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Erlan pe sba

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I am 16 years old Erlan O'Brian ,I played the role of equipment manager at the football event
.The event was challenging a...
Acknowledgement
I would like to thank all those who made this event possible .The almighty god for the great
weather ,and ...
Objective
I plan on learning how to host a sport event ,to encourage comradery among players in the
community and school ,...
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Erlan pe sba

  1. 1. I am 16 years old Erlan O'Brian ,I played the role of equipment manager at the football event .The event was challenging and frustrating but with a little help from my pears we made it possible
  2. 2. Acknowledgement I would like to thank all those who made this event possible .The almighty god for the great weather ,and waking me up on the day of my event ,the teacher and my classmates for helping out in the event .Most of all I would like to thank the principal for providing us with facilities .I would also like to thank the players for showing up and participating.
  3. 3. Objective I plan on learning how to host a sport event ,to encourage comradery among players in the community and school ,to have a fun field day. To fullfill a requirement for c sec physical education and sports.
  4. 4. Brief history of football Soccer is one of the most popular sports in Europe and the Americas. It has a vivid and interesting history in the world of sports. Early evidence of soccer being played as a sport finds occurrence in China during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. In China, it was during the Han dynasty that people dribbled leather balls by kicking it into a small net. Recorded facts also support the fact that Romans and Greeks used to play ball for fun and frolic. Some facts point to Kyoto in Japan where kicking of ball was a popular sport. It is said that early growth of the modern soccer started in England. Some amusing facts even mention that the first ball used was the head of some Danish brigand. It is said that during medieval times, the old form of soccer used to allow many ill practices like kicking, punching, biting and gouging. The main aim was to carry the ball to a target spot. People grew so fond of the game that they would throng the field all day long. Sometimes the competition grew fierce and masses got so wild that there were frequent incidents of violence during the game. It is also said that soldiers admired the game so much that they missed archery practice to watch it. King Edward III banned soccer in 1365 owing to the growing incidents of violence and military indulgence in the sport. In 1424 King James I of Scotland also proclaimed in the Parliament— "Na man play at the Fute-ball" (No man shall play football). When and where exactly did soccer start is a question that has no precise answer to it. You can easily say that this popular game has been played for more than three thousand years. The nativity of modern-day soccer must be credited to Britain. It was also known as the association football, with Scotland and England being the co-founders of the systematic game of soccer. Modern History of Soccer: 18th Century Onward
  5. 5. In 1815, a major development took place that made soccer popular in Universities, Colleges and Schools. The popular English School and Eton College came forth with a set of rules, known as the Cambridge Rules. Football was segregated into two groups; some colleges and schools opted for Rugby rules that allowed tripping, shin kicking and also carrying the ball. These rules were exclusively prohibited as per the Cambridge rules. King Edward III banned soccer in 1365, owing to the growing incidents of violence and military indulgence in the sport. The history of modern-day soccer was established in 1863. In October 1863, eleven representatives from London clubs and schools met at the Freemason’s Tavern to set up common fundamental rules to control the matches amongst themselves. The outcome of this meeting was the formation of the Football Association. In December 1863, the Rugby Football and Association football finally split as the supporters of the Rugby School rules walked out. Firmly establishing the foundation of soccer in 1869, the Football Association strictly banned any kind of handling of the ball. Soccer’s popularity spread rapidly during the 1800s as British sailors, traders and soldiers introduced the sport to different parts of the globe. Italians, Austrians and Germans drew to Europe, while Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil adopted the sport in South America. FIFA was established in the year 1904 and by early 1930s, different leagues were operating from various countries. FIFA is credited with organizing the first world cup in Uruguay. The history of soccer is rich with events, development and its growing craze all over the world. You will find yourself amazed as you learn about different times of this wonderful sport that has held our awe and admiration for over 3000 years. How the game is played Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, nicknamed The World Game or The Beautiful Game. It’s a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport .The game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The objective of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing team goal.
