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Ericsson Energy and Carbon Report

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The use of ICT is increasing rapidly; in the Ericsson Mobility Report it is predicted that mobile data will grow 12-fold between 2012 and 2018. This ICT expansion helps economic growth and development, and makes the world a more accessible, open and democratic place. Does it, however, also mean an equally dramatic increase in energy use and carbon emissions?
The new Ericsson Energy and Carbon Report shows that even with the dramatic growth predicted for ICT, the sector as a whole is unlikely to account for more than 2 percent of the total global carbon footprint. This is largely due to advances in technology, and industry efforts to reduce energy consumption. The report also looks at absolute growth in terms of energy use, and outlines how the Networked Society with all its connected devices will affect energy use and carbon footprint. It also describes how ICT can provide transformative solutions to offset total global CO2 emissions from other sectors.

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Ericsson Energy and Carbon Report

  1. 1. EricssonEnergy andCarbonReportJune 2013On the impact of the networked society
  2. 2. Life-cycle assessments and carbon footprint 2Introduction 3ICT carbon footprint 4Networked society 5Connected devices scenario 6Development of networks, data centers and equipment over time 7Energy consumption for operation 8Smart network planning 9ICT addressing the climate challenge 10Reference information 11Methodology 11references 11Contents›› Ericsson has a long history of research and hasextensive experience in energy consumption andlife-cycle assessments (LCA), having conductedthe first LCA on a switch in 1992, and the next twoon a mobile base station in 1995 and on a mobilephone that same year. Such assessments haveproven to give valid results, even when reexamined inhindsight.›› Carbon footprint is used to explain one aspect of theenvironmental impact of a product or service over itsentire lifetime based on a standardized LCA method.To assess the full impact, the measure CO2e (carbondioxide equivalent) is used. About 30 percent of allCO2e can be accounted for by other gases – suchas methane – and the effect of land use and so on.When calculating CO2e, other emissions and effectsare normalized to the global warming potential ofCO2over 100 years.›› It is always difficult to make accurate energy and CO2projections as they are sensitive to selected systemboundaries, and there will always be differences ofopinion when it comes to future developments.›› While carbon footprint or CO2e is used to estimatethe impact of a product or service over its lifetime,this should not be confused with direct energyconsumption: the measurement of energy needed tooperate the same product or service.›› The energy consumption for operation of a productmay in economic terms be compared to (and havea direct impact on operational costs) OPEX, whilea similar economic comparison for an LCA wouldlook at the life-cycle costs, including all investment,running, service, maintenance and disposal costs.Life-cycle assessments and carbon footprint
  3. 3. IntroductionAll ICT equipment and services are depend-ent on electricity to function.The use of ICTand related services is expanding rapidly; inthe Ericsson Mobility Report [1] it is predictedthat mobile data will grow 12-fold between2012 and 2018.This ICT expansion helpseconomic growth and development, andmakes the world a more accessible, openand democratic place. Does it, however, alsomean an equally dramatic increase in energyuse and carbon emissions?Research presented in this report shows that even withthe dramatic growth predicted for ICT, the sector as awhole is unlikely to surpass 2 percent (Figure 1) of totalglobal carbon footprint. This is largely due to advancesin technology, and industry efforts to reduce energyconsumption. The report also looks at absolute growthin terms of energy use, and outlines how the NetworkedSociety with all its connected devices will affect energyuse and carbon footprint. It also describes how ICT canprovide transformative solutions to offset total globalCO2emissions from other sectors.Continued improvements in energy efficiency areessential in order to balance the growth in user numbersand data volumes. The trends examined in this reportare based on data collected following improvementsthat have already been implemented in system and