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THE BEHAVIOR AND TECHNICAL FACTORS
INFLUENCING THE CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE
OF M-PAYMENT SERVICE IN ALBANIA
Prepared by Ermelin...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2
Table of Content
…Introduction…
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
Section...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 3
Mobile Payment as a new technology service in Albania
How it will be the
Adoption of...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 4
The factor influence to the adoption of the new technology
PU
TRUST SecurityAGE
Mobi...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 5
The main aim of this thesis was to find out
…if some of these factors
influence to t...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 6
…Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)…
Section I
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 7
…Mobile Payment (MP )…
Section I
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
The MP...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 8
Section I
…The Characteristics of MP
simplicity and usability.
universality.
interop...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 9
Section II : Research Model & Hypothesis
H1. A significant relationship between PEOU...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 10
Section II : Sample procedure and Data Collection
 Total number of participants
wa...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 11MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
Section II : Instrument and scale Measu...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 12
Section II : Instrument and scale Measurement of Variables
MBA, Epoka University, T...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 13
Section III : Hypothesis testing
The chi-square test works best when the expected
f...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 14
Section III :General Data Information
59%
41%
Gender
Femal Male
41%
39%
5%
1%
11% 3...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 15
Section III: Research results and Interpretation
PEOU BIU
Using SMS is
easy
Managin...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 16
Section III: Research results and Interpretation
Trust BIU
Trust in Mobile
Provider...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 17
Section III: Research results and Interpretation
Phone
Skills
BIU
Skills to downloa...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 18
Section III: Research results and Interpretation
PEOU AGE
Using SMS is easy
Managin...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 19
Section III: Research results and Interpretation
Education
Phone
Skills
Skills to d...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 20
Section III: Research results and Interpretation
H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no
r...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 21
Section IV:
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
The Factors as PEOU / PU /...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 22
Section IV:
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
Enlarge the range of Resea...
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 23
Section IV:
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
© 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 24
FIN
MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
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  1. 1. THE BEHAVIOR AND TECHNICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE OF M-PAYMENT SERVICE IN ALBANIA Prepared by Ermelinda Nako November 2015 Supervised by Prof. Mustafa Uc
  2. 2. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2 Table of Content …Introduction… MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 Section I Section II Section III Section IV a. Mobile Payment (MP) b. Technology Acceptance Model a. Research model and Hypothesis b. Data Collection c. Instruments and Scale Measurement of Variables a. General Data Information. b. Hypothesis testing c. Research results and Interpretation a. Conclusion b. Future Research c. Questions
  3. 3. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 3 Mobile Payment as a new technology service in Albania How it will be the Adoption of this new technology and which are the factors influencing the acceptance of these new service by Albanian customer? MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 Questions:
  4. 4. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 4 The factor influence to the adoption of the new technology PU TRUST SecurityAGE Mobile Phone Skills WantsEducation Convenience NeedsSocial approval Norms PEOU MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 Image Divisibility Demography
  5. 5. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 5 The main aim of this thesis was to find out …if some of these factors influence to the adoption of the Mobile Payment as a new technology… MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  6. 6. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 6 …Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)… Section I MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 The TAM has been created (Davis F. D., 1989) and usually has been used in the information system theories trying to understand how users come to accept and use a technology Source: (Davis F. D., 1989); (Venkatesh & Davis, 1996) Perceived usefulness (PU) - Described by Fred Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance". Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) –defined also By Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort"
