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The Fall Armyworm: FAO’s Programme for Action

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www.fao.org/food-chain-crisis/
how-we-work/plant-protection/fall-armyworm
FAO has prepared this Programme for Action as a response to the threat posed by the Fall Armyworm in Africa. It has six components:
1. Management of FAW: Immediate Recommendations & Actions
2. Short-term Research Priorities
3. Communications and Training
4. Monitoring and Early Warning
5. Policy and Regulatory Support
6. Coordination

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The Fall Armyworm: FAO’s Programme for Action

  1. 1. The Fall Armyworm FAO’s Programme for Action
  2. 2. The Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is an insect pest that can feed on more than 80 crop species, but prefers maize. It is native to the Americas but has now spread across Sub-Saharan Africa. ©MarlinE.Rice
  3. 3. The female moth of the Fall Armyworm can lay up to a total of 1 000 eggs in her lifetime Eggs hatch in 2-3 days
  4. 4. Zimbabwe. Young larvae of the Fall Armyworm in a maize plant
  5. 5. South Africa. Maize field in Lipompo Province infested with the FAW
  6. 6. Detected and officially reported Detected awaiting official reporting Fall Armyworm in Africa
  7. 7. FAW is a farmer’s problem
  8. 8. Benin. Understanding farmers’ needs
  9. 9. Ethiopia. Agricultural extension agents inspecting farmers’ fields
  10. 10. Ghana. Farmers receive training on managing the Fall Armyworm
  11. 11. Nigeria. Sub-regional FAW training
  12. 12. FAO South-South Cooperation FAW Expert Meeting Accra, July 18-21th 2017 Natural Enemies: Predators, Parasitoids, Pathogens
  13. 13. FAO hosted important Expert Meeting Fall Armyworm Expert Meeting Accra, Ghana 18-20 July 2017 A Synthesis report of the meeting prepared and is online.
  14. 14. Fall Armyworm in Africa: Key messages
  15. 15. • Don’t Panic – But do Act! • Prevention is best – Avoid late and staggered plantings – Increase plant diversity (oviposition & natural enemies) (milpa in Mesoamerica) • Visit your fields at least once a week and observe – Fresh damage from FAW (in whorl) – Look for egg masses and crush them – Look and observe natural control: pathogens, predators, parasitoids (farmers’ friends) Key messages for Farmers
  16. 16. Key messages for Farmers • Damage may look bad, but may not reduce yield dramatically – give natural control a chance (synthetic chemical pesticides kill many natural enemies (farmers’ friends) – Maize plants have ability to withstand/compensate for damage – short-term research • Rain kills larvae • Smallholder maize farmers in Mesoamericatry a number of controltactics:local botanical mixtures (neem, hot pepper, local plants), ash and soil, and self-multiplication of pathogens.
  17. 17. Key Messages for Farmers - 3 • Some pesticidesavailable for FAW have very high risk to human health • Same pesticides available for FAW may not work • There are bio-pesticides,including botanicals, virus and bacteria-based • Some of the bio-pesticidescan be produced locally • Not fast kill, but stop feeding (damage) • Pesticide use may not be economically viable Key messages for Farmers
  18. 18. • Don’t Panic – But do Act! • Farmers’ need to learn how to manage FAW – natural control • Pesticides – Avoid Highly Hazardous Pesticides – Bio-pesticides: registration, accessibility, PRODUCTION – Be careful of costs of pesticides among smallholders • Need for mass communication/extension /participatory learning • Need to invest in short-term validation of recommendations and medium-term innovative solutions • Local production of bio-pesticides and bio-control agents may provide good rural youth employment and opportunities for entrepreneurs Key messages for Decision-makers
  19. 19. Farmers field schools
  20. 20. Integrated management of the Fall Armyworm on maize A Training Guide for the Integrated Management of the FAW on maize in Africa for Farmers Field Schools Farmers to learn about: FAW identification, life cycle and behaviour; preventative measures to reduce infestation and help plants withstand damage to minimize yield loss; early scouting; mechanical controls; use of botanical pesticides and biological control agents; pesticide risk reduction; monitoring and surveillance, and more
  21. 21. The cost of inaction • The arrival of fall armyworm(FAW) in Africa has the potential to cause maize yield losses in a range from 8.3 to 20.6 million tonnes per annum, in the absence of any control methods, in just 12 maize-producing countries • This represents a range of 21%-53% of the annual averaged production of maize over a three year period in these countries • The value of these losses is estimated between $2,481m - $6,187m Source: CABI
  22. 22. Framework for Partnership Seven Components: 1. Management of FAW: Immediate Recommendations & Actions 2. Short-term Research Priorities 3. Medium to Long-term Research 4. Communications and Training 5. Monitoring and Early Warning 6. Policy and Regulatory Support 7. Coordination Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa
  23. 23. FAO Programme for Action Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa
  24. 24. FAO has prepared this Programme for Action in the context of that Framework. This Programme presents to development resource partners that part of the Framework actions that FAO is prepared to administer and implement focusing on its comparative advantages. Six components have been identified to be implemented by FAO Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action
  25. 25. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 1. Management of FAW: Immediate Recommendations & Actions 2. Short-term Research Priorities 3. Communications and Training 4. Monitoring and Early Warning 5. Policy and Regulatory Support 6. Coordination
  26. 26. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 1. Management of FAW: Immediate Recommendations& Actions Objectives • Provide farmers with knowledge and recommendation for sustainable management of FAW • Learn and share experiences and knowledge from Americas • Determine use of pheromone traps in FAW management system • Make pesticide use more effective and less hazardous
  27. 27. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 2. Short-term research and developmentpriorities Objectives • Create and coordinate an African Network of National Research & Development for FAW • Determine yield loss due to FAW and develop action thresholds
  28. 28. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 3. Communication and training Objectives • Ensure consistent messages across public and countries based on best knowledge and develop mass communication campaigns • At least 10.00 extensionists have the capacity to provide training to farmers regarding sustainable FAW management • At least 10 million farmers have the knowledge and information via 40.000 Farmer Field Schools to manage FAW sustainably
  29. 29. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 4. Monitoring and early warning Objectives • Pheromone traps generating detailed and dependable knowledge on host range and migration patterns of FAW in the context of African agro-ecologies and cropping systems, to develop and disseminate appropriate management options • Organize and conduct annual FAW research seminar and knowledge and service fair • Develop a harmonized monitoring system, consistent data collection and analysis system and early warning system
  30. 30. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 5. Policy and regulatory support Objectives • Develop risk transfer mechanisms and instruments accessible by smallholder farmers for FAW management • Create appropriate policy framework for pesticide use for FAW
  31. 31. Sustainable Management of Fall Armyworm in Africa: FAO Programme for Action 6. Coordination Objectives • Create and maintain fluid and coherent coordination among actors and levels • Provide adequate monitoring and impact assessment of programme
  32. 32. Immediate needs • Best practices & key concepts for farmers • No use of Highly Hazardous Pesticides • Promotion of alternatives (especially bio- pesticides, produced locally) • Mass communication campaigns, extension • Farmer Field Schools
  33. 33. For more information: www.fao.org/food-chain-crisis/ how-we-work/plant-protection/fall-armyworm/

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