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Human Trafficking | History & Waves | Prevention | HT in Pakistan |
Aqdas Bin Malik
Fahad Hassan Noor
What is Human Trafficking
Types of Human Trafficking
1. Sexual Exploitation
2. Forced Labor
3. Domestic Servitude
4. Organ Harvesting
5. Child Soldiering
Human Trafficking In our Country (Pakistan)
What is Human
Human Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer,
harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use
of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of
deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of
vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or
benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control
over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Human Trafficking Types
Sexual exploitation involves any non-
consensual or abusive sexual acts
performed without a victim’s permission.
This includes prostitution, escort work and
Women, men and children of both sexes
can be victims. Many will have been
deceived with promises of a better life
and then controlled through violence
Forced labor involves victims being compelled to work
very long hours, often in hard conditions. Forced labor
crucially implies the use of coercion and lack of freedom
or choice for the victim.
In many cases victims are subjected to verbal threats or
violence to achieve compliance. Manufacturing,
entertainment, travel, farming and construction industries
have been found to use forced labor by victims of human
trafficking to some extent.
Domestic servitude involves the victim being forced to
work in private households. Their movement will often be
restricted and they will be forced to perform household
tasks such as child care and house-keeping over long
hours and for little if any pay.
Victims will lead very isolated lives and have little or no
unsupervised freedom. Their own privacy and comfort
will be minimal, often sleeping on a mattress on the floor
in an open part of the house.
In rare circumstances where victims receive a
wage it will be heavily reduced, as they are
charged for food and accommodation
Trafficking in humans for the purpose of using their
organs, in particular kidneys, is a rapidly growing
field of criminal activity.
In many countries, waiting lists for transplants are
very long. and criminals have seized this
opportunity to exploit the desperation of patients
and potential donors.
The health of victims, even their lives, is at risk as
operations may be carried out in clandestine
conditions with no medical follow-up.
Child soldiering is a unique and severe manifestation of
trafficking in persons that involves the unlawful recruitment of
children often through force, fraud, or coercion for labor or
sexual exploitation in conflict areas.
Guilty party may be government forces, paramilitary
organizations, or rebel groups. While the majority of child
soldiers are between the ages of 15 and 18, some of whom
may have been unlawfully recruited and used in hostilities,
others are as young as 7 or 8, which is unlawful under
CHILD SOLIDERING (Cont.)
Both boys and girls who are used as fighters,
cooks, porters, messengers, spies, or for sexual
purposes. Reintegration into their communities
can be extremely difficult for former child soldiers
due to psychological and physiological damage.
History Of Human
Slavery had existed for many years prior to 1200, and was a
common form of everyday life worldwide. However, in the 1400's,
it started the beginning of European slave trading in Africa with
the Portuguese transporting people from Africa to Portugal and
using them as slaves.
Britain joined the slaved trade in Africa in 1952. During the 1600s,
other countries became more involved in the European slave
These included Spain, North America, Holland, France, Sweden,
Human trafficking for sexual purposes was first legally
recognized by the term 'white slavery'. 'white slavery' is
obtaining a white woman or girl- by the use of force, drugs, or
by dishonesty- for sex which is unwanted by the woman or girl.
In 1807, Great Britain passed a law that made the Transatlantic
Slave Trade illegal.
In 1820, the United States was right behind Great Britain's
example by making the slave trade a crime that was
punishable by death. In 1899 and 1902, world wide
conferences to discuss white slavery were arranged. 1904, an
world wide agreement against the 'white slave trade' was
created, with a focus on migrant women and children.
3rd Wave: 1900
Women and young girl victims were used for sex, while men
and young boys were forced to do labor for no or little pay.
However, human trafficking of children is most common.
King and Queens in Europe, in 1904, signed an agreement, the
International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave
Traffic. The agreement included combating the traffic of
women and girls in their countries.
In 1923, the British colonial government in Hong Kong, passed
the law of banning the selling of girls as domestic slaves.
Countries all over the world started signing the law of banning
the trafficking and selling of people. Forced labour and sexual
exploitation was at its all time high during the 1900's.
4th Wave: 2000
Free the Slaves, an American charity organization of Anti-
Slavery International, was launched in the United States.
This organization is one of the most influential movements in
history. This organization, highlighted the effects of human
Approximately 80% of trafficking involves sexual exploitation,
and 19% involves labor exploitation. There are approximately
20 to 30 million slaves in the world today.
