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Human Trafficking | History & Waves | Prevention | HT in Pakistan |

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Human Trafficking | History & Waves | Prevention | HT in Pakistan |

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Human Trafficking | History & Waves | Prevention | HT in Pakistan |

  1. 1. Human Trafficking & Smuggling
  2. 2. Group Members  Aqdas Bin Malik  Abdul Rehman  Ahmad Hassan  Fahad Hassan Noor  Usman Saeed
  3. 3. Content Outline  What is Human Trafficking  Types of Human Trafficking 1. Sexual Exploitation 2. Forced Labor 3. Domestic Servitude 4. Organ Harvesting 5. Child Soldiering  History  Modern Slavery  Human Trafficking In our Country (Pakistan)  Solutions
  4. 4. What is Human Trafficking? Human Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
  5. 5. Human Trafficking Types  Sexual exploitation  Forced Labor  Domestic Servitude  Organ harvesting  Child soldiering
  6. 6. Sexual Exploitation  Sexual exploitation involves any non- consensual or abusive sexual acts performed without a victim’s permission. This includes prostitution, escort work and pornography.  Women, men and children of both sexes can be victims. Many will have been deceived with promises of a better life and then controlled through violence and abuse
  7. 7. Forced Labor
  8. 8. Forced Labor  Forced labor involves victims being compelled to work very long hours, often in hard conditions. Forced labor crucially implies the use of coercion and lack of freedom or choice for the victim.  In many cases victims are subjected to verbal threats or violence to achieve compliance. Manufacturing, entertainment, travel, farming and construction industries have been found to use forced labor by victims of human trafficking to some extent.
  9. 9. DOMESTIC SERVITUDE  Domestic servitude involves the victim being forced to work in private households. Their movement will often be restricted and they will be forced to perform household tasks such as child care and house-keeping over long hours and for little if any pay.  Victims will lead very isolated lives and have little or no unsupervised freedom. Their own privacy and comfort will be minimal, often sleeping on a mattress on the floor in an open part of the house.
  10. 10. DOMESTIC SERVITUDE (Cont.)  In rare circumstances where victims receive a wage it will be heavily reduced, as they are charged for food and accommodation
  11. 11. ORGAN HARVESTING  Trafficking in humans for the purpose of using their organs, in particular kidneys, is a rapidly growing field of criminal activity.  In many countries, waiting lists for transplants are very long. and criminals have seized this opportunity to exploit the desperation of patients and potential donors.  The health of victims, even their lives, is at risk as operations may be carried out in clandestine conditions with no medical follow-up.
  12. 12. CHILD SOLIDERING  Child soldiering is a unique and severe manifestation of trafficking in persons that involves the unlawful recruitment of children often through force, fraud, or coercion for labor or sexual exploitation in conflict areas.  Guilty party may be government forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. While the majority of child soldiers are between the ages of 15 and 18, some of whom may have been unlawfully recruited and used in hostilities, others are as young as 7 or 8, which is unlawful under international law.
  13. 13. CHILD SOLIDERING (Cont.)  Both boys and girls who are used as fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies, or for sexual purposes. Reintegration into their communities can be extremely difficult for former child soldiers due to psychological and physiological damage.
  14. 14. History Of Human Trafficking 1st Wave: 1200-1600: Slavery had existed for many years prior to 1200, and was a common form of everyday life worldwide. However, in the 1400's, it started the beginning of European slave trading in Africa with the  Portuguese transporting people from Africa to Portugal and using them as slaves. Britain joined the slaved trade in Africa in 1952. During the 1600s, other countries became more involved in the European slave trade. These included Spain, North America, Holland, France, Sweden, and Denmark.
  15. 15. 2nd Wave: 1700  Human trafficking for sexual purposes was first legally recognized by the term 'white slavery'. 'white slavery' is obtaining a white woman or girl- by the use of force, drugs, or by dishonesty- for sex which is unwanted by the woman or girl.  In 1807, Great Britain passed a law that made the Transatlantic Slave Trade illegal.  In 1820, the United States was right behind Great Britain's example by making the slave trade a crime that was punishable by death. In 1899 and 1902, world wide conferences to discuss white slavery were arranged. 1904, an world wide agreement against the 'white slave trade' was created, with a focus on migrant women and children.
  16. 16. 3rd Wave: 1900  Women and young girl victims were used for sex, while men and young boys were forced to do labor for no or little pay. However, human trafficking of children is most common.  King and Queens in Europe, in 1904, signed an agreement, the International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic. The agreement included combating the traffic of women and girls in their countries.  In 1923, the British colonial government in Hong Kong, passed the law of banning the selling of girls as domestic slaves. Countries all over the world started signing the law of banning the trafficking and selling of people. Forced labour and sexual exploitation was at its all time high during the 1900's.
  17. 17. 4th Wave: 2000  Free the Slaves, an American charity organization of Anti- Slavery International, was launched in the United States.  This organization is one of the most influential movements in history. This organization, highlighted the effects of human trafficking.  Approximately 80% of trafficking involves sexual exploitation, and 19% involves labor exploitation. There are approximately 20 to 30 million slaves in the world today.
  18. 18. Cont.  Human trafficking is the third largest international crime industry (behind illegal drugs and arms trafficking).  It reportedly generates a profit of $32 billion every year. Of that number, $15.5 billion is made in industrialized countries.
