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Cities: Origin, Concepts of Growth, and Spatial Theories

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Cities: Origin, Concepts of Growth, and Spatial Theories

  1. 1. CITIES Origin, Concepts of City Growth, and Spatial Theories RAGENE ANDREA L. PALMA, EnP ragenepalma@gmail.com littlemissurbanite.wordpress.com
  2. 2. THE ANCIENT CITIES
  3. 3. http://img06.deviantart.net/e8bd/i/2010/298/a/4/mesopotamian_city_by_r_w_shilling-d31h7ig.jpg
  4. 4. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/6c/41/99/6c4199e409ff41855b0d9f1ebab509fb.gif MESOPOTAMIA (10,000 BC – 7th century AD)
  5. 5. http://eden-saga.com/wp-content/uploads/harappa-drainage-688po.jpg WATER-BASED
  6. 6. http://famouswonders.com/wp-content/gallery/pyramids-of-egypt/the-sphinx-at-gizacairo- in-egypt-with-the-pyramid-of-chephren-khafre-in-the-background.jpg ANCIENT EGYPT 3000-300 BC
  7. 7. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/5d/9d/b3/5d9db354df079509e0a4db4264964314.jpg ANCIENT GREECE 8TH-6TH CENTURY BC
  8. 8. http://www.nationsonline.org/gallery/Monuments/Acropolis-of-Athens.jpg https://image.slidesharecdn.com/06ancientgreece-voc-140420092915-phpapp01/95/ancient-greece-basic-vocabulary-10- 638.jpg?cb=1398603661 ACROPOLIS AGORA
  9. 9. http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/plato-caricature-gary-brown.jpg And let this be the law: If any one intentionally pollutes the water of a spring, or collected in reservoirs,either by poisonous substances,or bydigging, or by theft, let the injured party bring the cause before thewardens ofthe city, and claim in writing the value of theloss; ifthe accused be found guiltyofinjuring the water by deleterious substances, let him not only pay damages, but purify the streamor the cistern which contains the water, in suchmanneras the laws… orderthe purification tobe made by the offenderin eachcase. PLATO POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE
  10. 10. https://c1.staticflickr.com/6/5102/5598274412_1bfa5c2363_b.jpg Human well-beingis realized only partly by satisfying whatever people’s preferences happen to be at aparticulartime; it is also necessary for successive generations to leave behind sufficientresources so that future generations are not constrainedin theirpreferences. ARISTOTLE INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY
  11. 11. HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS (498-408 BC) “Inventor / father of formal city planning” Made the Hippodamian Plan or the grid city to maximise winds in the summer and minimise them in winter. This shows his geometric, arranged style in design Also worked on the Piraeus Port and Alexandria
  12. 12. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/736x/fe/e6/72/fee672f60beab2fa75ba4e4d3fb88299.jpg
  13. 13. Google
  14. 14. The Roman Empire (29 BC – 393 AD)
  15. 15. http://emilielatin2.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/0/3/10035891/5801088.jpg CASTRA
  16. 16. https://historyhiker.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/img_3343.jpg?w=2560&h=12 00&crop=1 VIA APPIA
  17. 17. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/5b/6f/76/5b6f76747f83612f6fdd2e4fb73288a2.jpg http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/foto/tekaquadmodel.jpg AQUEDUCT BREAKTHROUGH IN ENGINEERING, HYDRAULICS
  18. 18. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/5b/6f/76/5b6f76747f83612f6fdd2e4fb73288a2.jpg http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/foto/tekaquadmodel.jpg VIKINGS DESTROYED THE AQUEDUCT
  19. 19. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/w7x8P9-_Osg/maxresdefault.jpg FALL OF ROME Religious divisions, absence of military discipline, murder, and citizen unrest also brought about instability
  20. 20. THE DARK AGES / MEDIEVAL PERIOD
  21. 21. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Nuremberg_chronicles_f_72r_1.png MEDIEVAL CITIES
  22. 22. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Nuremberg_chronicles_f_72r_1.png CATHEDRAL CITIES
  23. 23. 1. Central to a church 2. Walled 3. Enclosure of the cities posed problems for growing populations because of the limited resources, epidemics, and generally unhealthy environment.
