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Science Innovation for Better Livelihoods
Case Study:
PUSH-PULL TECHNOLOGY
FOR SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION OF
AGRICULTURE ...
Maize worth US$ 1.5b is lost annually due to stemborers in
SSA
Chilo partellus
Busseola fusca
The parasitic witchweeds, Striga spp, threaten the lives of over
100 million people in Africa and infest 60% of arable lan...
About 2/3 of 73 million ha of land devoted to cereal
production in Africa is infested with striga.
S. hermonthica S. asiat...
I. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS:
Formulating
a push-pull strategy for Africa
Africa needs simple, inexpensive, multi-
faceted techn...
The ‘Push-Pull’ scientific innovation
The ‘Push-Pull’ strategy is a novel approach in pest
management which uses a repelle...
“Push – Pull” for Stemborer and Striga Control, and
improvement of soil fertility
H3C
H
H
H
(E)-4,8-dimethyl-
1,3,7-nonatr...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Days after egg hatch
%Larvalsurvival
Ex-Nyanza-1
Clone...
Stemborer larval feeding
on Napier grass
Stemborer larvae trapped
in gummy substance
Larva
Gummy substance
10 15 20 25 30
Pennisetum purpureum
Zea mays
1
2
3
GC of the volatiles from Napier grass and maize
during beginning of the...
Maize
Pull and trap
Pullandtrap
Pullandtrap
Pull and trap
CONTROL OF STEMBORERS WITH TRAP
PLANTS
Desmodium intercrop
• Inhibits striga growth through allelopathy
•Perennial fodder legumes indigenous to South America
•Im...
Long Term Trials with Maize-Legume Intercrops
Maize + Green gram
Maize + cowpea Maize +Desmodium
Maize + Beans
Khan et al....
HYBRID MAIZE WITH FERTILIZER FOR 10 YEARS
fertilizer application alone is ineffective against striga,
the main biotic cons...
Khan et al. 2002. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 1871-1885
ALLELOPATHIC MECHANISM OF STRIGA
SUPPRESSION
Compounds Isolated from Desmodium Root
Exudate
Tsanuo et al. 2003. Phytochemistry 64: 265-273
Hooper et al. 2009. Pest Man...
II. OUTCOMES
Push-Pull Strategy
1= (E)-ß-ocimene;
2= α-terpinolene;
3= β-caryophyllene;
4= humulene;
5= (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-
nonatriene;
6= α-cedrene;
...
Before After
•Effective control of stemborers
and striga weeds
•Grain yields increased from
<1t/ha to 3.5t/ha with minimum...
MAIZE INTERCROPPED WITH DESMODIUMMAIZE ONLY
Desmodium effectively inhibits Striga emergence;
raises maize yields from < 1 ...
On-Farm Evaluation of ‘Push-Pull’
Technology (n=420)
Khan et al. 2008. Field Crops Research 106: 224-233
5
10
15
20
25
0
1...
Economics of the push-pull system
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Trans Nzoia Suba Bungoma Busia
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Returntolabour
(...
Sorghum Mono Crop Sorghum + Desmodium intortum
SORGHUM
2.6
t/ha
1.4
t/ha
MILLET
417 864
kg/ha
RICE
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
About a quarter About half About three quarters Almost all
Farmers' estimation of crop lo...
Benefits of Push-Pull Technology
Sustainable Development
Gender & Social Equity
Stemborers
and striga
control
Increased
fo...
III. KEY FACTORS FOR
HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY,
GREATER RESILIENCE AND
EXPANSION
Crop-Livestock Integration
Both trap and repellent plants are excellent livestock fodder.
Heifer International recommends ...
INTEGRATING BEANS IN PUSH-PULL SYSTEM
Maize and beans in different holes Maize and beans in same holes
Farmers’ Practice o...
Adaptation of Push-Pull to Climate
Change
Brachiaria cv mulato
Vetiver grass
Screening for drought tolerant grasses for us...
D. ramosissimum
D. intortum D. incanum
Identification of drought tolerant Desmodium spp.
D. repandum
Elucidation of scientific mechanisms of selected trap and
intercrop plants
H
H
(E)-ocimene
(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7
-nonatri...
CLIMATE-SMART PUSH-PULL
Farmers’ drama
Evaluation of Efficiency
and Economics of
Dissemination Pathways
Field daysPrint Media
Farmer Field Schools...
Key Elements of Processes that Build agro-
ecosystem Outputs and Resilience
•Use of locally available natural resources to...
GREEN REVOLUTION IN AFRICA ?
Productivity revolution in Africa will come
from adoption of simple, environmentally
sustaina...
RECOMMENDATIONS
• Institutionalisation, capacity development and
scaling up Push-pull through continent-wide,
regional and...
THANK YOU
Agricultural innovation for their better future ..….
