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07 april 2015 the making of steel then & now by maria reza nebril
The Making of Steel: Then & Now
PREPARED BY: Maria Reza J. Nebril, RME
Revision: 1 / Date: 07 April 2015
To have a basic knowledge and understanding about:
As used in engineering work, steel may be cast in molds into shape (steel castings) or into blocks
(ingots) of cast steel which are rolled or hammered into shape. Rolled or hammered steel is, in general,
stronger, more ductile and tougher than are steel castings of the same chemical composition. Carbon and
iron are the principal ingredients in steel, but special steels of great strength and toughness are made by
alloying carbon and iron with other elements. Common alloy steels are: nickel steel, chrome-nickel steel,
tungsten steel, vanadium steel, and manganese steel.
A general term for iron containing small amounts of carbon, manganese and other elements.
Steel is manufactured from pig iron by the open-hearth process, the Bessemer process, or the
electric furnace process, or by a combination of these processes. Special high grades of steel are
manufactured from wrought iron by the crucible involve fusion. All grades of steel are fusible and
Wrought iron is a soft, ductile, fibrous variety that is produced from a semi fused mass of relatively
pure iron globules partially surrounded by slag
Ingot is a material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing
Steel can be plain carbon steel or alloyed steel
Plain carbon steel is never used for rolls
All roll grades contain some alloys
For hot rolling most steel rolls are cast
For cold rolling most steel rolls are forged
Steel is an alloy (mixture) of iron (Fe) and carbon (C).
Small additions of Carbon < 0.90 % are steels – Cast Carbon Steel
More carbon 1.0%-2.5% are semi- steels or (ADAMITE) GT and all Steel base grades
LUSTER - It is a shiny metal with a very attractive finish (architecture, cutlery, appliances).
TENSILE STRENGTH - It is very strong and resistant to fracture (building frames, security doors,
MALLEABILITY - It can be rolled into thin sheets, rod, bar or beams (roofing, structural) or forged
into different shapes (gears, tolls).
ALLOYING - Adding other chemicals can change steel’s properties. Stainless Steel contains the
elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum to make rust resistant for use in kitchens.
Manganese us added to increase toughness, while steel for rods has tungsten and cobalt to
keep even when it gets hot.
CONDUCTIVITY - It transfers heat and electricity.
COATING - Steel can be coated with different substances, such as metals like tin, or plastics or paint.
In the automobile sector: cars,
For everyday uses: cans, pots,
At the food preservation
The purpose of a blast furnace is to reduce and convert iron oxides into liquid iron called "hot
To produce iron, a charge of ore, coke, and limestone are dropped into the top of a blast furnace.
Hot gases are forced into the lower part of the chamber at high rates to accomplish combustion and
reduction of the iron
Since the mid-1800s, a number of processes have been developed for refining pig iron into steel.
Today, the two most important processes are Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) & Electric furnace
Both are used to produce carbon and alloy steels.
Basic Oxygen Process which uses pure oxygen to convert a
charge of liquid blast-furnace iron and scrap into steel.
The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is a refractory-lined, tiltable
converter into which a vertically movable, water-cooled lance is
inserted to blow oxygen through nozzles at supersonic velocity
onto the charge
Scrap iron and scrap steel are primary
It is usually made in smaller amounts,
and electricity is used for heating.
Electric furnaces are used to make
specialized kinds of steel.
Usually associated with production of alloy steels, tool steels, and stainless steels
- Noted for better quality steel but higher cost per ton, compared to BOF.
Steels produced by BOF or electric furnace are solidified for subsequent processing either as cast
ingots or by continuous casting.
– Casting of ingots – a discrete production process
– Continuous casting – a semi-continuous process
Steel ingots discrete castings weighing from less than one ton up to 300 tons (entire heat).
Molds made of high carbon iron, tapered at top or bottom for removal of solid casting
The mold is placed on a platform called a stool.
After solidification the mold is lifted, leaving the casting on the stool.
Continuous casting is widely applied in aluminum
and copper production, but its most noteworthy
application is steel-making.
Dramatic productivity increases over ingot casting,
which is a discrete process.
For ingot casting, 10-12 hr may be required for
casting to solidify.
Continuous casting reduces solidification time by an
order of magnitude.
A chill is an object used to promote solidification in
a specific portion of a metal casting mold. Normally
the metal in the mold cools at a certain rate relative to
thickness of the casting. When the geometry of the
molding cavity prevents directional solidification from
occurring naturally, a chill can be strategically placed
to help promote it.
Static casting involves pouring a liquid
metal into a mold, which contains a
hollow cavity of the desired shape, and
then is allowed to solidify. The solidified
part is also known as a casting, which is
ejected or broken out of the mold to
complete the process. Casting is most
often used for making complex shapes
that would be difficult or uneconomical
to make by other methods.
The molten metal is poured into a spinning die. The die can be spinning either on a vertical or
horizontal axis depending on the configuration of the desired part. Ring and cylinder type shapes
are cast vertically; tubular shapes are made with the horizontal centrifugal process. Either process
may be used to produce multiple parts from just one casting.
Because of the high g-forces applied to the molten metal in the spinning die, less dense material,
including impurities, “floats” to the I.D. where it is subsequently removed by machining.
Solidification is managed directionally under pressure, from the O.D. to the I.D., avoiding any mid-
wall shrinkage, leaving a defect-free structure without cavities or gas pockets.
Softening during heat treatment is a function of high temperature followed by slow cooling to
ambient temperature which is the normal work place temperature.
Hardening on the other hand is a function of high temperature followed by fast cooling, maybe by
water sprays, even for very large castings. Stress relief or tempering, is the action of finally allowing
the stress contours to develop into a safe state, and to allow stabilization by small changes to the
microstructure, so that these changes do not take place when the roll is heated up in the hot rolling
There are several
different basic types of
heat treatment which
allow the casting to be
softened, hardened or
just relieved of internal
Final Inspection Process
All rolls are fully examined by BRC
inspectors before they are dispatched. The
comprehensive inspection process includes
critical dimensions, hardness and
BRC’s patented Steel Packaging® also has the added
benefit of simplifying the logistics process from foundry
to mill. Unlike its wood counterpart, steel packaging does
not need to undergo official fumigation treatment and
verification for international shipments, thus saving time
at key phases of transportation and ultimately cutting
BRC is extremely committed to its environmental
responsibility. All our steel skids are reusable and
recyclable: they can be used to store rolls at our
customers’ mills, or can easily be melted back for scrap.
Since we introduced the Steel Packaging® methodology
in the market, more and more of our keen competitors
both locally and globally are using this methodology,
which means more and more trees are saved. We are
delighted to be the pioneer of the industry in greening-
In BRC Shipping mark when
there is no required from
client, default is:
An identification label affixed to a container which specifies contents of the shipping container.
If the merchandise is subject to any inspections such as an FDA inspection, the shipping label
must contain that inspection information as well. A shipping label used by a mail carrier lists the
originating and destination addresses.
- an identifying word, number, or symbol placed on freight to designate the consignee,
destination, weight, and related information
Metallurgy Fifth Edition copyright 2012 American Technical Publishers Inc.
Text-book of the Materials of Engineering (1917) by Herbert F. Moore
General Properties of Steels by Terence Bell
The Encyclopedia Britannica
An Introduction to Iron and Steel Processing, KAWASAKI STEEL 21st Century c 2003
Engineering Materials by Haseeb Jatoi