Human trafficking is the third largest international
crime industry (behind illegal drugs and arms
It reportedly generates a profit of $32 billion every
year. Of that number, $15.5 billion is made in
Modern Slavery occurs "when a person is under
control of another person, who applies violence and
force to maintain that control, and the goal of that
control is exploitation
Human Trafficking in
Trafficking of children
Boys and girls are also bought, sold, rented, or kidnapped
to work in organized, illegal begging rings, domestic
servitude, prostitution, and in agriculture in bonded
labour. Illegal labour agents charge high fees to
parents with false promises of decent work for their
children, who are later exploited and subject to forced
labour in domestic servitude, unskilled labour, small
shops and other sectors. Agents who had previously
trafficked children for camel jockeying in the United
Arab Emirates (UAE) were not convicted and continue
to engage in child trafficking. Girls and women are also
sold into forced marriages; in some cases their new
"husbands" move them across Pakistani borders and
force them into prostitution.
Human Trafficking in
Many Pakistani women and men migrate voluntarily to the Persian
Gulf States, Iran, Turkey, South Africa, Uganda, Greece, and
other European countries for low-skilled employment such as
domestic work, driving or construction work; once abroad,
some become victims of labour trafficking. False job offers and
high fees charged by illegal labour agents or sub-agents of
licensed Pakistani Overseas Employment Promoters increase
Pakistani labourers’ vulnerabilities and some labourers abroad
find themselves in involuntary servitude or debt bondage.
Employers abroad use practices including restrictions on
movement, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or
sexual abuse. Moreover, traffickers use violence, psychological
coercion and isolation, often seizing travel and identification
documents, to force Pakistani women and girls into prostitution
in the Middle East and Europe. There are reports of child and
sex trafficking between Iran and Pakistan; Pakistan is a
destination for men, women and children from Afghanistan,
Azerbaijan and Iran who are subjected to forced labour and
Human Trafficking in
The Government of Pakistan made some progress in
its efforts to protect victims of human trafficking.
The government continued to lack adequate
procedures and resources for pro-actively
identifying victims of trafficking among vulnerable
persons with whom they come in contact,
especially child labourers, women and children in
prostitution, and agricultural and brick kiln workers
Human Trafficking in
The Pakistani government made progress in its efforts
to prevent human trafficking. The Punjab
provincial government continued
implementation of its $1.4 million project,
Elimination of Bonded Labour in Brick Kilns
(launched in 2008). To date, this project helped
nearly 6,000 bonded labourers obtain
Computerized National Identification Cards, in
collaboration with the government National
Database and Registration Authority. It has also
provided $140,000 in no-interest loans to help free
labourers from debt and established 60 on-site
schools that educated over 1,500 children of
brick kiln labourers.
Ways to Join the Fight Against
Human Trafficking (As an
Start a Club or Community Group
It’s hard to remain quiet knowing that human trafficking is going
on, so speak up—each voice that spreads the word about the
problem is important.
Share the story with your friends, colleagues, and fellow concerned
citizens, and work together as a group to promote awareness and
To get started on your own group, host a meeting to spark interest,
then decide on your group’s specific goals. Will you promote
awareness, take action, or both?
Ways to Join the Fight Against
2. Lobby Local Policymakers
You are a powerful voice in your community and your state. So if
you want to see something done about human trafficking in your
area, reach out to your local politicians.
Schedule a meeting with them to emphasize why trafficking should
be on their priority list and suggest ways they can help end this
problem in your community—as well as across the nation and
around the world.
Hold an Event to Raise
Host an event—as simple as a potluck or as elaborate as a
formal conference—to spread the word about trafficking and
help others gain a better understanding of what’s really going
Launch a Research
Understanding trafficking isn’t about barging into brothels or
passing judgment. It takes research, cultural understanding, and
even personal experience to get a good grasp on the issues.
If you have a paper, thesis, or presentation coming up,
consider investigating human trafficking in relation to your
sector or field of interest. No matter what you do, there’s likely a
way that you can contribute your expertise to the dialogue on
Snag a Job at an Anti-
In a professional setting, fighting human trafficking can be
intense, frustrating, and emotional, but it’s also extremely
rewarding, and if you’re really passionate about the movement,
it’s a great way to make a big impact.
If you’re interested in working for an anti-trafficking
organization, start by learning as much as you can about the
subject. Expand your network on social media, and follow the
different organizations that interest you online.
Then, volunteer in a variety of roles to gain experience and get
a sense for the specific positions you’d like and goals you want to
Trafficking in Persons and
Smuggling of Migrants laws 2018
Conduct Awareness Sessions for anti-human trafficking
stakeholders and inform them about signs of HT.
Make Education Easily available for poor-people
Give License to trusted travel agents and ban illegal TA.
Introduce laws and strict punishment for domestic violence,
child abuse, slavery, human rights and illegal immigration.
Social workers, court staff, the police, educational workers,
volunteers in non-governmental organizations and other
interested community groups should be empowered