  24. 24. THE RENAISSANCE
  25. 25. http://resources.touropia.com/gfx/d/tourist-attractions-in-italy/santa_maria_del_fiore.jpg FLORENCE
  26. 26. http://www.flow-n.eu/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/moscow_primary_road_network.jpg COMMERCE as a driving factor
  27. 27. AMSTERDAM https://twistedsifter.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/milan-italy-at-night-from-space- nasa.jpg?w=800&h=534 https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/652909497862721536/Qj-aNER8.jpg MILAN THE MERCANTILE CITIES
  28. 28. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/cf/55/aa/cf55aa5b3656276beec272d560240a7e.jpg http://discovermagazine.com/~/media/Images/Issues/2014/May/new-york-map.jpg NEW YORK (NEW AMSTERDAM)
  29. 29. https://quadralectics.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/609.jpg WILLIAM PENN’S PHILADELPHIA (PENNSYLVANIA)
  30. 30. PHILADELPHIA TODAY
  31. 31. http://www.museumofthecity.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/LEnfant_plan.jpg PIERRE CHARLES L’ENFANT’S PLAN FOR WASHINGTON DC
  32. 32. http://www.citi.io/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/paris_aerial_view.jpg PARIS PLANNED BY BARON GEORGES EUGENE HAUSSMAN
  33. 33. http://www.paris-paris- paris.com/var/plain/storage/images/paris_landmarks/monuments/arc_de_triomphe/arc_de_triomphe_paris_4/138920-1-eng- GB/arc_de_triomphe_paris_4_large.jpg PARIS Green spaces by lining the avenues with trees and by using pocket parks all around the city
  34. 34. https://cdn.citylab.com/media/img/citylab/2016/04/champs_elysees-1/facebook.jpg?1461965589
  35. 35. https://www.mdhumanities.org/wp-content/uploads/Olmsted_Caricature.jpg “A park was never an ornamental additionto a city but an integral part of its fabric and a force for future growth on several levels:economic, social, and cultural.” FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED Father of American Landscape Architecture Wrote Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns Designed Central Park, New York
  36. 36. https://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/mt/assets/science/Amateur-built-environment-1-Sergey- Semenov.jpeg CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK
  37. 37. http://www.sacred-texts.com/utopia/gcot/img/diag01.jpg EBENEZER HOWARD Introduced the polycentric garden cities and the concept of three magnets (urban-countryside dis/advantages) Wrote Garden Cities of To-morrow
  38. 38. https://scodpub.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/city-group.png
  39. 39. http://urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu/DOCS/howard5.gif
  40. 40. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/1a/88/5e/1a885e2158b61f167c9df259c45e2d04.jpg
  41. 41. TO-MORROW: A PEACEFUL PATH TO REAL REFORM (1898) GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW (1902 reprint) https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51xdgeraLcL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/Garden_Cities_of_To-morrow_title_page.jpg/220px-Garden_Cities_of_To-morrow_title_page.jpg
  42. 42. http://www.letchworth.com/sites/default/files/images/letchworth_aerial_photos_142.jpg LETCHWORTH, UK
  43. 43. http://www.losprenger.de/files/fotos/aktuell/aktuell_2013/2013_05/Hellerau_Am_ Gruenen_Zipfel_3.jpg HELLERAU, GERMANY
  44. 44. http://welwynhatfield.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Howardsgate-Welwyn-Garden-.jpg WELWYN, ENGLAND
  45. 45. http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/cjp-rbi-communities-blogs/wp-content/blogs.dir/303/files/2014/02/green-belt-uk-1.jpg GREENBELTS IN THE UK
  46. 46. CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
  47. 47. http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4113/4837166785_8150d82e4f_b.jpg WORLD COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 1893
