ ƬɉŤĈȞ ɳŪñĈƬ ƬȞ ǝŽ£ɹŽŪȤɉ ƬƘ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈǬ ŽĈȕŽŽ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉ ɵŤĈȞĈ ɉƬ ǝɦɉ £ƘƘƬɉ£ɉŪƬƘȤ Ž£ɉĈȞ ƬƘë Èɦɉ ĩƬȞ ƘƬɵ ȞĈƌĈƌÈĈȞ ɉŤ£ɉ ɦȤŪƘŌ £ƘƘƬɉ£ɉŪƬƘȤ ɉƬ ŌĈɉ ǝĈƬǝŽĈ ƬƘ ɉƬ ƬɉŤĈȞ ɳŪñĈƬȤ ɵŤĈƘ ɉŤĈɹ ƌŪŌŤɉ ƬɉŤĈȞɵŪȤĈ ŽĈ£ɳĈ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ŪȤ £ ŌȞĈ£ɉ ɵ£ɹ ɉƬ ŪƘàȞĈ£ȤĈ ɹƬɦȞ ȤĈȤȤŪƬƘ ɉŪƌĈǬ Ƙñ Ūĩ ɹƬɦ à£Ƙ ŽŪƘŻ ɉŤĈƌ ɉƬ £ ǝŽ£ɹŽŪȤɉ ɉŤ£ɉ ĈƘàƬɦȞ£ŌĈȤ ɉŤĈƌ ɉƬ ɵ£ɉàŤ ƌƬȞĈ ɉŤ£Ƙ ƬƘĈ ƌƬȞĈ ɳŪñĈƬë ĈɳĈƘ ÈĈɉɉĈȞģ 1ă ȸŀâȹâǩǯ ōŀŌâ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ŷťȔâťȔÉ ȔĻâȻǠōō ¾ŷŚâ ¦ƒ¾Ō âȸâǩȻ ŚŷťȔĻÉ ȹââŌ ŷǩ σȻ IC yIiei /1e ̽ .ēĄĄ º‘ ĄÄ‘sĄœsð Ąœs³BĄ ] ÖªBĜª ôĄô ôē]œ Bô Ąœsôs BªĚBĜô œsªÖô ĄÄ sěĄsºh ôsôô Äº Ą ³sÜ ;œÄ hÄsôºíĄ ĚBºĄ ĄÄ ĚBĄ]œ ªÄĄô Ą hðB‘ ðB]sôæ =Äē3ēSs BºBªĜĄ ]ô  ô Ąœs ÖªB]s ĄÄ „ ºh ÄēĄ ĜÄēð ÄęsðBªª ĚBĄ]œ Ą ³s ~ Bºh Ąœ ô ę hsÄ ºsshô ôijs ĚÄ𩂠.BðĄ Ą B ÖªBĜª ôĄe Bºh Ě Ąœ Bº BººÄĄBĄ Äº ĄÄ sº]ÄēðB‘s ĜÄē ĄÄ ĚBĄ]œ ³Äðs ~ Ąœ ô ę hsÄ  ô ª ©sªĜ ĄÄ  º]ðsBôs ÄęsðBªª ôsôô Äº Ą ³sÜ
  24. 24. C=1E- yIi_ /EE? ɞ IC yIiei /1e ďģ
  25. 25. IC yIiei /1e IC yIiei /1e ďÌ e Ļâ ¾Ļƒťťâō ŀǯ ȔĻâ ăŷȱťÏƒȔŀŷť ŷă âȸâǩȻȔĻŀťģ ŷť yŷȱeȱ¦âÉ ƒťÏ ăŷǩ ŀȔ Ȕŷ ǯȱ¾¾ââÏ Ȼŷȱ ťââÏ Ȕŷ Ȕȱǩť ŀȔ ŀťȔŷ ƒ ¾ŷŚŚȱťŀȔȻƷ /âǩâÉ ȹâǠōō ōŷŷŌ ƒȔ ȹĻƒȔ Ȼŷȱ ťââÏ Ȕŷ Ïŷ ¦âăŷǩâ Ȼŷȱ ǯȔƒǩȔ ȱƨōŷƒÏŀťģ Ƭŷǩ âȸâť ¾ǩâƒȔŀťģƯ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ŷťȔâťȔÉ ƒťÏ âȺƒŚŀťâ ȔĻâ ăâƒȔȱǩâǯ ȔĻƒȔ ǯâƨƒǩƒȔâ ŷǩÏŀťƒǩȻ ¾Ļƒťťâōǯ ăǩŷŚ ȔĻâ ǯȱ¾¾âǯǯăȱō ŷťâǯƷ uâǠōō ǩȱť ȔĻǩŷȱģĻ ȔĻâ ŚŷǯȔ ŀŚƨŷǩȔƒťȔ ƒǯƨâ¾Ȕǯ ŷă ¾Ļƒťťâō ¾ǩâƒȔŀŷť ö ŷťâǯ ȔĻƒȔ ƒǩâ ŷăȔâť ťâģōâ¾ȔâÏ ŀť ȔĻâ ǩƒ¾â Ȕŷ ȱƨōŷƒÏ ȔĻâ ¾ŷťȔâťȔ ö ƒťÏ ȱť¾ŷȸâǩ ȔĻâ ǯâ¾ǩâȔǯ Ȕŷ ŚƒŌŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ōŷŷŌ ƒǯ ŀă ŀȔ ȹâǩâ ƨȱȔ ȔŷģâȔĻâǩ ¦Ȼ ƒ yŷȱeȱ¦â âȺƨâǩȔƷ ȩȩuĻƒȔ ŚƒŌâǯ ƒ ģǩâƒȔ ¾ĻƒťťâōNj KĈ£ȞƘ ŤƬɵ ɉƬ ÈɦŪŽñ £ ǝ£ȤȤŪƬƘ£ɉĈ àƬƌƌɦƘŪɉɹ Ƭĩ ĩ£ƘȤ ĩƬȞ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽǬ ȩěuĻƒȔ ŌŀťÏ ŷă ¾Ļƒťťâō ƒǩâ Ȼŷȱ ŚƒŌŀťģNj ŤƬƬȤŪƘŌ ɉŤĈ ȞŪŌŤɉ ɉƬǝŪà £Ƙñ ɉ£ȞŌĈɉ £ɦñŪĈƘàĈ ŪȤ ɳŪɉ£Ž ɉƬ ɹƬɦȞ ȤɦààĈȤȤǬ ȩêǩâƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ĻƒťťâōÆ ƒǩȔ  Ïâǯŀģť sĈɉ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ £ǝ£Ȟɉ ĩȞƬƌ ɉŤĈ ȞĈȤɉ ɵŪɉŤ ŤŪŌŤŧǿɦ£ŽŪɉɹ £ȞɉɵƬȞŻǬ șȩǩâƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ĻƒťťâōÆ Ïâǯ¾ǩŀƨȔŀŷť  ōŀťŌǯ O£ŻĈ ȤɦȞĈ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ ñĈȤàȞŪǝɉŪƬƘ ŪȤ £ààɦȞ£ɉĈŽɹ ȤĈŽŽŪƘŌ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉǬ șȅyŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ǯȱ¦ǯ¾ǩŀ¦âÏȌ ȱťǯȱ¦ǯ¾ǩŀ¦âÏ ȸŀâȹǯ |ȤĈ ɉŤŪȤ ɉƬƬŽ ɉƬ ŤĈŽǝ ɹƬɦ àƬƘɳĈȞɉ à£Ȥɦ£Ž ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤ ŪƘɉƬ ȤɦÈȤàȞŪÈĈȞȤǬ ěɆaâ¾Ȕŀŷťǯ ŷť Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ƨƒģâ ȞŪɳĈ ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤ ƬƘɉƬ ƌƬȞĈ Ƭĩ ɹƬɦȞ àƬƘɉĈƘɉ Èɹ ɦȤŪƘŌ ȤĈàɉŪƬƘȤǬ 1E e/1a /[e_ CƒŌŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ȩ