  6. 6. The goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play and only in their penalty area. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use their head or torso. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. The Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA; French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years Equipment used for playing football Shirt and Shorts Soccer shirts can be long sleeved or short sleeved. The material needs to be durable in order to prevent the shirt from being torn during play. For informal games, it will obviously be up to you to decide what to wear. If playing for an official team, you will be supplied with the team shirt. Pants are too restrictive for most sports, including soccer. Shorts allow greater freedom of movement and help to keep you cool during play. Shoes and Socks Soccer shoe selection will depend upon the playing surface. Games played on grass require soccer shoes with cleats, the cleats helping you to grip on the soft surface. You don’t need cleats when playing on hard surfaces or artificial grass. Indoor soccer shoes are ideal for any hard surfaces. Having a good pair of soccer socks is important. The socks should be quite thick and strong to help protect your feet from blisters. Some players wear two pairs of socks, the double layer helping to minimize the friction caused by soccer shoes rubbing on the feet. Soccer socks should also be long, preferably knee length, as they help to hold the shin guards in place.
  7. 7. Skill of the game Substitutions Main article: Substitute (association football) In competitive 11-a-side matches, teams are allowed to bring on up to three substitutes. The rules of the competition must state the maximum number of players allowed to be named as a substitute, which may be anywhere between three and twelve. In non-competitive matches, the use of substitutes must be determined before the match begins, except in friendly international matches, where no more than six substitutes may be brought on. The most tired players are generally substituted, but only if their substitutes are well trained to fill in the same role, or if the formation is transformed at the same time to accommodate for the substitution. Coaches often refrain from substituting defensive players in order not to disrupt the defensive posture of the team. Instead, they often replace ineffective attackers or unimaginative midfielders in order to freshen up the attacking posture and increase their chances of scoring. For a team that is losing a game, a fresh striker can bring more benefit in circumventing an opposed defence line composed of relatively tired players. For a team that is winning a game, a fresh midfielder or a defender can bring more benefit in strengthening the defence against the opposition's attackers (who may be fresh substitutes themselves). In this situation, it is usually imaginative attacking flair players who are replaced by tough-tackling defensive midfielders or defenders. Injured players may also need to be substituted. For each injured player who must be substituted, the team loses one more opportunity to influence things later in the game in their favour. Substitutions can also be used as a time consuming tactic to hold a one-goal lead in the last minutes. Fouls and poor conduct The following are fouls or poor conduct practices in football:  Pretending injury in order to delay play or to get an opponent booked or sent off  Teasing opponents to get them out of balance  Attempting to influence the referees  Stealthily touching the ball with the hands
  8. 8.  Stealthily holding the shirts of opponent’s players  Illegally stopping players in a counter-attack  Recklessly duelling with the opponent's goalkeeper  Professional fouls  Purposely slowing down your opponents' speed of play Although some fans and players see foul play as a good part of the game (as long as it helps them win), FIFA constantly change rules and issue campaigns for promoting "Fair Play". Individual skills Example of individual skill: Brazilian striker Pele moving at speed under pressure, lets a pass run past his opponent, circling around to shoot first time on the other side for a near miss. Official FIFA Technical Reports called the move “audaciously executed, and called for immense skill, timing, judgment and speed. The importance of a skill depends to an extent on the player's position on the field. Overall, football skills can be divided into four main areas, namely outfield technical, physical, mental and goalkeeping technical abilities.
