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Key recommnadation from AASW6: Innovations in targeting African farming systems

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Key recommnadation from AASW6: Innovations in targeting African farming systems

  1. 1. Innovations in targeting African farming systems for improved productivity and investment impact FARA AASW Sub-theme 2 Accra, 19 July 2013 John Dixon Principal Regional Coordinator South Asia & Africa, ACIAR
  2. 2. Contents Challenges for ARD Approaches to targeting Farming systems Conclusion
  3. 3. Challenge 1: food requirements in 2050 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 GlobalFoodDemand(Petacal/day) Year 71% increase 2010 to 2050 129% increase 1970 to 2010 Source: Keating et al 2012 Goal: “feeding 9 billion”
  4. 4. Century trends: population, agric prices Source: Fuglie & Wang 2012
  5. 5. Regional trends: African extensification cf Asian intensification  Source: World Bank, 2008 In some African countries, areas of under utilized agricultural land
  6. 6. Challenge 2: current hunger & poverty Goal: “eliminate poverty for 1 billion poor”
  7. 7. Pathways out of smallholder poverty Intensification 20% Diversification 30% Exit 10% Off-Farm Income 20% Farm Size 20% Example: maize mixed farming system in east and southern Africa
  8. 8. Some of the constraints … Low productivity Scarce biomass Land degradation Poor marketsClimate variability Limited resouces
  9. 9. A response: Sustainable Intensification Systems Increased productivity and resilience without loss of resource quality, through: • Commodity or NRM programs • Augmented by “systems” components Four pillars require investment: • Systems and farming systems • Innovation systems and information sharing • Policies, institutions and markets • Metrics and monitoring
  10. 10. Where and how to target sustainable intensification and agric R&D  Current targeting is often organized by administrative or agro-ecological zones  Potential for improved targeting to .. • Improve efficiency and impact, e.g., research productivity • Align better with other programs and partners  Targeting by farming systems is generally more efficient than by administrative divisions or agro-ecological zones
  11. 11. African farming systems framework NOTES Too much diversity for research & policy decisions Differentiate broad farming systems, each with a “core concept” and specific R4D priorities NB. A similar classification exists for North Africa
  12. 12. Contrasting sub-systems: Highland Perennial farming system Central Highlands Western Highlands Population density +++ ++++ Farm size +++ ++ Market infrastructure ++ + Poverty 30% poor >60% poor Crop area 35% maize 17% tea 17% coffee More high value crops 42% maize 8% tea 10% coffee % of improved cattle 95% 22% of crop area in fodder Zero-grazing increasing 67% 11% in fodder Value of production 102K KSh/household 44K KSh/household Use of fertilizers 122 kg/ha 74 manure bags 51 kg/ha 26 manure bags SYSTEM LEVEL High population density High agricultural potential Permanently cultivated systems Market-orientation as a way to intensify systems SUBSYSTEM LEVEL Differentiate
  13. 13. Drivers of farming system change • Population, hunger and poverty • Natural resources and climate • Energy • Human capital and information (gender) • Technology and science • Markets and trade • Institutions and policies
  14. 14. Productivity and risk e.g., possibilities to 2030 in Australia Carberry et al. 2011
  15. 15. Applying farming systems targeting Value add at regional scale  Differentiating regional strategic priorities  Framing technology spillovers across countries  Potential framework for monitoring progress (CAADP .. Value add at national scale  Enrich existing planning frameworks  Support CAADP investment plans
  16. 16. Some implications in Africa • Foresight needed to specify plausible future scenarios • Increased productivity of existing food production without diversification risks poverty traps • Small holders have comparative advantage in integrated management-intensive production • Research on institutional innovations for gender sensitive access to services (beyond markets), access to resources (land, water, .) and options for risk management
  17. 17. Conclusion  Twin challenges (of feeding 9 billion in 2050 and addressing current poverty of 1 billion) can be met through targeted research and scaling out (supported by other programs)  Farming systems offers an efficient targeting framework to support CAADP Investment Plans • Within countries, to enrich existing approaches • Within sub-regions, for strategic priorities and spillovers
  18. 18. ACIAR Thank you for your attention