  26. 26. C=1E- yIi_ /EE? ɞ IC yIiei /1e ďď uĻƒȔ ŚƒŌâǯ ƒ ģǩâƒȔ ¾ĻƒťťâōNj eĻâ ¦âǯȔ yŷȱeȱ¦â ¾Ļƒťťâōǯ ģŷ ¦âȻŷťÏ ǯŀŚƨōȻ ƨǩŷȸŀÏŀťģ ģǩâƒȔ ¾ŷťȔâťȔƷ ?âƒǩť Ļŷȹ Ȼŷȱ ¾ƒť ¦ȱŀōÏ ƒ ƨƒǯǯŀŷťƒȔâ ¾ŷŚŚȱťŀȔȻ ŷă ポǯ ăŷǩ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ĻƒťťâōƷ ŌȞĈ£ɉ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽë ŽŪŻĈ £ ŌȞĈ£ɉ w‹ ǝȞƬŌȞ£ƌƌĈë ŪȤ ƌɦàŤ ƌƬȞĈ ɉŤ£Ƙ £ àƬŽŽĈàɉŪƬƘ Ƭĩ ɳŪñĈƬȤǬ ;ɉȕȤ £ŽŽ £ÈƬɦɉ àȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ £ àƬƌƌɦƘŪɉɹë ȤƬƌĈɉŤŪƘŌ ɉŤ£ɉ ɳŪĈɵĈȞȤ à£Ƙ ŪñĈƘɉŪĩɹ ɵŪɉŤ £Ƙñ ɵ£Ƙɉ ɉƬ ÈĈ £ ǝ£Ȟɉ Ƭĩë àƬƌŪƘŌ È£àŻ ɉƬ Ūɉ £Ō£ŪƘ £Ƙñ £Ō£ŪƘǬ w£ŻŪƘŌ £Ȥ ɹƬɦȞ Ȥɉ£ȞɉŪƘŌ ǝƬŪƘɉ ɉŤĈ ŪñĈ£ Ƭĩ ÈɦŪŽñŪƘŌ £ àƬƌƌɦƘŪɉɹë Ȟ£ɉŤĈȞ ɉŤ£Ƙ źɦȤɉ ɉŤȞƬɵŪƘŌ àƬƘɉĈƘɉ ƬƘ ɉƬ ɉŤĈ ŪƘɉĈȞƘĈɉë à£Ƙ ÈȞŪƘŌ ɹƬɦ £ ʂĈ£ŽƬɦȤ ȤĈɉ Ƭĩ ĩ£ƘȤ ɵŤƬ £àɉ £Ȥ ɹƬɦȞ ÈĈȤɉ £ñɳƬà£ɉĈȤ ƬƘŽŪƘĈ Ĝ ȤƬƌĈɉŤŪƘŌ ɉŤ£ɉ ɵŪŽŽ ŽĈ£ñ ɉƬ ŽƬƘŌŧɉĈȞƌ £ɦñŪĈƘàĈ ŌȞƬɵɉŤ ĩƬȞ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽǬ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ŪȤ ĩɦƘñ£ƌĈƘɉ£ŽŽɹ £ ȤƬàŪ£Ž ĈɷǝĈȞŪĈƘàĈë £Ƙñ ɉŤĈȞĈ £ȞĈ ƌ£Ƙɹ ɉƬƬŽȤ ÈɦŪŽɉ ŪƘ ɉƬ ĈƘàƬɦȞ£ŌĈ ĈƘŌ£ŌĈƌĈƘɉ £Ƙñ ŌȞƬɵɉŤǬ ĈĩƬȞĈ ɹƬɦ ĈɳĈƘ ɉŤŪƘŻ £ÈƬɦɉ ǝƬȤɉŪƘŌ ɹƬɦȞ ĩŪȞȤɉ ɳŪñĈƬë àȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ £Ȟɉë ƬȞ ñĈȤŪŌƘŪƘŌ ȤƬƌĈ ŻŪŽŽĈȞ ǝŽ£ɹŽŪȤɉȤë ɹƬɦ ȤŤƬɦŽñ ɉŤŪƘŻ £ÈƬɦɉ ɉŤĈ ĩƬɦƘñ£ɉŪƬƘȤ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ àƬƌƌɦƘŪɉɹ ɉŤ£ɉ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ ŪȤ ŽƬƬŻŪƘŌ ɉƬ àȞĈ£ɉĈǬ
