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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

  1. 1. Introduction Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Assoc. Prof. Emad Nabil Faculty of computer and information system, Islamic University of Madinah, KSA Faculty of Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Cairo, Egypt 11 /11/2019
  2. 2. What is the definition of human intelligence and artificial intelligence
  3. 3. The human intelligence Plato defined intelligence as: the activity that gives its owner science and learning
  4. 4. The human intelligence • Oxford Dictionary: The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
  5. 5. The human intelligence • Edwin Boring Professor of Psychology at Harvard University The human Intelligence is what we can measure using IQ Tests
  6. 6. The human intelligence Intelligence is the term that includes the following mental abilities: • Analysis, • planning, • solving problems, • building conclusions, • Abstract thinking, • Learning languages, • speed of learning, • Ability to feel and express feelings • Understanding the feelings of others.
  7. 7. The Definition of Artificial Intelligence
  8. 8. The Artificial intelligence • The term artificial intelligence was coined by the American scientist John McCarthy in 1956 • He defined it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
  9. 9. The Artificial intelligence • AI research aims to create AI that can replicate or mimic intelligent humans. Some abilities of humans are: • Writing poetry • Drawing • Solving complex mathematical problems • Translation
  10. 10. Portrait of Edmond de Belamy (2018), The first AI-Generated Portrait Sells for $432,500 in an Auction
  11. 11. AI Types Weak AI • Weak AI is the use of software to study or accomplish a solution to a particular problem and does not include all human cognitive abilities. • Ex: Deep Blue: The famous chess program .. It solves certain issues but does not have the capabilities of human cognition such as awareness. DEEP BLUE - A super chess computer with the addition of specific circuits time-A prominent three.IBMproduced by,s1990developed in the early 1989who was defeated in the firstGary Kasparov,world chess champion and the second in 1996 with a score of 2-4 and then won the revenge match of six innings on May 11, 1997
  12. 12. Types of AI Strong AI is the case when the machine can: * Approach human intelligence * has some degree cognitive abilities.
  13. 13. The Robot Sofia • Appeared in 2016. • Sofia is a human-like robot designed by Hanson Robotics in Hong Kong. • The robot made headlines in the world as the first robot in the world to become a legitimate citizen by obtaining Saudi citizenship. • Sofia has some features of humans, like: • Expressing her feelings • Having sense of humor • Speaking and communicating in an understandable language
  14. 14. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5t6K9iwcdw
  15. 15. The Robot Sofia • David Hanson designed the robot to be: • A suitable companion for the elderly • To help people in large events, public squares (airports or train stations)
  16. 16. The Robot Sofia Granting Sofia citizenship has led to several questions
  17. 17. The Robot Sofia Granting Sofia citizenship has led to several questions • The right to vote • The right to marry (Bicentennial Man movie) • If disabling its system is a murder.
  18. 18. When do we call the machine intelligent?
  19. 19. When do we call the machine intelligent?  In 1950, the English mathematician Alan Turing designed a test if passed by the machine we consider intelligent.
  20. 20. When do we call the machine intelligent?  Using Turing test  As explained in the image in LHS, the goal From the test to determine who is the man and who is the machine  by asking questions if the judge could not differentiate between them, we say the machine is intelligent.
  21. 21. Is there a machine that has passed the Turing test?
  22. 22. Eugene Goostman • Eugene Goostman is an artificial intelligence software program that conducts online conversations as a 13- year-old Ukrainian child. • In 2014, at an event at the Royal Society in London, organized by the University of Reading, Eugene Gustman passed the Turing test, convincing 33% of the judges that he was a human. • Unfortunately the chatbot is not available online, which raises doubts about that claim.
  23. 23. Sources of inspiration for IA
  24. 24. Sources of inspiration for IA Today AI not only mimic humans, but also can mimic other species and phenomenon in nature. Neural network, deep learning Biology Nature Physics Ant colony optimization Quantum-Mechanics-Based Algorithms
  25. 25. Clonal selection algorithm DeCastro, Zubin
  26. 26. AI languages
  27. 27. AI Languages 27 Python  very simple and can be easily learnt.  Easier than Java, C++ or Ruby.  There are plenty of libraries and frameworks in python https://hackernoon.com/top-8-python-libraries-for-machine-learning-and-artificial-intelligence-y08id3031
  28. 28. AI Languages R : R is one of the most effective language and environment for analyzing and manipulating the data for statistical purposes.
  29. 29. AI Languages Lisp • one of the oldest and the most suited languages for the development in AI. • • It was invented by John McCarthy, the father of Artificial Intelligence in 1958. • It has the capability of processing the symbolic information effectively.
  30. 30. AI Languages Prolog: The features provided by Prolog include • efficient pattern matching, • tree-based data structuring and • automatic backtracking.