  9. 9. Physical skills  Pace  Agility  Sprinting  Stamina  Power  Endurance  Jumping  Balance  Strength  Strength to resist tackles  Resistance Mental skills[edit]
  10. 10. As the last line of defence, goalkeepers must be able to make quick, athletic saves. Here, the skill of England's Gordon Banks robs Brazil's Pele of a good scoring opportunity in their legendary confrontation. Mexico, 1970  Intelligence (game understanding)  Vision (ability to see build-up play ahead to others or ability to see a pass or awareness of players around you)  Composure (ability to control the game at any critical situation in the match)  Leadership (able to guide the youngsters in the field and be able to motivate and inspire others)  Communication (can be considered a mental ability)  Decision-making (determine in advance what to do) Goalkeeping skills[edit]  Jumping (can be considered a physical ability)  Agility (can be considered a physical ability)
  11. 11.  Balance (can be considered a physical ability)  Communication (can be considered a mental ability)  Goal kicker (can be considered a technical ability)  Handling (can be considered a technical ability)  Positioning  Reflexes (can be considered a mental ability)  Distribution (Throwing, punting) (can be considered a physical ability)  One on ones Tactics during a game situation General principles of attack and defence Width and depth are both principles of offense and defence as follows:  Width in attack- the attacker tries to divide the defence by spreading strike points across a broad front, rather than attempting to force advances through narrow channels. This may involve play from the wings, or rapidly shifting into open lanes/open space when approaching the goal. Mainly using wingers, often gaps are made between defenders using the width. These gaps can be used to feed the ball to strikers.  Width in defence- the defender counters, trying to contract and deny width. Attackers are "shepherded" or channelled into narrower or more crowded avenues of approach  Depth in attack- the attacker uses depth by moving men up from the rear, but may use a constant "target striker" or front man to always be present deep in the defence.  Depth in defence- the defender also uses depth by marking supporting players in the opposing team, and holding back a man as cover for more advanced players, sometimes in a "sweeper" or "libero" role. Therefore, the attacking player with the ball won't have anyone open for a pass. Alternatively, defenders may abandon depth temporarily to set an offside trap.  Balance in defence. The defence attempts balanced coverage of vulnerable space. Defenders do not simply cluster on the right side for example, just because the ball is there at the moment. Offensive tactics: attacking
  12. 12.  'Pass and move': This is the most basic team tactic — as soon as the ball has come into possession of the player, they need to be quick to decide whether to pass it or not. If they don't pass it immediately, they need to move with it; if they do pass it, they again need to move along, following the general ball movement. This can also be used to mean that once a player has passed the ball he does not remain stationary but moves into a position where he can receive the ball again and give more options to the player in possession.  'Give and go'[or 'combination passing']: This is a basic tactic which is essentially the same as 'pass and move', and is an essential part of the 'target man' style of play (see below). The player in possession of the ball plays a pass to a teammate and then immediately seeks to move into space. If the player who passed the ball can 'lose' his defensive marker (either through pace, movement, superior fitness or a lack of awareness on the part of the defender) he could then be free to receive a return pass and advance towards and possibly threaten the goal. When the ball is played by the receiving player immediately back to the first player this is known as a 'One-Two' (in British parlance) Switching sides  Switching the attack: Using a 'square' or 'cross' pass across the whole width of the pitch to a player in plenty of space is a very effective way of both relieving pressure and building a fresh attack. The defending team will be required to adjust its positions and this usually creates spaces which can be exploited. In this example, the player numbered 1 has moved out of position, allowing more space for the opposing player. By playing the ball to the other side (the curved line represents an aerial pass), the recipient of the pass finds themselves in space which can be exploited.  The 'through ball'(slide rule pass): Using the space behind the opponent's defensive line: Passes into this area have a number of pros: If an attacking player reaches the pass, taking care to avoid offside, he may get a 1-on-1 challenge with the goalkeeper, or be in an excellent position for a flank attack. Even if a defender reaches the pass first, the outcome could still be good for the attacking team. The defender will face his own goal,
  13. 13. which could prompt him to give away a corner kick or a throw-in, make a risky pass to his team's goalkeeper, or being put under heavy pressure near the corner flag. Typically, teams with faster attackers than the opponent's defenders will try challenging this space, while the defending team in these cases will want to keep their defenders low when defending in order to give away as little space as possible between the defenders and the goalkeeper. The long through ball  The long through ball: This is a long, and usually high, pass from a teams' own half, over the heads of the other team's defence. It is intended for the attacking players to chase and it is important that they remain in an onside position until the ball is kicked. The tactic works best with strong and fast forwards who will have a good chance of winning back the ball, taking control over it, and eventually getting a shot on goal. In the diagram, the ball (red line) is played in front of the furthermost forward, the dotted blue line showing their run. In this example, a through-ball pass along the ground would be picked up by one of the defenders (black team) because the gap between the two central defenders is too small.  Using the space between the opponent's defensive line and midfielder line ('the hole'): A common build-up of attacks is to pass the ball into the space between the opponent's defenders and midfielders. Normally, an attacker with his back to the goal will receive the pass. He will seek to turn with the ball, or distribute it to a player facing the goal, who optimally also is in front of the opponent's midfielders - or even on the move into the space behind the opponent's defenders.  Triangular movement: This is a movement tactic that allows a safe and quick shifting of the offensive flanks while maintaining control of the ball. In a triangular play the ball is passed between three players to form a triangle. The triangle is then shifted to a different position when a new player is added. Many triangles can be created with various combinations of players with the intention of slowly moving the ball forward and never really compromising possession. This tactic works well when trying to gain control in the
  14. 14. midfield. However, it can also be used for pure attacking purposes. The effectiveness of this tactic lies in the fact that defenders are unable to quickly 'adapt' to the other attacker's style of play.  Swapping of the wing men: Sometimes, a team with two flexible (position wise) wide men will allow them to interchange as the game progresses. The aim of this is to confuse the defenders who are assigned to mark them, thus maybe leading to opportunities as the defender tries to find their man in set pieces (corners, free kicks etc., where the man may be in a totally different position and thus evade his grasp). Also, if the wingers are different types of player (one favouring crossing from deep positions whilst the other is prone to trying to dribble past their marker for example), then it might be to exploit a weakness in the opposing defender.  Strong Side Overloads: An offensive attack can pressure the defense on to one side of the pitch by running most of its attackers and midfielders to one side letting a wing player or defender come to the opposite side with little or no coverage. The ball is then crossed or passed to that unmarked player for a free or near free shot.  Using a target man: This tactic is useful when the team possesses a quality striker who has the ability of taking on the whole defence on his own. He will usually occupy two defenders, thus making the defence more vulnerable. Combined with two fast wingers, this tactic may give the 4-man defence potential problems. The team may also benefit from a target man at set pieces. The target man, can use give/go tactics described earlier, can attempt to "knock down" high passes to teammates or can simply try to outpower and outmuscle opposition defenders to create scoring opportunities for himself. Alan Shearer, Duncan Ferguson, Chris Sutton, Emmanuel Adebayor, Luca Toni, Emile Heskey, Jan Koller, Christian Benteke, Nikola Žigić, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Peter Crouch, Didier Drogba, Olivier Giroud, and Miroslav Klose are all examples of strikers adept at playing this role. Offensive tactics in set pieces[edit] Free kicks[edit]
  15. 15. Free kick trickery at work - 1970 - Brasil vs Czechoslovakia: Jairzinho and Tostao of Brasil join the end of the defensive wall, then move off as Rivelino's powerful shot strikes through the gap. David Beckham made his first international goal for England from a set-piece kick.[5] Free kicks and dead-ball restarts come into play following a foul or other infractions. Indirect free kicks must be touched by another player before any shot is taken. Direct free kicks can be made directly on goal. Offensive players attempt numerous tricks to beat the defenders, who often form a solid wall of players directly in front of the goal. Attackers may attempt to blast the ball through the defensive wall, or curl it over or around using spin. A less common idea is to hit the ball powerfully and straight along the floor, since the defenders in the wall usually jump to try and prevent a shot being lifted over their heads. David Beckham, Ronaldinho, Zico, Juninho, Andrea Pirlo, Neymar, Roberto Carlos, Francesco Totti,Lionel Messi, Álvaro Recoba, Cristiano Ronaldo, Rivaldo, Juan Román Riquelme, Steven Gerrard, Wayne Rooney, Sejad Salihović, Rogério Ceni, Alessandro Del Piero, Thierry Henry, Roberto Baggio, Diego Maradona, Frank Lampard, Wesley Sneijder, Luis Suárez, Christian Eriksen and Gareth Bale are widely known to score from free kick positions. Throw-ins[edit] How throw-ins are best handled depends on where it is:  In one's own half the aim of a throw-in may be to retain possession in order to build up the next attack. The throw may or may not go toward the opponents' goal; the most