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  31. 31. C=1E- yIi_ /EE? ɞ IC yIiei /1e ď uĻƒȔ ŌŀťÏ ŷă ¾Ļƒťťâō ƒǩâ Ȼŷȱ ŚƒŌŀťģNj ōŚŷǯȔ ƒťȻ ťŀ¾Ļâ ŀťȔâǩâǯȔ ¾ƒť ¦â ŚƒÏâ ŀťȔŷ ƒ ǯȱ¾¾âǯǯăȱō yŷȱeȱ¦â ¾Ļƒťťâō ö ¦ȱȔ ŚƒŌâ ǯȱǩâ Ȼŷȱ ¾Ļŷŷǯâ ȔĻâ ǩŀģĻȔ Ȕŷƨŀ¾ ƒťÏ ȔƒǩģâȔ ƒȱÏŀâť¾â ăŷǩ ȻŷȱƷ B©s ôēðs ĜÄē ôÖsºh ôijs Ą ³s ðsôsBð]œ º‘ Ąœs ]ijÖsĄ Ą Äº ~ ôĄBðĄ º‘ SĜ ôsBð]œ º‘ „Äð ÄĄœsð ]œBººsªô ēºhsð Ąœs ôB³s ĄÄÖ ]Ü
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  35. 35. C=1E- yIi_ /EE? ɞ IC yIiei /1e ďy I ƘĈ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ Ť£ŽŽƌ£ȞŻȤ Ƭĩ £ ŌƬƬñ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ ŪȤ ɉŤĈ ǿɦ£ŽŪɉɹ Ƭĩ ŪɉȤ £ȞɉǬ 8ŪŌŤŧ ǿɦ£ŽŪɉɹ £Ȟɉ ȤĈɉȤ ɉŤĈ ŌȞĈ£ɉ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽȤ £ǝ£Ȟɉ ĩȞƬƌ ɉŤĈ ȞĈȤɉ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ǝ£àŻǬ sǝĈƘñŪƘŌ £ ŽŪɉɉŽĈ ɉŪƌĈ £Ƙñ ĈĩĩƬȞɉ ƬƘ ŌĈɉɉŪƘŌ ɉŤĈ £Ȟɉ ȞŪŌŤɉ ŪȤ £ ŌƬƬñ ǝŽ£àĈ ɉƬ Ȥɉ£Ȟɉ ɵŪɉŤ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽǬ wŤĈ ĩŪȞȤɉ ɉŤŪƘŌ ɉƬ ɦƘñĈȞȤɉ£Ƙñ ŪȤ ɉŤ£ɉ ɉŤĈ £Ȟɉ ɵŪŽŽ ÈĈ ȤĈĈƘ £àȞƬȤȤ £ ŤɦŌĈ Ȟ£ƘŌĈ Ƭĩ ȤàȞĈĈƘ ȤŪʂĈȤë £ŽŽ ɉŤĈ ɵ£ɹ ĩȞƬƌ ɉĈŽĈɳŪȤŪƬƘȤ ñƬɵƘ ɉƬ ƌƬÈŪŽĈ ǝŤƬƘĈȤǬ ŽɉŤƬɦŌŤ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ £ɦɉƬƌ£ɉŪ࣎Žɹ ɉ£ŻĈȤ à£ȞĈ Ƭĩ ƌƬȤɉ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ àȞƬǝǝŪƘŌ £Ƙñ ȞĈȤŪʂŪƘŌë ɹƬɦȞ £Ȟɉ Ť£Ȥ ɉƬ ɵƬȞŻ ɵĈŽŽ £ɉ ɳ£ȞŪƬɦȤ ȤŪʂĈȤë £Ƙñ ŪɉȕȤ ƘƬɉ Ȥ£ĩĈ ɉƬ ǝɦɉ ɉŤŪƘŌȤ ȤɦàŤ £Ȥ ɉĈɷɉ ŪƘ ĈɳĈȞɹ £ȞĈ£Ǭ sƬ ɵŤŪàŤ ĈŽĈƌĈƘɉȤ Ƭĩ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ £Ȟɉ à£Ƙ ɹƬɦ àƬƘɉȞƬŽȀ ǩâƒȔŀťģ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾ĻƒťťâōÆ eĻâ ȹƒȻ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ōŷŷŌǯ ȹŀōō ǯâǩŀŷȱǯōȻ ƒăăâ¾Ȕ Ļŷȹ ȻŷȱǠǩâ ƨâǩ¾âŀȸâÏ ¦Ȼ ƒť ƒȱÏŀâť¾âƷ +ŀťÏ ŷȱȔ Ļŷȹ Ȕŷ ŚƒŌâ Ȼŷȱǩ ¾Ļƒťťâō ƨƒģâ ōŷŷŌ ƨǩŷăâǯǯŀŷťƒōƷ _e  a1-E wŤĈȞĈ £ȞĈ ɉɵƬ ƌ£ŪƘ ĈŽĈƌĈƘɉȤ ɉƬ ɉŤĈ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ £Ȟɉè ɉŤĈ È£ƘƘĈȞ ǡŽ£ÈĈŽŽĈñ Ì Ǥȩ £Ƙñ ɉŤĈ ŪàƬƘ ǡŽ£ÈĈŽŽĈñ ď ǤǬ wŤĈ È£ƘƘĈȞ ŪȤ ɉŤĈ ƌƬȤɉ ñŪĩĩŪàɦŽɉ ɉƬ ŌĈɉ ȞŪŌŤɉë ȤƬ ŽĈɉȕȤ ɉ£ŻĈ £ ŽƬƬŻ £ɉ ɉŤ£ɉ ĩŪȞȤɉǬ Ì ď
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  37. 37. C=1E- yIi_ /EE? ɞ IC yIiei /1e ćģ e ŤĈ ȤĈàƬƘñ ƌ£źƬȞ ĈŽĈƌĈƘɉ Ƭĩ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ £Ȟɉ ŪȤ ɉŤĈ ŪàƬƘë £Ƙñ ŤĈȞĈȕȤ ɉŤĈ ŌƬƬñ ƘĈɵȤè ŪɉȕȤ ƌɦàŤ ȤŪƌǝŽĈȞ ɉŤ£Ƙ ɉŤĈ È£ƘƘĈȞǬ wŤĈ ŪàƬƘ ŪȤ ȤŤƬɵƘ ƬɳĈȞŽ£Ūñ ƬƘ ɉƬǝ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ È£ƘƘĈȞë £Ƙñ £Ȥ ɉŤĈ ɵ£ɉàŤ ǝ£ŌĈ ŪàƬƘ ĩƬȞ ɳŪñĈƬȤ ɵŤĈƘ ɳŪĈɵĈñ ƬƘ ɉŤĈȞĈǬ ;ɉȕȤ £ŽȤƬ ȤĈĈƘ ŪƘ ȤĈ£ȞàŤ ȞĈȤɦŽɉȤ ɵŤĈƘ ȤƬƌĈƬƘĈ ȤĈ£ȞàŤĈȤ ĩƬȞ £ ǝŤȞ£ȤĈ ɉŤ£ɉ ƌ£ɉàŤĈȤ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ Ƙ£ƌĈǬ ;àƬƘȤ £ȞĈ àɦȞȞĈƘɉŽɹ ȞĈƘñĈȞĈñ £ɉ ƛč ɷ ƛč ǝŪɷĈŽȤë Èɦɉ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ ȞĈàƬƌƌĈƘñȤ ɹƬɦ ɦǝŽƬ£ñ ɉŤĈ Ūƌ£ŌĈ £ɉ čʆʆ ɷ čʆʆ ǝŪɷĈŽȤ ɉƬ ȌĩɦɉɦȞĈŧǝȞƬƬĩȏ ɉŤĈƌ ĩƬȞ ŤŪŌŤĈȞŧȞĈȤƬŽɦɉŪƬƘ ñŪȤǝŽ£ɹȤǬ Ej$6ë 6;4ë Oj £Ƙñ jR6 ĩŪŽĈȤ £ȞĈ ȤɦǝǝƬȞɉĈñ ǡ£ŽɉŤƬɦŌŤ £ƘŪƌ£ɉĈñ 6;4Ȥ £ȞĈƘȕɉǤë £Ƙñ ɹƬɦ à£Ƙ ɦȤĈ ɉȞ£ƘȤǝ£ȞĈƘàɹ £Ȥ ǝ£Ȟɉ Ƭĩ ɉŤĈ ;àƬƘ Ūĩ ɹƬɦȕȞĈ ɦȤŪƘŌ ȤƬƌĈɉŤŪƘŌ ȤɦàŤ £Ȥ £ àƬȞǝƬȞ£ɉĈ ŽƬŌƬ ɉŤ£ɉ ŪȤƘȕɉ ǿɦŪɉĈ Ȥǿɦ£ȞĈǬ 8ƬɵĈɳĈȞë ɵĈȕñ ȞĈàƬƌƌĈƘñ ƌ£ŻŪƘŌ £ ȤƬŽŪñ Ȥǿɦ£ȞĈ ɳĈȞȤŪƬƘ Ūĩ ǝƬȤȤŪÈŽĈë ȤŪƘàĈ ɉŤĈȤĈ ɉĈƘñ ɉƬ ĩŪɉ ÈĈɉɉĈȞ ɵŪɉŤ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ È£ƘƘĈȞȤ £Ƙñ £ȞĈ ƌƬȞĈ ȞĈ£ñ£ÈŽĈǬ 4ŪƘ£ŽŽɹë ƌ£ŻĈ ȤɦȞĈ ɹƬɦȞ ŪàƬƘ ñƬĈȤƘȕɉ ŪƘàŽɦñĈ £Ƙɹ àƬǝɹȞŪŌŤɉĈñ Ūƌ£ŌĈȤ ɦƘŽĈȤȤ ɹƬɦ ƬɵƘ ɉŤĈ àƬǝɹȞŪŌŤɉǬ jŪàɉɦȞĈȤ Ƭĩ àĈŽĈÈȞŪɉŪĈȤë ƘɦñŪɉɹ ƬȞ ɵƬȞŻȤ Ƭĩ £Ȟɉ £ȞĈ ŽŪŻĈŽɹ ɉƬ ÈĈ ȞĈźĈàɉĈñ ƬȞ ŌĈɉ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ È£ƘƘĈñǬ XƘĈ £ññŪɉŪƬƘ£Ž ɉŤŪƘŌ ɉƬ ƘƬɉĈ ŪȤ ɉŤ£ɉ Ūĩ ɹƬɦȞ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ ŪȤ ƌĈȞŌĈñ ɵŪɉŤ £ 6ƬƬŌŽĈǷ ǝȞƬĩŪŽĈ ƬȞ j£ŌĈ ǡɵŤŪàŤ Ūɉ ɵŪŽŽ ÈĈ Ūĩ ɹƬɦȕȞĈ Ȥɉ£ȞɉŪƘŌ £ ƘĈɵ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽǤë ɉŤĈƘ ɹƬɦȞ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ àŤ£ƘƘĈŽ ŪàƬƘ £Ƙñ 6ƬƬŌŽĈǷ ǝȞƬĩŪŽĈ Ūƌ£ŌĈ Ť£ɳĈ ɉƬ ÈĈ ɉŤĈ Ȥ£ƌĈǬ O£ŻĈ ȤɦȞĈ ɉŤ£ɉ ɵŤ£ɉ ɹƬɦȕȞĈ àȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ ɵƬȞŻȤ £ɉ ɉŤĈ Ȥƌ£ŽŽĈȞ ȤŪʂĈȤ £Ƙñ ȞƬɦƘñ ȤŤ£ǝĈ £ȤȤƬàŪ£ɉĈñ ɵŪɉŤ 6ƬƬŌŽĈǷ £Ȥ ɵĈŽŽ £Ȥ ƬƘ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈǬ e/ 1IE ÷ a11E- ȞĈ£ɉĈ ɹƬɦȞ ŪàƬƘ £ɉ ɉŤĈ Ž£ȞŌĈȤɉ ǝƬȤȤŪÈŽĈ ȤŪʂĈǬ ŽɉŤƬɦŌŤ ”ƬɦwɦÈĈ àɦȞȞĈƘɉŽɹ ȞĈƘñĈȞȤ ɉŤĈ ŪàƬƘ ǿɦŪɉĈ Ȥƌ£ŽŽë ɉŤŪȤ ɵŪŽŽ àŤ£ƘŌĈ ŪƘ ɉŤĈ ĩɦɉɦȞĈë £Ƙñ ɹƬɦȕŽŽ Ȥ£ɳĈ ɹƬɦȞȤĈŽĩ ɉŪƌĈ Ž£ɉĈȞ Èɹ àȞĈ£ɉŪƘŌ Ūɉ £ɉ £ Ž£ȞŌĈȞ ȤŪʂĈ ƘƬɵǬ O£ŻĈ ɹƬɦȞ ŪàƬƘ ȤƬƌĈɉŤŪƘŌ ȤŪƌǝŽĈǬ wŤĈ ƌƬȞĈ àƬƌǝŽĈɷ ɹƬɦȞ ŪàƬƘ ŪȤë ɉŤĈ ɵƬȞȤĈ ŪɉȕȤ ŽŪŻĈŽɹ ɉƬ ŽƬƬŻ ɵŤĈƘ ñŪȤǝŽ£ɹĈñ ƬƘ £ Ȥƌ£ŽŽ ȤàȞĈĈƘ ȤɦàŤ £Ȥ ɉŤĈ ƬƘĈ ƬƘ £ ƌƬÈŪŽĈ ǝŤƬƘĈǬ O£ŻĈ Ūɉ ȤŪƌǝŽĈǬ :ôBē]s  ô B ‘ðsBĄ sěB³Öªs Ą B ô ³Öªs Bºh œ ‘œªĜ ðs]đº ôBSªs  ]ĺ ~  Ąíô ô ³ÖªĜ Ąœs „B]s Ą œÄôĄ  ]œBsª 1Ąsęsºôe Bºh  Ą ĚÄð©ô sęsðĜ̜sðsÜ e/ 1IE ÷ Iǯ E IEǢeǯ
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