  19. 19. Modern Slavery Modern Slavery occurs "when a person is under control of another person, who applies violence and force to maintain that control, and the goal of that control is exploitation
  20. 20. Human Trafficking in Pakistan  Trafficking of children Boys and girls are also bought, sold, rented, or kidnapped to work in organized, illegal begging rings, domestic servitude, prostitution, and in agriculture in bonded labour. Illegal labour agents charge high fees to parents with false promises of decent work for their children, who are later exploited and subject to forced labour in domestic servitude, unskilled labour, small shops and other sectors. Agents who had previously trafficked children for camel jockeying in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were not convicted and continue to engage in child trafficking. Girls and women are also sold into forced marriages; in some cases their new "husbands" move them across Pakistani borders and force them into prostitution.
  21. 21. Human Trafficking in Pakistan  Abuse Many Pakistani women and men migrate voluntarily to the Persian Gulf States, Iran, Turkey, South Africa, Uganda, Greece, and other European countries for low-skilled employment such as domestic work, driving or construction work; once abroad, some become victims of labour trafficking. False job offers and high fees charged by illegal labour agents or sub-agents of licensed Pakistani Overseas Employment Promoters increase Pakistani labourers’ vulnerabilities and some labourers abroad find themselves in involuntary servitude or debt bondage. Employers abroad use practices including restrictions on movement, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or sexual abuse. Moreover, traffickers use violence, psychological coercion and isolation, often seizing travel and identification documents, to force Pakistani women and girls into prostitution in the Middle East and Europe. There are reports of child and sex trafficking between Iran and Pakistan; Pakistan is a destination for men, women and children from Afghanistan, Azerbaijan and Iran who are subjected to forced labour and prostitution
  22. 22. Human Trafficking in Pakistan  Protection The Government of Pakistan made some progress in its efforts to protect victims of human trafficking. The government continued to lack adequate procedures and resources for pro-actively identifying victims of trafficking among vulnerable persons with whom they come in contact, especially child labourers, women and children in prostitution, and agricultural and brick kiln workers
  23. 23. Human Trafficking in Pakistan  Pr0evention The Pakistani government made progress in its efforts to prevent human trafficking. The Punjab provincial government continued implementation of its $1.4 million project, Elimination of Bonded Labour in Brick Kilns (launched in 2008). To date, this project helped nearly 6,000 bonded labourers obtain Computerized National Identification Cards, in collaboration with the government National Database and Registration Authority. It has also provided $140,000 in no-interest loans to help free labourers from debt and established 60 on-site schools that educated over 1,500 children of brick kiln labourers.
  24. 24. Ways to Join the Fight Against Human Trafficking (As an Individual) Start a Club or Community Group It’s hard to remain quiet knowing that human trafficking is going on, so speak up—each voice that spreads the word about the problem is important. Share the story with your friends, colleagues, and fellow concerned citizens, and work together as a group to promote awareness and take action. To get started on your own group, host a meeting to spark interest, then decide on your group’s specific goals. Will you promote awareness, take action, or both?
  25. 25. Ways to Join the Fight Against Human Trafficking 2. Lobby Local Policymakers You are a powerful voice in your community and your state. So if you want to see something done about human trafficking in your area, reach out to your local politicians. Schedule a meeting with them to emphasize why trafficking should be on their priority list and suggest ways they can help end this problem in your community—as well as across the nation and around the world.
  26. 26. Hold an Event to Raise Awareness  Host an event—as simple as a potluck or as elaborate as a formal conference—to spread the word about trafficking and help others gain a better understanding of what’s really going on.
  27. 27. Launch a Research Project Understanding trafficking isn’t about barging into brothels or passing judgment. It takes research, cultural understanding, and even personal experience to get a good grasp on the issues. If you have a paper, thesis, or presentation coming up, consider investigating human trafficking in relation to your sector or field of interest. No matter what you do, there’s likely a way that you can contribute your expertise to the dialogue on trafficking.
  28. 28. Snag a Job at an Anti- Trafficking Organization In a professional setting, fighting human trafficking can be intense, frustrating, and emotional, but it’s also extremely rewarding, and if you’re really passionate about the movement, it’s a great way to make a big impact. If you’re interested in working for an anti-trafficking organization, start by learning as much as you can about the subject. Expand your network on social media, and follow the different organizations that interest you online. Then, volunteer in a variety of roles to gain experience and get a sense for the specific positions you’d like and goals you want to achieve.
  29. 29. Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants laws 2018 http://www.senate.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1533270017_228 .pdf
  30. 30. Suggestions  Conduct Awareness Sessions for anti-human trafficking stakeholders and inform them about signs of HT.  Make Education Easily available for poor-people  Give License to trusted travel agents and ban illegal TA.  Introduce laws and strict punishment for domestic violence, child abuse, slavery, human rights and illegal immigration.  Social workers, court staff, the police, educational workers, volunteers in non-governmental organizations and other interested community groups should be empowered
  31. 31. THANK YOU 

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