userequipment by Ericsson.The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)and other organizations talk about the general need toreduce carbon emissions and limit climate change. Manygovernments have set CO2reduction targets, but fewhave linked these targets to the broader use of technology.There is a need for transformative solutions, as describedin The Broadband Bridge, a report by the BroadbandCommission [2]. This report includes case studies ofopportunities to maintain economic development and touse ICT as a way of reducing the 98 percent of energyuse and climate impact stemming from non-ICT sectors.enabling alow-carboneconomyThe ICT sector contributesabout 2% of global CO2eemissions, but can helpeliminate a significant portionof the remaining 98% fromother industries.ICT solutionswill enable thelow-carboneconomyof the future……and will transformindustries andcities.By 2050, 70% ofthe global populationwill reside in an urbanarea or city.Stockholm RoyalSeaport is anICT-enabled citydistrict that will beclimate-positiveby 2030ICT2%Waste3%Forestry 17%Agriculture14%Energy supply26%Buildings8%Industry19%Transport& travel 13%The CO2e from an annualmobile subscription isequal to driving a car forabout 1.5 hoursSource:Ericsson andTeliaSonera, 2012The SMARTer 2020 studyestimates that ICT-enabledsolutions could reduceglobal CO2e emissions by16.5% in 2020Source: GeSISource:UN HABITATSmart grids can help address67% of the energy lost dueto inefficiencies beforereaching the consumerICT2%A 2012 study of eight ICT-relatedservices in six countries showed theycould produce energy savings of 373million barrels of oil equivalents per yearSource: Yankee Group and GeSI373millionSource: Ernest Orlando LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory and GeSISource: Stockholm RoyalSeaport InnovationCenterSource: Ericsson[1] Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2013.[2] The Broadband Bridge – Linking ICT with Climate Change, Report by the Broadband Commission, March 2012.Figure 1:ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT 3
  4. 4. ICT carbon footprintForecasts in the Ericsson Mobility Reportindicate that in 2018, 90 percent of theworld’s population will have mobile coverage,and 60 percent will have the ability to accesshigh-speed LTE data networks.The global carbon footprint of the ICT sector in 2007[3] was estimated at 620 million tonnes CO2e, about 1.3percent of the total global carbon footprint. Since 2007,the ICT industry has grown and is forecast to continueto grow. Our future prognoses for ICT [4] indicate theportion of this sector increases slightly to 1.9 percentof global CO2e emissions in 2020 despite the dramaticgrowth of ICT. This corresponds to a slight increase incarbon footprint (CO2e) of about 4 percent per year, ora total of around 70 percent between 2007 and 2020.The estimated total carbon footprint for the ICT sectorwill be about 1,100 million tonnes (Figure 2) in 2020.The ICT footprint defined here includes the impact createdby mobile and fixed telecommunication networks, enterprisedata networks, data transport networks, data centersand all user equipment connected to networks, such asphones, tablets, PCs and modems. The most significantportion of the footprint may be accounted for by therunning of PCs and data centers.The ICT sector in this definition does not includeTVs,TVperipherals and other electronics that originally were notconnected.These are included with paper media in anindustry sector called Entertainment and Media. An estimateof the impact of Entertainment and Media is presented inthe “Connected devices scenario” described below.1200100040020060080002007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020Mobile networks and mobile devices (including tablets)PCs (all types, excluding tablets)Data centers, data transmission & enterprise networksHome devices (fixed phones, Customer Premises Equipment (CPE))Fixed networksICT carbon footprint outlookMtonnes CO2eSource: EricssonSource: EricssonFigure 2: ICT carbon footprint outlook (Mtonnes CO2e)[1] Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2013.[3] Malmodin, J., Moberg, Å., Lundén, D., Finnveden, G., and Lövehagen, N. 2010. Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and Entertainment & media sectors. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 14, 5, (October 2010), 770-790. DOI=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2010.00278.x.[4] Malmodin, J., Bergmark, P., Lundén, D. 2013, The future carbon footprint of the ICT and E&M sectors, Conference paper and presentation at ICT for Sustainability, (ETH Zurich, Switzerland, February 14-16, 2013).4 ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT
