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Dulce, evangeline l empiricism

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Dulce, evangeline l empiricism

  1. 1. EMPIRICIS M EVANGELINE L. DULCE TEACHER I BUBUKAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ADVANCE PHILOSOPHY
  2. 2. What is Empiricism?
  3. 3. Etymology The English term "empirical" derives from the Greek word which is cognate with and translates to the Latin experientia, from which we derive the word "experience" and the related "experiment". The term was used by the Empiric school of ancient Greek medical practitioners, who rejected the three doctrines of the Dogmatic school, preferring to rely on the observation of "phenomena“
  4. 4. Etymology The term "empiricism" has a dual etymology, stemming both from the Greek word for "experience" and from the more specific classical Greek and Roman usage of "empiric", referring to a physician whose skill derives from practical experience as opposed to instruction in theory (this was it's first usage).
  5. 5. Empiricism is a theory which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
  6. 6. It is a view that all knowledge of reality is derived from sensory experience.
  7. 7. Hence, for empiricists, all knowledge begins with experience and that the mind is like a “blank sheet” or
  8. 8. History of Empiricism
  9. 9. The concept of a "tabula rasa" (or "clean slate") had been developed as early as the 11th Century by the Persian philosopher Avicenna, who further argued that knowledge is attained through empirical familiarity with objects in this world, from which one abstracts universal concepts, which can then be further developed through a syllogistic method of reasoning.
  10. 10. SYLLOGISM It is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. In a form, defined by Aristotle, from the combination of a general statement and a specific statement, a conclusion is
  11. 11. For example: General statement: A dog is an animal. Specific statement: But a puppy is a dog. Therefore: A puppy is an animal.
  12. 12. The 12th Century Arabic philosopher Abu acer (or Ibn Tu fail: 1105 - 1185) demonstrated the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in which the mind of a feral child develops from a clean slate to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society on a desert island,
  13. 13. Empiricists deny that any ideas or even intellectual structure is inscribed on the mind from birth- the mind at birth is a blank tablet, devoid even of watermarks. The implication is that anything “written” on the
  14. 14. Dreaming Imagining Fantasizing INNER EXPERIENCES
  15. 15. There are so many sorts of experience, but here experience means “sense experience” that is perceptions derived from five senses: sight, sound, touch, taste and smell.
  16. 16. Empiricist Philosopher s
  17. 17. Aristotle can be classed as a tabula rasa empiricist, for he rejects the claim that we have innate ideas or principles of reasoning. With regard to tabula rasa empiricism, Aristotle rejects the doctrine of innate ideas found in the work of Plato (427–347 BCE).
  18. 18. Berkeley is classified as an “empiricist” philosopher along with Locke. He believed that the central point of empiricism involves gaining knowledge through the senses, rather than through innate ideas. And Berkeley wholeheartedly believes that we do acquire all of our knowledge through sense perception.
  19. 19. David Hume was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, librarian and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
  20. 20. Francis Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. He argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature.
  21. 21. John Locke was an English philosopher, often classified as an 'empiricist', because he believed that knowledge was founded in empirical observation and experience. In that all our knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself.
  22. 22. How do we get ideas? • We get simple ideas through the senses. Each perception give us the raw material of experience. We do not choose these ideas. We simply receive them passively as we experience the world. • Complex ideas are formed by taking the raw material or simple ideas and then actively using our minds to form new ideas. • All of our ideas must come from these processes. Thus, if we have an idea of God or the external world we will have to be able to describe it by these processes.
  23. 23. Educational Aims of Empiricism • The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience. • Reason is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge unless it is grounded in the solid bedrock of sense experience. • There is no evidence of innate ideas within the mind that are known apart from experience.
  24. 24. Empiricism – Teacher Role (in a Math Class) • Teacher transmits knowledge to student • Learning is a one-way experience from teacher to student • Teacher holds authoritarian role • Teacher does the majority of the talking • Lecture format • Textbook based
  25. 25. Empiricism – Student Role (in a Math Class) • Child born as blank slate • Learning happens to the student – mind is imprinted with new knowledge • Learning is based on correct answers • Students take notes • Don’t ask questions • Information is memorized
  26. 26. Empiricists use 3 anchor points in which they derive their opinions from. • The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience. • Reason is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge unless it is grounded in the solid bedrock of sense experience. • There is no evidence of innate ideas within the mind that are known apart from experience.
  27. 27. 1.John Locke is the Father of Empiricism. 2.In Philosophy, Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. 3.Empirical research, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides the
  28. 28. 1.Empiricists emphasize mechanical causes of behavior, which emphasizes the .power of environmental factors. 2.Empiricists stress induction which involves generalizing from observables. 3.Empiricists think that they can know about the reality by
  29. 29. 1.Empiricism uses experiments and tests to see if hypotheses are false. 2.Empiricism is a notion that objective knowledge is really subjective. 3.In Empiricism, learning is a one-way experience from teacher to students.
  30. 30. “New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not common.” ― John Locke

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