  7. 7. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 7 …Mobile Payment (MP )… Section I MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 The MP is a new way of the payment and some definition are described below: “Payment for products or services between two parties for which a mobile device, such as a mobile phone, plays a key role in the realization of the payment” (ISACA, November 2011). Mobile payments are payments for goods, services, and bills with a mobile device (such as a mobile phone, smart-phone, or personal digital assistant (PDA)) by taking advantage of wireless and other communication technologies. ( Dahlberg, Mallata, Ondrus , & Zmijewska, 2007). Mobile payment, also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet generally refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Instead of paying with cash, check, or credit cards, a consumer can use a mobile phone to pay for a wide range of services and digital or hard goods. (Wikipedia®). Source: (Mobilepaymentstoday.com)
  8. 8. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 8 Section I …The Characteristics of MP simplicity and usability. universality. interoperability. security, trust, and privacy. cross-border payments. cost less. speed. etc. MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  9. 9. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 9 Section II : Research Model & Hypothesis H1. A significant relationship between PEOU & BIU. H2.A significant relationship between PU & BIU. H3.A significant relationship between Trust & BIU. H4. A significant relationship between Security & BIU. H5.A significant relationship between Age & BIU H6.A significant relationship between Education & BIU. H7.A significant relationship between Mobile Phone Skills & BIU. H8.A significant relationship between the Convenience & BIU. H9.A significant relationship between Age & PEOU. H10.A significant relationship between the Education & PEOU. H11.A significant relationship between Education & Phone Skills. H12. A significant relationship between the Age & Trust. TAM was used as research model. The technical and behavioral factors the usually has impact to the intention to use the new technology are collected in the table below MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  10. 10. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 10 Section II : Sample procedure and Data Collection  Total number of participants was 217  Total number of participants analyzed was 129 (58% of the total number) All the participants has been randomly selected with the Albanian territory. All the participants should have at least some basic computer knowledge. Due to limited budget the questionnaire was distributed online. An online questionnaire with 27 question was fulfilled by all the participants. In the last question of the questionnaire when the participants should answer to their intention to use the MP application in the future the selection answers was “YES”, “NO”, “Not sure” Only the answer “YES” & “NO” was analyze during this study. MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  11. 11. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 11MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 Section II : Instrument and scale Measurement of Variables Technical Factors Behavioral Factors Using SMS is easy Managing the account is easy Following the payment procedure is easy Q21 Time benefits Queue avoidance New other opportunities for payment Enhance performance and efficiency in my jobs Q22 Absolute trust in Mobile Provider Absolute trust in Financial Institution Absolute trust in Companies which offer this service Q23 No Transaction errors Transaction well recorded and documented No Transaction blurredness No concern about privacy No concern about losing or stealing personal data Q24 Skills to download application Availability to install application Availability activating application Good skills to use application Availability to activate payment account with SMS Q25 Time and Space benefits Financial benefits Efficiency Q26 Age Q2 Education Q4 BUI Using the M-payment more than 12 months Q27 PEOU PU Trust Security Phone Skills Convenience Age Education
  12. 12. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 12 Section II : Instrument and scale Measurement of Variables MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 The data analyze were done with the help of SPSS application. The Cross table and Pearson Chi-square analysis (𝜒2 ) were used to interpret the data by providing percentages and numeric values of times each value was obtained. The analysis it is used for all the types of data (nominal , ordinal, ratio, Interval) The use of the chi-square 𝜒2 was to test the hypotheses by determining the strength of the relationship between the variables with a .05% significance level. The chi square statistic is calculated using the model: 𝛘 𝟐 = (𝐎−𝐄) 𝐄 𝟐 , Where O= Observed frequency, and E= Expected frequency.