  5. 5. Networked societyBroadband, mobility and thecloud are driving the evolutionof services and experiences.These are increasingly beingrealized electronically andconsumed over the network.This development is thestarting point for large-scaleinnovation from groupsranging from tech-savvyyoungsters, to small-scaleentrepreneurs, to establishedbusinesses and leadingindustry players from all sec-tors of society. Eventually,this will drive significantchange across all parts ofsociety, affecting all differentkinds of activities, and markingthe development of a new era.We call this envisioned newera the Networked Society.As a part of this development, con-nections and digital experiences areexpected to be shared not only bytoday’s devices but by most thingsaround us. Anything that can benefitfrom having a connection will haveone: machines, engines, valves,appliances, sensors, vehicles, bikesand meters are just a few examples.The increased use of ICT devices, inour study [4] is estimated to increasefrom 6 billion to 12.5 billion by 2020,and this is the main reason for ICT’sincreased carbon footprint. At thesame time, energy-efficiencyimprovements have been taken into801001206040200Mobile dataFixed dataCO2e per data outlook(kg CO2e/GB)20201990 2000 2010Source: Ericsson3004002001000Fixed dataAverage ICT userMobile dataCO2e per subscriber outlook(kg CO2e/user)20201990 2000 2010Source: EricssonCarbon footprint per average ICT user and per amount of data continues to decrease over time.Source: Ericsson Source: Ericssonaccount when modeling the footprintofusers and network equipment, andare expected to limit the increase inthe ICT sector’s impact beyond thepredicted levels.Based on an analysis of historicaland forecasted data on devices(for example, International Telecom-munication Union or ITU statistics onPCs in use and telephone lines [5],and earlier LCA studies), we foundthat the ICT sector’s total carbonfootprint per average user – includingthe impact of shared resources suchas data centers and network equip-ment – has decreased from about300kg CO2e in 1995 to about 100kgin 2007, and is expected to decreasefurther to about 80kg in 2020 (seeFigure 3).The main reason for the decreasedfootprint per average ICT user is thatthe number of people using mobiledevices and mobile access technolo-gies is increasing. These devices arebecoming more effective and havelower per-user footprints than fixedPCs and always-on devices such asmodems and routers. Dematerializationeffects, described on page 10, alsoplay a role, thanks to the greaterenergy efficiency of battery-operatedmobile devices. Fixed networks, onthe other hand, have a lower impactper gigabyte (GB), as shown inFigure 4.Figure 3: CO2e per subscriber outlook(kg CO2e/user)Figure 4: CO2e per data outlook(kg CO2e/GB)[4] Malmodin, J., Bergmark, P., Lundén, D. 2013, The future carbon footprint of the ICT and E&M sectors, Conference paper and presentation at ICT for Sustainability, (ETH Zurich, Switzerland, February 14-16, 2013).[5] ITU, Key Telecom99 document from World Telecom development conference 2002, Istanbul, Turkey, March 18-27, 2002.ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT 5
  6. 6. Connecteddevices scenarioWhen predicting the future impact of the ICTindustry, it is important to consider that in theyears to come, not only everyone but alsoeverything is expected to be connected andto communicate. For the first time, based onEricsson research, a connected devicesscenario is presented here, looking at thecarbon footprint of the industry.The connected devices scenario illustrates that moreequipment than ever will be connected in a variety ofindustry sectors. In the scenario, 1 billion new connectionpoints such as mobile-broadband gateways and sitecontrollers have been added to the ICT sector. In theEntertainment and Media sector, the scenario includesan additional 16 billion connections to existing TVs andperipherals such as game consoles, audio devices,cameras and car infotainment systems.To fully capture the Networked Society, this study alsolooked into the anticipated 2020 impact caused by theconnectivity of a further 12 billion electronic devices inother sectors. These connected electronic devices areexpected in areas including: vehicles, home appliances,HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), meters,production