• Determines how a person sees him/herself
• Is affected by:
• Beliefs - basic personal orientation toward what is true or false, good or bad
• Values - deep-seated orientations and ideals, generally based on and
consistent with beliefs, about right and wrong ideas and actions.
• Attitudes - learned predisposition toward or against a topic. Are often
• Other things that can affect self-concept are body image, personal
attributes, talents, social role, even birth order.
• Dimensions of self-concept:
• Actual self – how I actually see myself
• Ideal self – how I would like to see myself
• Social self – how others actually see me
• Ideal social self – how I would like others to see me.
Whereas self-concept focuses internally, perception looks outward.
Also is rooted in beliefs, values and attitudes.
It is the process you use to assign meaning to data about yourself or the world
Sensory perception – physical process of taking in data through the senses.
Selective perception – mental process of choosing which data or stimuli to
Personal perception – your own understanding of reality. This becomes the
basis of your judgments and decision making.
Two people can have different perceptions of the same event, idea.
8. LEVELS OF INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
• Involves thinking, concentration and analysis. Psychologists include both
daydreaming in this category. Prayer, contemplation and meditation also are
part of this category.
Solo vocal communication
• Includes speaking aloud to oneself. This may be done to clarify thinking, to
rehearse a message intended for others, or simply to let off steam.
Solo written communication
• Solo written communication deals with writing not intended for others.
Example: An entry in a diary or personal journal.
1. Self-awareness - allows the person to be aware of every aspect of their own
personality and can easily communicate his wants and needs to others.
2. Self-confidence - A self-aware state makes one secure and increases
3. Self-management - The fact that one is conscious of the indwelling strengths
and shortcomings, it equips him to manage his daily affairs efficiently using
his strengths to the maximum which in turn compensates for his weaknesses.
4. Self-motivation and focus- The absolute knowledge of what one wants out
of life will enable the person to strive to achieve those aims and goal while
continuously motivating themselves.
5. Independence - Self-awareness allows the person to be independent.
6. Adaptability - The person is highly adaptable to his surroundings as the
knowledge of his own qualities allows him to confidently and calmly take
decisions and change his approach accordingly in response to situational
1. Introverted - Since the person prefers working alone, he is perceived as
shy or anti-social by others.
2. Wrong assumptions and decisions - Since there is absence of
feedback, that is, the conversation is in a one- way flow, it could lead to
the development of misconceptions and faulty assumptions.
3. Categorical thinking - There is a possibility of an individual categorizing
and viewing certain individuals or events with a biased opinion causing
one's thought pattern to be one-tracked and lopsided.
4. Over-thinking – Over analysis of situations and prolonged thinking
about them will lead to the imagination of unrealistic and unnecessary
scenarios, and in extreme cases, may even lead to self-doubt.
5. Arrogance - Due to an independent nature and specific approach
towards an issue, one may be incorrectly perceived as being arrogant.
This is further reinforced by one's tendency to pay attention to every
11. REFERENCES AND STUDIES
Vocate, D. R. (1994). Intrapersonal communication: Different voices, different
minds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Scott, R. L. (2006). Communication As An Intentional, Social System. Human
Communication Research Human Comm Res, 3(3), 258-268.
14. INTRODUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS
• (Fujishin, 2013) Made up of three or more people, who share commonality
(task, goal, similarities), have interaction with each other, influence one
• Interdependence – Each group member depends on the other group
members in one way or another.
• Mutual influence
• Adaptation/flexibility – to fit the changes of a changing environment.
• Equifinality – The ability of a group to accomplish a task in many ways and
from many starting points.
15. TYPES OF GROUPS
• Social groups - units such as families, friends living as roommates, and
voluntary recreational groups such as soccer teams.
• Families - also form primary groups, which are defined as those in which
people share living and financial arrangements.
• Work groups - These are built by people who are drawn together by a
common task, such as students working together on a project or company
• Decision-making groups - brought together for the purpose of dealing with a
question or policy.
• Problem - solving groups - focus on resolving a problem.
16. LEADERSHIP STYLES
• High control (authoritarian leaders)
• Moderate control (democratic leaders)
• Low control (laissez-faire leaders)
• Abdacratic control, involves the total collapse of leadership over uncontrolled
17. PATTERN OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
1. Orientation phase - participants get to know each other and learn what is
expected of them as a group.
2. Conflict phase – group members deal with sources of conflict
3. The norm emergence phase - centers on compromise, the convergence of
ideas, generation of alternative solutions, and eventually consensus.
Brainstorming is used in this phase to generate as many ideas as possible.
4. The closure phase - completes the process by concluding the group’s work.
The groups mission is accomplished.
18. THEORIES OF SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION
Symbolic Convergence Theory
Symbolic Convergence Theory studies the sensemaking function of
Fantasy themes are stories or narratives that assist group members in
interpreting group interactions as well as the environment.
As group members come to share a number of fantasies, they begin to develop
a rhetorical vision of themselves and the group.
It focuses on group identity and the development of a group consciousness.
This theory is descriptive rather than predictive.
Symbolic Convergence Theory is useful for examining the similarities and
differences among groups in terms of in rhetorical visions and fantasy.
19. Structuration Theory
Structuration Theory differentiates between systems, such as small groups, and
structures, the practices, rules, norms, and other resources the system uses to
function and sustain itself.
Structuration refers to the processes group members employ as they work
Structures both produce a system (in this case, a group) and are outcomes of a
20. ADVANTAGES OF GROUPS
1. Sense of belonging
2. Knowledge and Information - Since group members have different
specialties, they tend to provide more information and knowledge. Also, the
information tends to be more comprehensive in nature and the groups can
generate a greater number of alternatives. There is often truth to the axiom
that “two heads are better than one.”
3. Implementation of decisions – Implementation of the decision is more
effective since the people who are going to implement the decision, either
participated in the group themselves or had their representatives in it. This
also increases the commitment of the people to see the implementation to
4. The group decision making is more democratic in nature, while individual
decision making is perceived to be more autocratic in nature. The democratic
processes are more easily acceptable and are consistent with the democratic
ideals of our society.
21. DISADVANTAGES OF GROUPS
1. Time consuming - in terms of assembling the right group and usually a group
takes more time in reaching a consensus since there are too many opinions to be
taken into consideration. The time problem increases with the group size.
2. Varying interests - Many times, the participants in group decision making have
their own interests to protect. These self- centered interests lead to personality
conflicts that may create interpersonal obstacles which may diminish the efficiency
of the process as well as the quality of the decision.
3. Focus effect - This means that the group may focus on one or few suggested
alternatives and spend all the time in evaluating these and may never come up
with other ideas, thus limiting the choices.
4. Risk - The groups may shift either towards more risk taking or towards less risk
taking and either of the shifts may be undesirable. Generally speaking, problems
suitable for group decision making involve some degree of risk or uncertainty. But
to take excessive risk is as bad as taking no risk at all.
22. REFERENCES AND STUDIES
Brown, R., & Gaertner, S. (eds.). 2001). Intergroup processes. Oxford, UK:
Gaertner (eds). Intergroup processes. Oxford, UK: Blackwell..
Tubbs, S. (1992). A systems approach to small group interaction. New York:
Fujishin, R. (2013). Creating effective groups: The art of small group
communication. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.