  13. 13. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 13 Section III : Hypothesis testing The chi-square test works best when the expected frequencies are fairly large The Chi square does not explain the strength between the variables. It test if the relationship between 2 variables. Beside each alternative hypothesis a NULL Hypothesis (H0) was created to state that no relationship exist. In case that the deviation of observed results from expected is lower than significant level () then the H0 was rejected and the alternative hypothesis were accepted (𝛒< 0,05 (significance level)) The expected frequency should not be less than 1 and no more than 20% of the expected frequencies. Then, the YATES’s Correction or Fisher’s Exact Test was used (NorthWestern Universtity, 1997) to fix the problem The sample was small, some of the Hypothesis has shown this problem which was resolved by combining the categories (Brown, 2012-2015) and the Fisher’s Exact tests. MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  14. 14. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 14 Section III :General Data Information 59% 41% Gender Femal Male 41% 39% 5% 1% 11% 3% Education Bachelor Master PHD Primary School High School Other 45% 38% 15% 2% Age 20-29 Year Old 30-39 Year Old over 40 Years old under 20 years old 19% 81% Heard about MP YES NO 9% 91% MP Service used YES NO MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  15. 15. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 15 Section III: Research results and Interpretation PEOU BIU Using SMS is easy Managing the account is easy Following the payment procedure is easy Ρ =0,063 (>0,05) Ρ =0,003 (<0,05) Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis). There is no relationship between PEOU and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is rejected PU Time benefits Queue avoidance New other opportunities for payment Enhance performance and efficiency in my jobs Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis). There is no relationship between PU and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is rejected BIU MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  16. 16. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 16 Section III: Research results and Interpretation Trust BIU Trust in Mobile Provider Trust in Financial Institution Trust in other Companies Ρ =0,169 (>0,05) Ρ =0,0001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,048 (<0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no relationship between TRUST and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is rejected Security No Transaction errors Transaction well recorded No Transaction blurredness No Transaction blurredness No concern about losing data Ρ =0,255 (>0,05) Ρ =0,034 (<0,05) Ρ =0,227 (>0,05) Ρ =0,031 (<0,05) Ρ =0,062 (>0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis). There is no relationship between Security and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is accepted BIU MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  17. 17. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 17 Section III: Research results and Interpretation Phone Skills BIU Skills to download Availability to install Availability activate Skills to use application To activate payment Ρ =0,016 (<0,05) Ρ =0,003 (<0,05) Ρ =0,0001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,178 (>0,05) Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no relationship between Phone Skills and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is rejected Convenience Time and Space benefits Financial benefits Efficiency Ρ =0,0001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,0001 (<0,05) Ρ =0,0001 (<0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis). There is no relationship between Convenience and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is rejected BIU MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  18. 18. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 18 Section III: Research results and Interpretation PEOU AGE Using SMS is easy Managing the account is easy Following the payment procedure is easy Ρ =0,454 (>0,05) Ρ =0,241 (>0,05) Ρ =0,325 (>0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no relationship between AGE and PEOU. NULL Hypothesis is accepted PEOU Using SMS is easy Managing the account is easy Following the payment procedure is easy Ρ =0,599 (>0,05) Ρ =0,808 (>0,05) Ρ =0,424 (>0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis). There is no relationship between Education and PEOU. NULL Hypothesis is accepted Education MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  19. 19. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 19 Section III: Research results and Interpretation Education Phone Skills Skills to download Availability to install Availability activate Skills to use application To activate account Ρ =0,533 (>0,05) Ρ =0,055 (>0,05) Ρ =0,009 (<0,05) Ρ =0,004 (<0,05) Ρ =0,060 (>0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no relationship between Education and Phone Skills. NULL Hypothesis is accepted Trust Trust in Mobile Provider Trust in Financial Institution Trust in other Companies Ρ =0,085 (>0,05) Ρ =0,026 (<0,05) Ρ =0,001 (<0,05) H0 (Null Hypothesis). There is no relationship between Age and Trust. NULL Hypothesis is Rejected AGE MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  20. 20. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 20 Section III: Research results and Interpretation H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no relationship between Age and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is rejected Ρ =0,002 (<0,05)AGE BIU H0 (Null Hypothesis).There is no relationship between Education and BIU. NULL Hypothesis is accepted Ρ =0,178 (>0,05) BIUEducation MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  21. 21. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 21 Section IV: MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 The Factors as PEOU / PU / Trust / Phone Skills / Convenience /Age Influence to the Adoption of M- Payment as a NEW Technology The factors as Security & Education doesn’t influence to the Adoption of M-Payment as a NEW technology The age has a influence to the trust The AGE / Education doesn’t influence to PEOU The Education don’t have any influence to the Phone Skills
  22. 22. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 22 Section IV: MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015 Enlarge the range of Research Enlarge the Sample of People selected New factors can be included in the study The reasons that bring the relationship between the factors , etc
  23. 23. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 23 Section IV: MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
  24. 24. © 2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 24 FIN MBA, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania, 2015
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