machinery, payment, medical and securityproducts and more. Besides looking at ICT, Entertainmentand Media, and other equipment, we have also studiedthe impact of 500 billion sensors and tags, which areexpected to be used by all industry sectors (Figure 5).In sum, even with a high uptake of connected devicesscenario, the additional CO2e from manufacture andoperations of these new communication modules will notbe significant compared to growth projections. Ratherthis highlights the enabling benefits of the NetworkedSociety in terms of CO2reduction potential, efficiencygains and overall benefits to society.020040060080010001200ICT Entertainmentand mediaOtherequipmentSensorsand tagsConnected devices scenarioBase lineFigure 5: Connected devices scenarioMtonnes CO2eSource: EricssonFigure 5: Connected devices scenario (Mtonnes CO2e)Source: Ericsson6 ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT
  7. 7. Development of net-works, data centers andequipment over timeThis analysis has been prepared to givea view of the developments and impacts ofnetworks, data centers and user equipment.No absolute comparisons should be madebecause there is less data available for 1990and 2000 compared with 2010 and 2020, anddifferent parameters were used.In 1990 there were very few mobile subscribers andrelatively few PCs. At that time, PCs were typically office-based, either stand-alone or connected to local networks.Fixed networks were mainly old national telecom networkswith inefficient operations and maintenance. Fixed phoneswere analog and consumed no energy on their own. Datacenters or data halls already existed, but the informationavailable today on their energy consumption is limited.Figure 6: 1990 (Mtonnes CO2e)The term ICT was used in the academic world from 1986,but did not become widespread until 2000. Telecom andIT became more integrated in 2000, and the introductionof fixed broadband began. Most PCs were still used inoffices. The old national telecom operators faced newcompetition and were therefore forced to become moreefficient. The mobile networks were a small part of theecosystem, as were Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)and mobile phones.Figure 7: 2000 (Mtonnes CO2e)By 2010 the ICT sector had grown dramatically, and mobilenetworks and mobile phones were present everywhere.The majority of data traffic, both from companies andhouseholds, was connected through fixed networks. Abouthalf of all PCs were now used in households. IP telephonyhad started to take over from traditional fixed phones.Figure 8: 2010 (Mtonnes CO2e)For 2020, the connected devices scenario has beenincluded in the calculations. One of the remaininguncertainties is the number of PCs due to be in existence;it is possible that handheld tablets and phones will be souser-friendly that the PC no longer plays the same role inthe home. If this trend develops more quickly than pro-jected today, the ICT impact will be lower than estimated.Figure 9: 2020 (Mtonnes CO2e)0100200300400500600Networks Data centers User equipmentFigure 6: 1990(Mtonne CO2e)0100200300400500600Networks Data centers User equipmentFigure 8: 2010(Mtonne CO2e)0100200300400500600Networks Data centers User equipmentFigure 9: 2020(Mtonne CO2e)All graphs: Source EricssonPhone tabletsCPEPCsData centersMobile networkTransport networkLANFixed network0100200300400500600Networks Data centers User equipmentFigure 7: 2000(Mtonne CO2e)The explanations to the graphs:ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT 7
  8. 8. Energy consumptionfor operationThe total electricity1consumption of the ICTsector is forecasted to increase by almost60 percent from 2007 to 2020 owing to theincreasing number of devices and networkexpansion.Research outlined on the previous pages relates to thecarbon footprint – in other words, the whole life-cycleimpact of the equipment. Research on electricityconsumption of the ICT sector described here representsthe electricity used in operating equipment. This is impor-tant because carbon emissions in the use phase of theequipment, but it also has a direct impact on the OPEXfor the operators.The electricity consumption of fixed networks – includinglocal area networks (LANs) and data transport networks –is not expected to increase. One important reason for thisis the modernization of old traditional telecom networks,which outweighs the increased use of data communication.The electricity consumption of mobile networks, includingfuture wireless access points, is expected to not morethan triple by 2020, but