  16. 16. unmarked player may be a full-back who is behind the ball. Such a throw followed by a quickly taken 'switch' pass can be an effective tactic. Under pressure however, the ball is often thrown up the line, toward the opponents' goal line to gain as much ground as possible.  If the thrower is unmarked, a simple tactic is to take a short throw to the feet or chest of a marked player who immediately returns the ball to the thrower.  In the last third of the pitch a player with a long throw can put pressure onto the defenders by throwing the ball deep into the opponents' penalty area, resulting in somewhat similar tactics to a corner kick situation, but with the added advantage of avoiding the offside trap, as an attacking player cannot be offside from a throw in. Players well known for their long throwing skills are Rory Delap, Giorgio Chiellini and Morten Gamest Pedersen. Goal kicks A goal kick is an important 'set piece' that will occur many times in a game and yet few teams practice it. If taken quickly the kick may be taken short to a full-back who has run into a wide position. Although this may gain little ground it retains the all-important possession of the ball. A longer kick to the midfield is more common and it is vital that the midfield unit are in a position to receive it. Corners A corner kick (or "corner") is a real goal scoring opportunity and it is essential to know who is the best at taking a good corner from both the left and right side of the pitch. A good corner will be aimed high across the goal and may be 'bent' towards or away from the goal. At least one of the forwards should be on or close to the goal line when the kick is taken. Another tactic on a corner is to let the best shooter stay in the back "trash" position and have the defence worried about those up front. The player taking the corner kick makes a small pass back to the trash shooter who has time and space to take a good shot. General defensive tactics[edit]
  17. 17. Defenders need to cooperate closely to cope with fast moving attackers. Here, one of the tightest defences in World Cup history, Uruguay 1970, is broken by a rapid three-man combination move: Jairzinho - Pelé - Tostão. The final defender, Matosas of Uruguay has no support as Jairzinho makes his final sprint. All eleven players on the pitch have a defensive role. Which roles they are assigned, depends on tactics. In principle, there are two ways of defending, zone defence and man-to-man defence. In a zone defence, defensive players mainly move in relation to each other, whereas a man-to-man defence mainly moves in relation to opposing players. Whenever defensive players are given, or give themselves, a larger degree of freedom, hybrids of the two are seen.[6] First, second and third defender The first defender has the main responsibility for what the opponent in possession does, seeking to obstruct dangerous passes. The initial few seconds after a team has lost the ball are important, as the newly-defending team in these seconds will be poorly organised defensively. Wise first
  18. 18. defending will contribute to the defending team managing to organise before the opponent’s attack. The first defender should usually be the player closest to the opponent holding possession, but needs to be at the defending side of him in order to do an effective job. He or she should keep a distance of about 2 metres, although the ideal distance will vary with each situation. The point is to pressure the opponent as much as possible without giving him a large possibility of a dribble. As a dribble isn't as dangerous when the defending team is well organised, the distance may be shorter in these cases. Analogously, the distance should be increased if the defence is poorly organised. In certain cases, the first defender should attempt a tackle. Often, however, this will increase the probability of being dribbled and passed. The direction in which to move towards the opponent with possession of the ball may be the shortest direction. However, it may be of value to curve the defensive run, in order to channel (also called "show") the opponent in a certain direction. If the defensive team is well organised, he should be channelled ("shown") towards the centre of the pitch. In the case of temporarily poor defensive organisation, however, he should be channelled towards the line. The second defender is for security if the first defender is passed. In that case, he takes over as first defender, and ideally one of the third defenders takes over as second defender. The team should be organised in a manner to make this transition as fast as possible. The typical ideal distance between the second and first defender is about six metres, but this will vary strongly from situation to situation. The most important factor is the opponent's speed. If he's moving fast, the distance should be longer. If he's standing still, the second and first defender may in some cases join forces and work as two first defenders. The job of the third defender is to provide deep cover. He is generally in a stand-off position relative to the first and second defenders and tries to view the "big picture", keeping watch for new opponents moving up, and covering vulnerable gaps if the first and second defenders are bypassed. The sweeper role is sometimes conceived as that of a third defender, but every defensive player not immediately engaging the ball has the obligation to adjust his positioning to guard against dangerous situations and to plug vulnerable gaps. While the role of first and second defenders are rather similar, the third defenders' role is very different in zone defence and man- to-man defence. Also, their organisation will vary with formation. The zone defence In zone defence, second and third defenders and midfielders are organised in two lines, in the transverse direction of the field, thus organising a defender line and a midfielder line, the midfielder line working as an "outer shield" for the defenders. The lines should be as straight as