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ICIPE's Push-pull technology

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The Push-pull technology is an innovation from ICIPE. It’s a pest management approach that uses repellent intercrops and an attractive trap plant. Pests are repelled from the food crop and attracted to a trap crop, simultaneously. It is mostly used to control Stemborer and Striga.

Publié dans : Technologie
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ICIPE's Push-pull technology

  1. 1. Science Innovation for Better Livelihoods Case Study: PUSH-PULL TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA www.icipe.org www.push-pull.net Jimmy Pittchar FARA General Assembly and 6th Science Week 15-20 July 2013 Accra International Conference Centre, Accra, Ghana
  2. 2. Maize worth US$ 1.5b is lost annually due to stemborers in SSA Chilo partellus Busseola fusca
  3. 3. The parasitic witchweeds, Striga spp, threaten the lives of over 100 million people in Africa and infest 60% of arable land in the savannah region causing an annual loss of billions of dollars to African agricultural economy. Khan et al. 2007. Crop Science 47:730-734
  4. 4. About 2/3 of 73 million ha of land devoted to cereal production in Africa is infested with striga. S. hermonthica S. asiatica Distribution of Striga Weed in Africa
  5. 5. I. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: Formulating a push-pull strategy for Africa Africa needs simple, inexpensive, multi- faceted technologies which are developed with farmers’ participation and are tailored to the diversity of their farming systems (Prof. Thomas R. Odhiambo, 1983)
  6. 6. The ‘Push-Pull’ scientific innovation The ‘Push-Pull’ strategy is a novel approach in pest management which uses a repellent intercrop and an attractive trap plant. Insect pests are repelled from the food crop and are simultaneously attracted to a trap crop. Attract natural enemies Moths are pushed away Attract moths Trap Crop Main Crop Cook, Khan and Pickett (2007) Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52 : 375-400
  7. 7. “Push – Pull” for Stemborer and Striga Control, and improvement of soil fertility H3C H H H (E)-4,8-dimethyl- 1,3,7-nonatriene -caryophyllene (E)-β-ocimene humulene α-terpinolene α -cedrene hexanal O (E)-2-hexenal O (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol OH (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate O O
  8. 8. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Days after egg hatch %Larvalsurvival Ex-Nyanza-1 Clone 13 Bana Ex-Machakos Ex-Nyanza-2 French Cameroon Gold Coast Mott Pakistan Hybrid Uganda Hairless Maize Survival of Stemborer (Chilo partellus) on maize and Napier grass varieties Khan et al. 2006. Entomol. Exp. Applic. 119:15-22
  9. 9. Stemborer larval feeding on Napier grass Stemborer larvae trapped in gummy substance Larva Gummy substance
  10. 10. 10 15 20 25 30 Pennisetum purpureum Zea mays 1 2 3 GC of the volatiles from Napier grass and maize during beginning of the scotophase Retention time I.S. I.S. Hexanal (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate Chamberlain, Khan, Pickett, Toshova and Wadhams, 2006. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32:565-577
  11. 11. Maize Pull and trap Pullandtrap Pullandtrap Pull and trap CONTROL OF STEMBORERS WITH TRAP PLANTS
  12. 12. Desmodium intercrop • Inhibits striga growth through allelopathy •Perennial fodder legumes indigenous to South America •Important cattle feed in eastern Africa •Can fix~ 110-160 Kg N/ha/year Desmodium uncinatum Desmodium intortum
  13. 13. Long Term Trials with Maize-Legume Intercrops Maize + Green gram Maize + cowpea Maize +Desmodium Maize + Beans Khan et al. 2007. Crop Science 47:730-734
  14. 14. HYBRID MAIZE WITH FERTILIZER FOR 10 YEARS fertilizer application alone is ineffective against striga, the main biotic constraint to smallholder agriculture in Africa
  15. 15. Khan et al. 2002. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 1871-1885 ALLELOPATHIC MECHANISM OF STRIGA SUPPRESSION
  16. 16. Compounds Isolated from Desmodium Root Exudate Tsanuo et al. 2003. Phytochemistry 64: 265-273 Hooper et al. 2009. Pest Manag.Sci 65: 546-552
  17. 17. II. OUTCOMES
  18. 18. Push-Pull Strategy
  19. 19. 1= (E)-ß-ocimene; 2= α-terpinolene; 3= β-caryophyllene; 4= humulene; 5= (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7- nonatriene; 6= α-cedrene; 7= hexanal; 8= (E)-2-hexenal; 9= (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 10= (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate ; 11= 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6-(3- methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (uncinanone A); 12= 4′′,5′′-dihydro-5,2′,4′- trihydroxy-5′′-isopropenylfurano- (2′′,3′′;7,6)-isoflavanone (uncinanone B); 13= 4′′,5′′- dihydro-2′- methoxy-5,4′-dihydroxy-5′′- isopropenylfurano-(2′′,3′′;7,6)- isoflavanone (uncinanone C), 14= di-C-glycosylflavone 6- C-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-β- Dglucopyranosylapigenin