still represents a limited percentageof the impact of the whole sector thanks to smarter networkplanning and improvements in the energy efficiency ofhardware. New generations of RBSs have shown to be upto 85 percent more energy-efficient in some cases.The electricity consumption of data centers grew by100 percent between 2000 and 2005, and by a further50 percent between 2005 and 2010. An increased focuson energy efficiency, cloud services, virtualization andother advances will slow down future growth. Larger datacenters and cloud computing have the potential to reducecompanies’ electricity needs, but only if they close downtheir own data centers and use outsourced solutionsinstead.The electricity consumption of CPE and fixed phones isexpected to increase as the number of connection points0200400600800100012002007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2020Connected devices scenarioMobile devicesPCs (including laptops)CPE (including cordless phones)Data centersMobile networksFixed networksFigure 10: Electricity consumption(TWh)rises. It is hard to implement efficient “sleep” modes forsuch equipment. Electricity-consumption patterns forPCs have changed as desktops, CRTs and poor powermanagement systems are increasingly replaced bylaptops, LCDs and better power management. Despitegrowth in the numbers of PCs, electricity consumption isnot expected to increase significantly.Mobile devices are the most numerous (there are morethan 8 billion of them in this scenario), but thanks tolow power and improved battery technology, electricityconsumption is still expected to be low, even if thenumber of devices almost triples.Figure 10: Electricity consumption (TWh)Source: Ericsson1 For most normal operation of ICT, the energy used is electricity from a grid. This study focuses on the electricity used for operation.8 ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT
  9. 9. Smart networkplanningEnergy costs are among the most significantthat network operators have to absorb.The smart energy features in heterogeneousnetworks illustrate the way Ericsson developssolutions to accommodate dramatic user anddata growth without any proportional growthin energy demand.To meet the traffic demands, mobile-broadband operatorsneed to densify base-station deployments – especially inurban environments. In these areas, the wireless networksconsist of a mixture of traditional large macro cells andsmall micro or pico cells, a mixture referred to as hetero-geneous networks.Adding base stations traditionally brings an increase inpower consumption. But with additional functionality inthe network – specifically addressing energy efficiency– it is possible to reduce the required power consumptiondramatically.Ericsson Research has created simulations showingthe impact of two energy-efficiency features: an improvedpower amplifier (using micro DTX, discontinuous trans-mission) for LTE systems and a fast-sleep mode for smallcells. Both features save power while maintaining thecapacity gains afforded by heterogeneous networks,with an almost negligible impact on performance.0123456789108.7HetNet HetNet+µDTXHetNet+µDTX-27%6.3+ sleep mode-52%4.1Figure X: Power consumption per area(kW/km2)Source: EricssonFigure 11: Power consumption per area (kW/km2)Source: EricssonSource: EricssonFigure 12: The heterogeneous network in this research is assumedto consist of three small cells, for capacity boost, in each macro cell.ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT 9
  10. 10. ICT addressingthe climate challengeDematerialization and increased efficiencyare the two main opportunities for ICT to helpsociety develop.There are several examples of how ICT has changedconsumption habits and reduced the flow of productsand materials in society. (Just think how many one-timecameras have been replaced with mobile cameras andphoto sharing services.) Ericsson has studied severalservices, presented in Figure 13, calculating the potentialof ICT solutions to reduce CO2e emissions comparedwith traditional solutions [6]. The reduction ratio repre-sents the direct and embodied CO2e emissions fromthe ICT solution, set in relation to the potential savingsin direct and embodied emissions that the ICT solutionenables [7].By replacing physical products with services, and byhelping people to use resources more efficiently,ICT-based solutions can improve basic services whilereducing CO2e emissions. Another study [8] on efficiencygains in transport systems is described below.By 2050, an estimated 70 percent of the