  19. 19. possible, although the first defender and in some cases the second defender may rush out of it to pressure the opponent with the ball. A straight line of defenders may prevent spaces behind some of them due to the offside rule. Also, even in zone defence, some opponents, for example those moving into dangerous space, may temporarily need to be marked. The man-to-man defence ideology holds that almost all opponents need to be marked at all times, although they will have to keep an eye on zone considerations as well, and usually a sweeper will be given a free defensive role. In practice, however, every defence will be a mix of zone defence and a man- to-man defence, although often with heavy leanings towards one or the other. The number of players in the defender and midfielder lines is given by the number of football formations. Some formations use midfield anchors to stop attacks between the two lines. Attackers usually also play a role in pressurising defenders, in order to give them less time to find good passing alternatives. The lines should be shifted sideways depending where the ball is. The third defenders should keep a sensible distance to each other, depending on the width the opponent's attacking players are distributed in. Depth considerations The distance between the defender line and the midfielder line should be kept constant at about 15 metres. However, the defensive line should back up and thus increase this distance, stand off, when there is no pressure on the opponent in possession, as this increases the possibility of a through ball. With tough pressure on the opponent, the distance may be reduced to below 15 metres. Also, as opponents move in close to the penalty area, the defending team will be forced to move their midfielders ever closer to their defenders. When organised, the defending team will offer no resistance until the attacking team has advanced to a certain height on the pitch. The pressure height, or at which depth the midfielders should start acting as first and second defenders, depends on a lot of factors. For example, as higher pressure is more tiring, it demands players with good stamina. In general, a defensive- minded team will tend to stay lower, thus diminishing defensive risks as opponents get less space. This however, also gives them a longer way to the goal in the event of a break and counter-attack, making the long through ball a typical alternative. The man-to-man defence In a man-to-man defence system, a single defender follows his opponent wherever he goes. Extremely tight marking can be achieved in this way and star players can often be neutralised in a game by use of a dedicated "shadow". Since the man-to-man defence will take defenders in any part of the field, interceptions and broken plays will often offer opportunity for quick counter-
  20. 20. attack. The Italian teams of the 1970s and 1980s often used this approach with impressive results. The weakness of the man-to-man defence is depth when fresh attackers move up. The man-to- man defence also allows defenders to be drawn out of position, opening gaps for other attackers in vulnerable areas. This was Italy's fatal weakness in the 1970 Final, according to some analysts.[7] To overcome this problem with depth, the man to man defence may use a 'sweeper', who is a central defender and has a free role, i.e. has not been assigned a player to mark. He sometimes takes up a position slightly behind the other defenders, as his defensive role often is to 'sweep up' any attacks that break through the defence and as such he adds valuable depth to the defensive unit. Usually the sweeper will be the controller of the defence. They will determine where the back line should be at any given time. Zone defence does not require a sweeper role, and as many teams have changed their tactics to this, sweepers are today rare. Defending at set pieces Free-kicks from short range At free-kicks from short range, particularly when defending a direct free-kick, a wall of defensive players are lined up. The number of players who form the wall depends on the angle and distance from the goal, the opponent's assumed shooting skills, and the need to mark opponents to whom the ball might be passed. The wall is usually set up at the direction of the defending goalkeeper to block a direct shot at the near post. The goalkeeper is normally positioned nearer the far post. In order to increase the difficulty for the free-kick taker to kick the ball over the wall and into the goal it is common for the players in the wall to jump vertically when the kick is taken. Defending indirect free-kicks provides different difficulties for the defending team. The wall must be prepared to charge down