  48. 48. http://cdn.quotesgram.com/small/19/25/665199473-daniel-h-burnham-1.gif “Make no little plans. They have no magic and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever-growing insistency. Remember that our sons and grandsons are going to do things that would stagger us. Let your watchword be order and your beacon, beauty. Thinkbig.” DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM Father of American City Planning Planed Chicago, Baltimore, Buffalo, Cleveland, Manila, Baguio
  49. 49. http://burnhamplan100.lib.uchicago.edu/newberryexhibit/images/parks1-large.jpg THE PLAN OF CHICAGO
  50. 50. http://www.sagaftra.org/files/sag/branch_photos/chicago_banner.jpg CHICAGO
  51. 51. http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3209/1105/1600/burnhamsmanila3.jpg PLAN OF MANILA
  52. 52. http://images.gmanews.tv/v3/webpics/v3/2014/10/2014_10_16_15_30_20.JPG PLAN OF MANILA
  53. 53. https://burnhampi.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/picture-5.png PLAN OF BAGUIO
  54. 54. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/09/ad/f5/09adf5f4633a1bc0c322716195d00fa7.png http://www.renaud-bray.com/ImagesEditeurs/PG/41/41342-gf.jpg CHARLES EDOUARD JEANNERET (LE CORBUSIER) “We must decongest the centers of our cities by increasing their density.”
  55. 55. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/64/45/7f/64457fbadcdcf75eed75aa1190342d55.jpg LE VILLE RADIEUSE (RADIANT CITY)
  56. 56. http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/54f1/cc42/e58e/cea9/4300/01f4/large_jpg/Stuyvesa nt-Town.jpg?1425132604 STUVYESANT, NEW YORK
  57. 57. NEW TOWNS
  58. 58. http://arquiscopio.com/archivo/wp- content/uploads/2013/04/130403_Stein_RadburnOrdenacion_PLN02.jpg RADBURN, NEW JERSEY
  59. 59. http://www.genehaasdraws.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/1C-Frank-Lloyd- Wright-466x680.jpg http://www.metropolismag.com/Point-of-View/July-2014/What-Broadacre-City- Can-Teach-Us/broadacre1.jpg http://mediaarchitecture.at/architekturtheorie/broadacre_city/content/quadruple_ block_plan_jss_022802_wright_008.jpg FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT Designed the car-oriented Broadacre City (forerunner of suburbanization) Created the quadruple block plan
  60. 60. QUADRUPLE BLOCK PLAN
  61. 61. BROADACRE CITY
  62. 62. http://tclf.org/sites/default/files/styles/crop_268x268/public/thumbnails/image/He nry-Wright_sig.jpg?itok=636Lyjzn http://what-when-how.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/tmp14E64_thumb.jpg HENRY WRIGHT Introduced the Superblock Wrote The Report of the Commission in Housing and Regional Planning for the State of New York
  63. 63. THE SUPERBLOCK
  64. 64. http://tclf.org/sites/default/files/styles/crop_268x268/public/thumbnails/image /Stein_Clarence-sig.jpg?itok=_eb8Ffng CLARENCE STEIN Materialized the greenbelt resettlement towns across America Wrote the book New Towns for America
  65. 65. http://queensnyc.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/47th-street-sunnyside- gardens-queens.jpg SUNNYSIDE GARDENS, QUEENS
  66. 66. https://c1.staticflickr.com/3/2841/9315573353_07b1b1d74c_b.jpg CHATHAM, PITTBURGH
  67. 67. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/52/ClarencePerry1935.jpg https://i1.wp.com/thecityecosystem.com/wp- content/uploads/2015/10/neighborhodd-unit-c2.jpg?fit=764%2C1035 CLARENCE PERRY Introduced the concept of the pedestrian-oriented neighborhood unit
  68. 68. REGIONAL PLANNING
  69. 69. http://www.azquotes.com/picture-quotes/quote-this-is-a-green-world-with-animals- comparatively-few-and-small-and-dependent-on-the-patrick-geddes-76-35-46.jpg SIR PATRICK GEDDES Father of Regional Planning Wrote City Development: A Study of Parks, Gardens, and Culture Institutes; Civics as Applied Sociology; Cities in Evolution Popularized the Survey Analysis Plan Introduced the terms “conurbation” and “city- region” difference Biologist and planner, sociologist and geographer
  70. 70. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/3a/f0/06/3af0066e3465edf6646d19437868367c.jpg THE VALLEY SECTION
  71. 71. LAND USE PLANNING
  72. 72. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/48/f0/d7/48f0d76711e8240fe6c5ceed1b8c04ce.jpg
  73. 73. http://israel.travel/ckfinder/userfiles/images/telaviv1.jpg https://previews.123rf.com/images/pjhpix/pjhpix1505/pjhpix150500010/40234662-View-of-the-densely-populated-Blue-City-of-Jodhpur-in- Rajasthan-India-Stock-Photo.jpg CONURBATION TEL AVIV, ISRAEL JODHPUR, INDIA
  74. 74. https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/nameless-city-map-5258569.jpg CITY
  75. 75. http://www.insivia.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/regions-map-main2.jpg REGION
  76. 76. https://urban.uchicago.edu/sites/urbaninitiative.uchicago.edu/files/styles/homefeature- large/public/uploads/images/COLORADJshutterstock_91086614_adj-crop.jpg?itok=QgMwuMtG URBAN
  77. 77. http://combiboilersleeds.com/image.php?pic=/images/rural/rural-5.jpg RURAL
  78. 78. https://media1.britannica.com/eb-media/12/126812-004-2BB9C7F1.jpg SIR LESLIE PATRICK ABERCROMBIE Re-planned London: The Country of London Plan And the Greater London Regional Plan (Abercrombie Plan) Started the New Towns movement in the UK; planned to combat sprawling by resettlement Wrote A Plan for the City & County of Kingston upon Hull
  79. 79. https://thesemaphoreline.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/abercrombie-plan- communities-map-1942.jpg ABERCROMIE PLAN: NEW TOWNS FOR POST-WAR LONDON
  80. 80. http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/lewis-mumford-1895- 1990-granger.jpg LEWIS MUMFORD A historian-sociologist who studied cities and architecture From his 23 books, the most prominent in city planning is The City in History, which pointed out how technology and nature could be harmonious. This also gave the concept of an organic city and rationalised how planning has various disciplines. Mumford was friends with City Beautiful advocates Frank Lloyd Wright, Clarence Stein, and Frederic Osborn.
  81. 81. Mumford and Wright exchanged transatlantic letters on professional and personal matters.
  82. 82. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/BentonMacKaye.jpg BENTON MCKAYE (1879-1975) Originator of the 3,500 km Appalachian Trail in the eastern US Was a forester and conservationist, and co-founded the Wilderness Society. He championed regional conservationism
  83. 83. APPALACHIAN TRAIL The Appalachian Trail extends from Georgia to Maine. It is the home to at least 2,000 plant and animal species. Millions of people take a shot at this hike-only trail.
  84. 84. The Regional Planning Association of America. Clarence Stein, Benton McKaye, Lewis Mumford, Alexander Bing (a real estate developer), and Henry Wright.
  85. 85. CITY FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT
  86. 86. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bassett#/media/File:Edward_Murray_Bas sett.jpg EDWARD MURRAY BASSET (1863-1948) Urban planner and lawyer who was the Father of American Zoning. He was the first to use zoning as a means of implementing land use in New York. He wrote books about zoning. Also coined the term freeway and parkway
  87. 87. http://www.babelio.com/users/AVT_Arturo-Soria-y-Mata_6269.jpeg DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA (1844-1920) Made the concept of the Linear City, which has many parallel and specialised functions. The linear city gears away from the usual centric urban forms. The lines help control the expansion of a city.