world’s populationwill reside in urban areas. Our planet’s cities are facedwith the challenge of becoming more sustainable whilealso continuing to drive prosperity. Here, connectivity canplay a major role.The city of Curitiba in Brazil was the first in the world toconnect public buses to a mobile-broadband network.A connected public-transport system makes for moreefficient fuel usage and a corresponding reduction inCO2e emissions. Earlier studies on the bus system haveshown that people will be attracted to public as opposedto private travel when provided with a more reliable busservice.The Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system adopted in Curitiba,which is used for 70 percent of all types of public andprivate commuting, produces approximately 200,000tonnes of direct CO2e emissions per year comparedwith 1,500,000 tonnes related to annual car travel in-1500-2000-2500-3000-1000-50005001000Embodied ICT Direct (Operation) Fuel supplyICT solutionBus operation Car travelFigure 14: Potential savings from ICT, CuritibaTonne CO2e“What if busescan operate 1%more efficient?”“What if car travelcan be reducedby 0.1%?”Figure 14: Potential savings from ICT, Curitiba (tonnes CO2e)Figure 13: ICT enabling a low carbon economy, Ericsson case studies[6] Research case studies, http://www.ericsson.com/thecompany/sustainability_ corporateresponsibility/enabling_a_low_carbon_economy/research_and_standardization.[7] Quantifying emissions right, http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/ wp-quantifying-emissions.pdf[8] Connected buses in Curitiba, Ericsson 2012, http://www.ericsson.com/res/ thecompany/docs/corporate-responsibility/2011/curibita_final.pdfICT service CO2Reduction ratio Countrym-Health > 20 Swedene-Health > 45 CroatiaDigital delivery < 200 SpainVirtual presence < 200 Sweden, Globalm-Money > 65 KenyaField ForceManagement< 100 TurkeyAll graphs: Source Ericssonthe city. The ICT portion of the BRT system adds about500 tonnes of CO2e per year. The potential savings can beseen on Figure 14.10 ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT
  11. 11. Reference informationMethodologyreferencesThe research presented was conducted at EricssonResearch, in collaboration with internal company experts,customers and partners. Latest estimates on market de-velopments will always be found in the Ericsson MobilityReport [1]. Some numbers presented in this report donot match this latest report but was used in scenarios forcalculations of environmental impact at the time whenthe research was conducted. This shall not be seen aschange of position of Ericsson. Some of the resultspresented on devices and equipment come from researchthat has been published and reviewed outside thecompany, but that has also been reviewed by Ericssonexperts for relevance and comparability. System boundaries, projections and results are presentedin peer-reviewed research papers and scientific conferences.As an industry leader in technology and research, Ericssonhas shared results and provided input over the years toSMART 2020 [9], SMARTer 2020 [10], the BroadbandCommission [2], and the European Union (EU) EARTH(Energy Aware Radio and neTwork tecHnologies) project[11] to name a few. A detailed discussion of the boundaries of the assessedICT sector is given in the study [3][4], including furtherdetails of the ICT network and related services. Thesestudies also include a definition of the assessmentboundaries of the entertainment and media sector. Theboundary between the two sectors is not unambiguous,and it is also changing over time. Further discussion onthe selected boundaries is therefore included [4]. For the use stage of user equipment, measurementshave been prioritized over estimates. For example, theunique measurements relating to electronic devices usedin 400 Swedish households over a whole year [12] wereused as principal data. For the use stage of networks,measurements taken by operators and service providershave been used as reported to the Carbon DisclosureProject (CDP) and in corporate reporting as well as otherpublically available technical data (for example, thenumber of lines and subscriptions). The global averageelectricity model described in [4] has been used. An important part of the methodology was to forecastthe type and number of all devices related to the ICTsector that are expected to be in use between now and2020. Large industry analyst firms’ market research andfuture market projections have been used as data sources.These firms include International Data Corporation (IDC)(for its work on PCs and servers) [13] and Display Search(for work on TVs and monitors) [14]. Subscription informa-tion was based on prognoses made by ITU [15]. For themobile subsector’s carbon footprint 2007-2020, a detailedprevious study by the EU’s EARTH research project [11]was used as a data source. Other more specific studiessuch as Koomey’s study of servers and data centers’ energyconsumption globally [16] were also used as input. As thesesources do not make prognoses as far ahead as 2020,extrapolations were made for the purposes of the study.