the ball once it has been touched by the free-kick taker, and other defenders must be alert to the attacking team's practised set-plays. Corner kicks and other crosses At corner kicks, and at direct free kick, indirect free kick or throw-ins that are likely to become a cross, most teams use man-on-man marking, even those which otherwise play zone defence. Each player is given an opponent to mark, in advanced football they usually have been assigned an opponent before the match. Substituting at the time of a defensive set piece is regarded as unwise, as play may be started before the substitute has come into marking position. A few teams use the tactic of gathering defenders on one line on corner kicks and similar situations, in effect giving them the responsibility for zones instead of particular opponents. Penalty kicks
  21. 21. In the case of a penalty kick, no defending players except the goalkeeper are allowed within the penalty area or within ten yards of the penalty spot and 18 yards of the goal line. A significant number of players should, however, be placed right outside the penalty area, alert to advance into the area and clear any deflection. For this purpose, sometimes the attacking team will nominate two players to run at the goal from either side of the penalty spot; timing their run so that they only enter the penalty area once the kick has been taken will hopefully give them the first opportunity at gathering the ball if it is saved by the goalkeeper. This tactic is rarely seen, however, since the likelihood of the ball being saved and then falling into the path of the attacking player is small. A particular tactic that can be used by the goalkeeper involves trying to distract the penalty taker by drawing his concentration away from striking the ball cleanly. Such tactics normally involve moving one's body, or body parts, in an extravagant manner, or through verbal comments. Famous examples of where this worked successfully include Bruce Grobbelaar in the 1984 European Cup final, and Jerzy Dudek in the 2005 Champions League Final. "Forward" versus "collapsing" defences Some teams use forward defending, aggressively challenging the ball when on the defensive in any part of the field. Others rely on a "collapsing" style, that falls back deep into its own half when the opponent is in possession of the ball. The "forward" policy can put immense physical and psychological pressure on opponents, and is aimed at slowing down or breaking up attacks early. It has more physical demands however, and may spread a defensive formation more thinly. The "collapsing" approach is more economical in physical demand, and provides a packed back zone to thwart attacks. However it sometimes creates large gaps in midfield, and invites the opposing team to dribble forward and to take shots from long range; if the opposing team is good at the two aforementioned skills then goals will be conceded freely. Defending with the ball Clearing is when the player in possession of the ball is pressed hard, often near his own goal, and chooses to shoot the ball away with low precision simply in order to get out of a dangerous situation. When opponent pressure is extremely high, the ball is often cleared to a corner kick or to a throw-in. Clearing long, but into opponent control, may give the defence time and the opportunity to organise, including setting up the correct formation and pressure height. If the attack was high up the field, such as in or near the penalty area, defenders will thus quickly push out, and attackers will then be forced to retreat in order to avoid offside in the next move. Clearing may be combined with an attempt to hit a long pass or a long through ball. Players high up in the field who are pressed hard, and who are eager to avoid a counter-attack, may in some instances combine clearing the ball.
  22. 22. . Envelopment in attack: the central cross. Attacking an opposing side from the flanks using crosses from the wings is among the oldest and most effective football tactics. An attack from the flanks uses width to stretch an opposing defence creating gaps in the goal area to be exploited. While the direction of the lateral cross is not as straightforward as the through-ball, both types of passes serve to split an enemy defence, in view of striking at the vital central area of the goal. This example, the legendary confrontation between keeper Gordon Banks of England and Pele of Brazil, captures the two types of attack in one snapshot. It also serves to illustrate the difficulties in defending against both types of passes. Two pass types - one great defensive save. The powerful running of Brazil's right Using the two-man combination. The 2-man combination pass, variously called the wall pass, the "one-two", the "give and go" and other local names, is among the simplest yet most powerful team techniques in football. It requires a fair level of individual skill to pull off, yet this should not stop coaches from introducing it early in the higher youth leagues, nor should players from these leagues neglect it in favour of the all too easy "kick and chase". There are two ways to execute it: (a) pass and run to space for the return pass without pausing or (b) pass then pause briefly to gauge opposing reaction before running into an open spot for the return. In tight conditions, the first method is better, while the second can be used where there is a bit more space to operate.