  20. 20. Before After •Effective control of stemborers and striga weeds •Grain yields increased from <1t/ha to 3.5t/ha with minimum inputs •Soil health improved: nitrogen fixation (110kg N/ha), increased organic matter , moisture conservation and enhanced soil biodiversity •Lower soil temperature – improved potential to mitigate effects of climate change
  21. 21. MAIZE INTERCROPPED WITH DESMODIUMMAIZE ONLY Desmodium effectively inhibits Striga emergence; raises maize yields from < 1 t/ha to 3.5t/ha 3.5 t/ha< 1 t /ha
  22. 22. On-Farm Evaluation of ‘Push-Pull’ Technology (n=420) Khan et al. 2008. Field Crops Research 106: 224-233 5 10 15 20 25 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 1 2 3 4 2003 2004 2005 2006 30 No. of emerged striga/63 maize plants % stemborer damaged plants Maize Yields (t/ha) * **** **** * * * Maize monocrop fields Push-pull fields
  23. 23. Economics of the push-pull system -1 0 1 2 3 4 Trans Nzoia Suba Bungoma Busia -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Returntolabour (USD/manday) Return to Labour Grossbenefits (USD/ha) Gross benefits Push-pull system Maize/bean intercrop Maize mono Districts *Data averages of five years in each district Khan et al. 2008. Crop Protection 27: 976-987
  24. 24. Sorghum Mono Crop Sorghum + Desmodium intortum SORGHUM 2.6 t/ha 1.4 t/ha
  25. 25. MILLET 417 864 kg/ha
  26. 26. RICE 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 About a quarter About half About three quarters Almost all Farmers' estimation of crop loss %Farmers
  27. 27. Benefits of Push-Pull Technology Sustainable Development Gender & Social Equity Stemborers and striga control Increased fodder production N-fixation and reduced soil erosion Increased forage seed production Conservation of biodiversity Increased crop yields Improved cattle health Improved soil health Increased household income Technological Empowerment of farmers Improved human health Empowerment of women Improved dairy production Improved FYM Production
  28. 28. III. KEY FACTORS FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY, GREATER RESILIENCE AND EXPANSION
  29. 29. Crop-Livestock Integration Both trap and repellent plants are excellent livestock fodder. Heifer International recommends push-pull as a source of quality fodder for dairy animals
  30. 30. INTEGRATING BEANS IN PUSH-PULL SYSTEM Maize and beans in different holes Maize and beans in same holes Farmers’ Practice of planting Maize and beans
  31. 31. Adaptation of Push-Pull to Climate Change Brachiaria cv mulato Vetiver grass Screening for drought tolerant grasses for use as trap plants in adapted push-pull for drier areas of Africa
  32. 32. D. ramosissimum D. intortum D. incanum Identification of drought tolerant Desmodium spp. D. repandum
  33. 33. Elucidation of scientific mechanisms of selected trap and intercrop plants H H (E)-ocimene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7 -nonatriene -caryophyllene humulene -terpinolene CHO CHO MeO HO MeO OH nonanal 4-allylanisole naphthalene octanal eugenol linalool Plant volatile collection, analysis and identification
  34. 34. CLIMATE-SMART PUSH-PULL
  35. 35. Farmers’ drama Evaluation of Efficiency and Economics of Dissemination Pathways Field daysPrint Media Farmer Field Schools Farmer Teachers Radio
  36. 36. Key Elements of Processes that Build agro- ecosystem Outputs and Resilience •Use of locally available natural resources to increase farm productivity, while delivering ecological and economic benefits to smallholder farmers •Polycultural system fits traditional farming systems, attracts higher arthropod abundance and diversity •Stemborer and striga control through plants natural chemistry resulting in higher yields of cereal grain, fodder and milk, and incomes •Pereniality of companion plants ensures continuous striga depletion •Adaptability to climate change •Environmental benefits: soil and moisture conservation, improved soil health, increased soil cover and organic matter, eliminates pesticide usage
  37. 37. GREEN REVOLUTION IN AFRICA ? Productivity revolution in Africa will come from adoption of simple, environmentally sustainable and low cost platform technologies like push-pull, which are developed by understanding and exploiting basic and applied sciences. These technologies will address food security and livelihood of smallholders without requiring extra resources for crop protection and soil improvement and without causing any ecological and social harm.
  38. 38. RECOMMENDATIONS • Institutionalisation, capacity development and scaling up Push-pull through continent-wide, regional and country-level partnerships in line with the CAADP Framework (FARA, ASARECA, AFAAS, EAFF, NAREs, and NGOs); • Farming systems approach – Participatory validation, optimization and development of recommendation domains for different agro- ecological and country settings; • Value chain development – building forward and backward linkages for sustainable application and integration of Push-pull.
  39. 39. THANK YOU Agricultural innovation for their better future ..….

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