[1] The Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2013.[2] The Broadband Bridge – Linking ICT with Climate Change, Report by the Broadband Commission, March 2012.[3] Malmodin, J., Moberg, Å., Lundén, D., Finnveden, G., and Lövehagen, N. 2010. Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and Entertainment & media sectors. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 14, 5, (October 2010), 770-790. DOI=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2010.00278.x.[4] Malmodin, J., Bergmark, P., Lundén, D. 2013, The future carbon footprint of the ICT and E&M sectors, Conference paper and presentation at ICT for Sustainability, (ETH Zurich, Switzerland, February 14-16, 2013).[5] ITU, Key Telecom99 document from World Telecom development conference 2002, Istanbul, Turkey, March 18-27, 2002.[6] Research case studies, http://www.ericsson.com/thecompany/sustainability_ corporateresponsibility/enabling_a_low_carbon_economy/research_and_standardization.[7] Quantifying emissions right, http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/ wp-quantifying-emissions.pdf[8] Connected buses in Curitiba, Ericsson 2012, http://www.ericsson.com/res/ thecompany/docs/corporate-responsibility/2011/curibita_final.pdf[9] GeSI, “SMART 2020 Enabling the low-carbon economy in the information age”, http://gesi.org/portfolio/report/69, June 2008.[10] GeSI, SMARTer2020: The Role of ICT in Driving a Sustainable Future, http://gesi.org/portfolio/report/72, December 2012.[11] INFSO-ICT-247733 EARTH (EU project). 2011. Deliverable D2.1, Economic and Ecological Impact of ICT. https://bscw.ict-earth.eu/pub/bscw.cgi/d38532/EARTH_ WP2_D2.1_v2.pdf[12] Zimmermann, J.P. 2009. End-use metering campaign in 400 households in Sweden. Assessment of the potential of electricity savings. Enertech. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.[13] IDC PC sales and forecast, 2010-2015. Charles Arthur for guardian.co.uk on Monday 6th June 2011 16.48 UTC.http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/blog/2011/jun/06/ idc-pc-sales-growth-warns, accessed on December 6, 2011.[14] Display Search, Worldwide TV Forecast by Technology. Quarterly Global TV Shipment and Forecast Report, November 2010. http://www.displaysearch.com/cps/rde/xchg/ displaysearch/hs.xsl/quarterly_global_tv_shipment_and_forecast_report.asp[15] International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database 2010, 15th Edition, 2011. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/world/world.html.[16] Koomey, J. G. 2011. Growth in data center electricity use 2005 to 2010. A report by Analytics Press, completed at the request of The NewYork Times, http://www.analyticspress.com/datacenters.html, accessed in May 2012ERICSSON ENERGY AND CARBON REPORT 11
  12. 12. Ericsson ABSE-164 80 Stockholm, SwedenEAB-13:036469 Uen© Ericsson AB 2013Ericsson is a world-leading provider of communications technologyand services. We are enabling the Networked Society with efficientreal-time solutions that allow us all to study, work and live our livesmore freely, in sustainable societies around the world.Our offering comprises services, software and infrastructure withinInformation and CommunicationsTechnology for telecom operatorsand other industries. Today 40 percent of the worlds mobile trafficgoes through Ericsson networks and we support customersnetworks servicing more than 2.5 billion subscriptions.We are more than 110,000 people working with customers in morethan 180 countries. Founded in 1876, Ericsson is headquartered inStockholm, Sweden. In 2012 the companys net sales were SEK227.8 billion (USD 33.8 billion). Ericsson is listed on NASDAQ OMX,Stockholm and NASDAQ, NewYork stock exchanges.www.ericsson.comwww.ericsson.com/sustainabilityFor more information please contact:corporate.responsibility@ericsson.com© Ericsson AB 2013 – All Rights Reserved.This document was originally produced in Englishand first published on June 17, 2013.