  23. 23. The three-man move Effectiveness of three-man strike teams. The three-man move is another very effective weapon in the attacking arsenal. It is distinguished from simple passing between players in that the initiator of the move finishes it with a shot on goal or a well-placed pass leading to a shot. It is thus a collaboration of three distinct players. Famous three-man strike teams are legendary in football, from the earliest days, through the famous Hungarian sides of the 1950s, to the "clockwork orange" of the Dutch masters in the 1970s, through the German, Italian, French, Argentinian, Brazilian, and other teams of the contemporary era. The three-man package can be more effective than the two-man combo because it gives more attacking options and causes more confusion in the defence. The initial pass cannot be quickly cut off as in the two-man manoeuvre which really has only one option. Typically the second pass in the three-man move lures and diverts defenders on to false ground. This gives the initiator of the sequence time to run into an advantageous position. Triple player collaborations of course do not operate in isolation – they have other supporting players – but the tight three-man exchange still remains a fundamental pillar of successful attacking play. .
  24. 24. Moving into space- the diagonal run Moving into space.. the diagonal run Moving into free space is one of the most critical skills that football players must develop. Attacking players must move off the ball into space to give an advance the maximum chance of success. Passes to space are feasible when there is intelligent movement of players to receive the ball and do something constructive with it. Skilled players are able to find seams between defenders, positioning themselves to receive a pass. This diagram shows a productive use of space by West Germany in the 1974 FIFA World Cup Final which led to Gerd Müller's game-winning goal against the Netherlands. German midfielder Rainer Bonhof made a long diagonal run out to the right side of the field, putting put him clear of the Dutch opposition. Deep into the Dutch half, Bonhof received a ball from Jürgen Grabowski and beat Arie Haan. Bonhof sent a low cross in to Müller, who found the back of the
  25. 25. net. Moving diagonally is one of the best offensive movements, whether at the near or far posts, or out to the wings farther back in midfield. Diagonal movement creates added space to maneuver, compared to simply running straight ahead or laterally. It also means that players must be willing to switch positions as the situation demands. The name of the regional govern body of football: Confederation of north central America and Caribbean association football The name of the local govern body of football: Saint Lucia Football Association The name of the international govern body of football: Fédération Internationale de Football Association Rules of my competition 1: teams are allowed four players on field of play anytime 2: substitutes are unlimited 3: teams will play round robin in two groups .The best2 teams from the groups will advance to to the semi finials where the two top groups will play for the victory. 4: points will be awarded as follows in the group stage Win-3 points Draw=1 point Lose-0 point
  26. 26. List of registered teams: AJ united Dennery ganors Max Young superbs Malgretoute youth movement Two too warriors Anything a anything U T L Village boys
  27. 27. Fixtures
  28. 28. My role as a technical manager: *carefully follows the advice of the organising committee, setting up n return of equipment’s for games. *Keeps an inventory of the equipment’s that are needed for the executions of the game/event and be responsible for the return of the equipment’s to the store room. *Perform simple maintenance of equipment’s *Investigates and complies a report about any damage or loss of equipment’s and repot findings to competition manager *Responsible for maintaining a tidy n efficient equipment store room
  29. 29. Reflection It was a bright sunny day. The teams show up on time and participated to make the event possible. There were also many spectators cheering for the different teams the, hype and competitiveness was on top of its game. I must commend the teams with all due respect for efforts playing a fair a respectful competition . During the competition I’ve learnt how to organise a sporting event, manage and how competitive the games gets. My peers and I played a huge role in making this event a success.

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