  88. 88. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Ciudad_lineal_de_Artur o_Soria.jpg CIUDAD LINEAL (LINEAR CITY)
  89. 89. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/564x/2d/66/29/2d66291f3839b8035c694ac5e40e8b63.jpg CIUDAD LINEAL (LINEAR CITY)
  90. 90. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Tony_garnier.jpg TONY GARNIER (1869-1948) Followed Soria y Mata’s linear city and created the concept of a linear, industrial city. He envisioned the plan to cater to 35,000 residents, and followed the principles of function, greeneries, open space, and exposure to the sunlight. The industrial city is linked by circular patterns He also already used the concept of zoning and labeled spaces into leisure, industry, work, and transport.
  91. 91. https://senacatal.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/cite_industrielle1317937144105 1366370620480-145bd53109e1a099fd6.png?w=656 UN CITE INDUSTRIELLE
  92. 92. THOMAS ADAMS (1871-1940) As an architect, he worked primarily on low-density residences or garden suburbs Founded the British Town Planning Institute, became the Town Planning Advisor to the Local Government Board, then moved to Canada and yet again became an adviser to the Commission of Conservation Wrote the book Rural Planning and Development Pushed for planning legislation by mandate, local plans, zoning, building regulations, and recognised the responsibility of a licensed or professional planner. (This stems all the way to our present laws.) http://www.kosmoid.net/planning/adams_files/image001.jpg
  93. 93. CITY EFFICIENT MOVEMENT
  94. 94. CONSTANTINOS APOSTOLOS DOXIADIS (1914-1975) Studied the science of human settlements, known to us today as ekistics. This branch of science is vast and looks into the culture, economies, and society in varying scales http://malden.wickedlocal.com/storyimage/WL/20150115/NEWS/150118154/AR/0/AR-150118154.jpg
  95. 95. http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger2/7109/397093975058892/320/eki_circles.1.pn g EKISTICS
  96. 96. http://payload387.cargocollective.com/1/18/606231/10056139/150615- Presentation-2-Ekistics2_566.jpg
  97. 97. FRANCIS STUART CHAPIN (1888-1974) As a sociologist and educator, he stressed the importance of quantifying social activities in an evolving city through statistics. He was the first to write the textbooks on urban and regional planning http://images.artwanted.com/large/02/21381_825802.jpg
  98. 98. Amazon THE FIRST TEXTBOOKS ON URBAN PLANNING
  99. 99. http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/rits/lowry.pdf IRA LOWRY Worked with ROBERT GARIN on a model. This model came up after a series of research on land use and transportation. Published A Model of Metropolis, a computer model for spatial organization of anthropogenic activities in a metropolitan area. It generates an assessment that can be the basis for urban policy decisions.
  100. 100. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/LowryModel.png/60 0px-LowryModel.png The model became a tool for urban and regional planning. Looks at the relationship and logic to the spatial arrangement of human activities. Shows gravity modelling (in transport planning, trip distribution), or the farther the distance, the more interaction declines (commonly known as distance decay.)
  101. 101. https://littlemissurbanite.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/screen-shot-2015-09-25-at-9-46-27- am.png http://www.imoney.ph/articles/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/philippines-fails-traffic_cs1.jpg
  102. 102. WILLIAM LEVITT (1907-1994) Father of American Suburbia / The King of Suburbia / The Inventor of the Suburb Mass produced houses that were affordable http://img.timeinc.net/time/magazine/archive/covers/1950/1101500703_4 00.jpg
  103. 103. twisted sifter.com SUBURBANIZATION: A TERRIBLE WASTE OF SPACE EDEN, FLORIDA
  104. 104. CATHERINE BAUER WURSTER (1905-1964) An advocate of social and public housing. She authored the American Housing Act of 1937 and was an adviser to five presidents. Wrote the book Modern Housing She also worked with Lewis Mumford https://covers.openlibrary.org/b/id/1458156-M.jpg
  105. 105. https://cdn.lrb.co.uk/assets/edillus/lear02_3806_01.jpg ROBERT MOSES
  106. 106. https://cdn.lrb.co.uk/assets/edillus/lear02_3806_01.jpg ROBERT MOSES the Master Builder of New York. His plans had parkways, expressways, and housing development all over the city one of the most controversial figures in the history of urban planning
  107. 107. https://cdn.lrb.co.uk/assets/edillus/lear02_3806_01.jpg https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51RFKpOxk2L.jpg https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51bkwiJZ0ML._AC_UL320_SR208,320_.jpg http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51P6T6DVmML._SX326_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/41%2B4b%2BtKRlL._SX329_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51hvaI1zS5L._SX373_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg
  108. 108. LOWER MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY
  109. 109. Masterplan required the destruction of existing communities and neighbourhoods to be built. This was an irony in doing supposedly public works. The urban renewal under Moses was also done through gentrification, which means that renewal and rebuilding for investments and “improvements” really displaced the poorer residents. This was a problem of social exclusion. It drove away the poor, black neighbourhoods, and the “smaller” people of the community.