  31. 31. AI Languages Java: Java can also be considered as a good choice for AI development. • easy use, debugging ease, package services, • simplified work with large-scale projects, • graphical representation of data and better user interaction.
  32. 32. Applications of AI
  33. 33. The Super Doctor By the help of AI, doctors can diagnose serious diseases such as cancer, for example, before it is too late. It analyzes images to diagnose any possible early signs.
  34. 34. The Super Doctor • The ability to analyze medical images and notice the finer details that doctors may not notice. • Ex: Stanford has produced an algorithm that can better detect pneumonia ‫الرئوي‬ ‫اﻻلتهاب‬ than radiologists.
  35. 35. The Super Doctor Google Deep Mind is used in the UK National Health Services to detect potential health hazards by collecting data from a mobile application.
  36. 36. Cleveland Clinic and IBM , Cleveland Clinic is ranked as one of the best hospitals in the United States
  37. 37. Tree planting drone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EkNdrTZ7CG4
  38. 38. Are there risks of using Drones?
  39. 39. Self-driving cars Tesla One of the first automotive brands that launched a self-driving vehicle. Google, Audi, Cadillac and Volvo are also developing their own model
  40. 40. Self-driving cars Uber also made the first 50,000 orders by a self-driving truck. https://www.wired.com/2016/10/ubers-self-driving-truck-makes-first-delivery-50000-beers/
  41. 41. Self driving cars https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlThdr3O5Qo
  42. 42. Things To Consider About Self-driving Cars Police: Driving license please Me : I don't drive Police: 🤔🤔
  43. 43. Things To Consider About Self-driving Cars Officer: Sir have you been drinking? Me :“Of course, but not the car” Officer : 🤔🤔
  44. 44. Things To Consider About Self-driving Cars What about accidents! who is responsible ???
  45. 45. Automatic Programming • A higher goal of Automatic programming is to produce a smart program that can produce a program by itself. • i.e. give the program the details of the problem to design and it will produce the program.
  46. 46. Some AI Applications That You Can Try
  47. 47. AI Applications that you can try brain.fm https://brain.fm/
  48. 48. AI Applications that you can try Replika https://replika.ai/
  49. 49. AI Applications that you can try Ada https://ada.com/
  50. 50. AI Applications that you can try Deep Art Effects https://www.deeparteffects.com/ transforms your photos and videos into works using artistic style transfer of famous artists.
  51. 51. Some characteristics of artificial intelligence programs
  52. 52. Characteristics of artificial intelligence programs The ability to learn  The ability to learn is one of the characteristics of intelligent behavior  learning in humans is through observation (Supervised Learning)  or take advantage of the mistakes of the past (Reinforcement Learning)
  53. 53. Characteristics of artificial intelligence programs The ability to learn • The difference between deep learning and reinforcement learning • Deep learning is learning from a training group and then applying that learning to a new data set • Reinforcement learning dynamically learns by adjusting actions based on continuous feedback to maximize reward. https://jisrlabs.com/%D9%85%D8%A7-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D8%B1%D9%82-%D8%A8%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%82-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85/
  54. 54. Fears of Artificial Intelligence
  55. 55. Fears of artificial intelligence Significant advances in AI may lead to the humans' end.
  56. 56. Fears of artificial intelligence The argument is supported by the hypothesis: • humans dominate other creatures because they have a brain with distinctive abilities • so if AI outperforms human brains and in turn becomes super-intelligent • it will be powerful and difficult to control.
  57. 57. Fears of artificial intelligence • Programming the machines with values similar to human values is very difficult • AI devices may try to stop their shutting down • AI has a lot for humanity • AI machines will not have the desire to keep themselves running.
  58. 58. Fears of artificial intelligence Amazon Killed an AI Recruitment System Because It Couldn’t Stop the Tool from Discriminating Against Women https://fortune.com/2018/10/10/amazon-ai-recruitment-bias-women-sexist/?fbclid=IwAR1up6bTmEfV6Fi9BLCEouIKeFJqPGECMbEHmC8D9RvghDNHbQev1iXUbmo
  59. 59. Questions
  60. 60. Q1: Neural Network is not a new AI technique, why is it booming nowadays? • ANN needs learning which is a time-consuming task, in the past hardware was poor, but now the advances in hardware make learning NN an easy task. • ANN accuracy depends on the amount of training data, nowadays there are a tremendous amount of data in almost every field.
  61. 61. True of False Emotion understanding is not part of AI False
  62. 62. True of False Emotion understanding is not part of AI False
  63. 63. Give an example of Nature inspired algorithms Ant colony optimization
  64. 64. True or False creating a piece of music is an example of strong AI False