  110. 110. http://newafricanmagazine.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Gentrification-628x471.jpg
  111. 111. https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/gentrification-brooklyn-human-rights- violation/402460/ GENTRIFICATION
  112. 112. https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/gentrification-brooklyn-human-rights- violation/402460/ http://affinitymagazine.us/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/gentrification2.jpg GENTRIFICATION The renovation and renewal of old buildings Arrival of wealthier people Increase in rents and property values Displacement of lower income families and small businesses Changes in the area’s culture and character
  113. 113. https://thecyberpsyche.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/20130814- 215138.jpg?w=470 SOCIAL EXCLUSION
  114. 114. ADVOCACY AND EQUITY PLANNING PAUL DAVIDOFF (1930-1984) Father of Advocacy Planning. He paved the way to stand against the destructive effects of urban renewal Wrote the famous article Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning SAUL DAVID ALINSKY (1909-1972) Founder of modern community organizing Wrote the book Rules for Radicals Worked with the poorer communities, and influenced neighbourhood organisations SHERRY ARNSTEIN (d. 1997) Social and health worker Published an article on the ladder of citizen participation, which gave not only a voice but power to the citizens. This addressed how citizens were being victimised, and led the way to participatory planning. http://rwandansrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/human-rights.jpg
  115. 115. lithgow-schmidt.dk 8 RUNGS ON THE LADDER OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
  116. 116. NEW URBANISM
  117. 117. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/540ce270e4b02ecebb65b248/t/553afd46e4b0e61851 58ec65/1429929369187/ JANE JACOBS
  118. 118. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/540ce270e4b02ecebb65b248/t/553afd46e4b0e61851 58ec65/1429929369187/ JANE JACOBS “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.”
  119. 119. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/540ce270e4b02ecebb65b248/t/553afd46e4b0e61851 58ec65/1429929369187/ JANE JACOBS An urban activist who was strong and vocal against urban renewal; she fought for new urbanism Wrote the powerful book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which was an open attack on urban renewal; provided insight into the decline of neighbourhoods in New York; became a voice for slums and communities Her book and activism led to the eventual fall of urban renewal towards city diversity, mixed-use, dense neighborhoods, and vibrant communities. Also wrote the book The Economy of Cities
  120. 120. http://i.gr-assets.com/images/S/compressed.photo.goodreads.com/books/1348414116i/85398._UY400_SS400_.jpg
  121. 121. archdaily.com
  122. 122. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-mv0PcJ1g2D0/T58KA3019HI/AAAAAAAAAJQ/rBlB1_oQ_YU/s1600/2012-JW-JJNYC.jpg
  123. 123. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_UKr9URsCkeE/S-qtjSnMwEI/AAAAAAAAIrU/ZNMdd8XBb_8/s1600/12507.jpg
  124. 124. Planetizen.com
  125. 125. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
  126. 126. http://www.kgbreport.com/images/rachelcarson.jpg A marine biologist Wrote the powerful book Silent Spring, a haunting compilation and narrative of research about the detrimental and even lethal effects of pesticides and fertilisers on the living environment. This book launched a global environmental movement Wrote Sea Around Us RACHEL LOUISE CARSON (1907-1964)
  127. 127. http://www.rachelcarson.org/graphics/books/SilentSpring50_300.png http://www.rachelcarson.org/graphics/books/SeaAroundUs.png
  128. 128. http://billanddavescocktailhour.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Rachel1-525x620.jpg
  129. 129. http://www.azquotes.com/picture-quotes/quote-we-are-the-bullies-of-the-earth-strong-foul- coarse-greedy-careless-indifferent-to-others-ian-mcharg-133-79-66.jpg IAN MCHARG (1920-2001) Was called an “architect who valued a site’s natural features” (New York Times) Transformed efforts of traditional planning into environmental planning by using the technique of sieve mapping or overlay, which took into account the varied features of the environment.
  130. 130. saylordotorg.github.io https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51yyLwGJa-L._SY494_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/d0/43/9e/d0439e1c30a643280573bebf2959e6d7.jpg SIEVE MAPPING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
  131. 131. THEORIES OF URBAN GROWTH AND LAND USE
  132. 132. http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2011/09/13/article-2036773-0DDEAFA600000578-338_964x727.jpg BOUNDARIES
  133. 133. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/EART/maps/oaklandlanduse.jpg LAND USE
  134. 134. https://image.shutterstock.com/z/stock-vector-vector-europe-map-with-nodes- linked-by-lines-connecting-dots-and-lines-connection-structure-351460493.jpg NODES AND CENTERS
  135. 135. https://images-na.ssl-images- amazon.com/images/I/510dGVprGfL._SL500_SY344_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg THE CHICAGO SCHOOL OF URBAN SOCIOLOGY
  136. 136. http://d3qi0qp55mx5f5.cloudfront.net/www/i/features/breakthroughs/1920s-urban-sociology.jpghttp://www.s- cool.co.uk/assets/learn_its/alevel/geography/urban-profiles/models-from-burgess-and-hoyt/2007-10-15_162143.gif ERNEST W. BURGESS (1925) First theory to represent American Cities: Chicago over a period of 50 years Rebuilding after a fire: Social patterns and segregation
  137. 137. CONCENTRIC ZONE
  138. 138. https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/770428937927217153/V5lWa4_7.jpg HOMER HOYT (1939) Economist, wrote during the age of automobiles Looked into 142 American cities: Cities tend to grow with wedges because of transportation roads Growth follows present land use, strengthened by transportation access, affecting land values
  139. 139. http://spowers.weebly.com/uploads/2/6/0/9/26097997/5154975_orig.gif SECTOR OR RADIAL MODEL
  140. 140. http://s4.thingpic.com/images/is/j2CfupGguvf6ZtfLQ9cHq3qJ.jpeg CHAUNCEY HARRIS AND EDWARD ULLMAN (1945) City develops around various nuclei, not just the CBD; pointed out “growth centers” Four geographic principles: 1 Activities require highly specialized facilities 2 Activities cluster due to mutual profit 3 Activities repel each other in some areas 4 Activities could not make profit if burdened by high rent
  141. 141. http://images.slideplayer.com/32/9802211/slides/slide_46.jpg MULTIPLE NUCLEI
  142. 142. http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/article_image.php?image_type=article&id=91
  143. 143. http://brandavenue.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8341c12a453ef013488a3e536970c- 500wi
  144. 144. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/57cf17802e69cf96e1c4f406/t/57cf66 7f14fd83520341f819/1478038064932/
  145. 145. http://images.slideplayer.com/23/6826301/slides/slide_11.jpg
  146. 146. http://planningtank.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Multiple-nuclei- model-in-3-D.jpg
  147. 147. IN TWO (2) MINUTES, PLEASE MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF WHAT YOUR CITY / MUNICIPALITY LOOKS LIKE.
  148. 148. WHAT DOES YOUR CITY LOOK LIKE? WHAT CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES INFLUENCE YOUR CITY’S DEVELOPMENT?
  149. 149. littlemissurbanite.wordpress.com 
  150. 150. THANK YOU.

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Florence - Renaissance
  • Radial pattern of Moscow
  • Frederick Law Olmsted

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