Acknowledgements
This book has been compiled through the efforts of numerous authors
and contributors whom we would like t...
Contents
How do we innovate in the digital era?
What now?
Commons, the dynamic wealth
of our ecosystem
Transport data, a v...
4
T
he Fabrique des mobilités is
a project begun by the ADE-
ME that aims at intelligent
and sustainable mobility.
The dev...
5
M
any industrial ecosys-
tems are evolving, with
transport and mobility
being just one of them. New digital
players are ...
6
Innovation2
:
Innovating to Better
Support Innovation
T
he financial crisis and
a growing ecological
consciousness chang...
7
Companies such as Uber and Bla-
BlaCar offer a robust service that
is inexpensive to produce. Other
applications, such a...
8
The mobility sector thus finds it-
self in a new digital ecosystem
that it does not know and that it
cannot master. It h...
9
In 2015, Google is sending its au-
tonomous automobiles out onto
the roads of California. Elon Musk
is growing a network...
10
Our Position
Incubation and Acceleration
The Fabrique is not competing
against any existing systems. It
contributes add...
11
In this situation, being the most
technologically advanced becomes
secondary, and the development of
products leans hea...
12
The “Rapidity” axis takes into ac-
count three more metrics: the po-
tential market, active support tools,
and passive ...
13
The Fabrique is positioning itself
as a complete system aimed at
the French market and at the Eu-
ropean market beginni...
14
Finally, we also provide a neutral
and credible platform for industrial
players who wish to experiment
in the world of ...
15
THE FUNDAMENTALS
The Fabrique centers its efforts
on the entrepreneur, providing
resources designed to allow him
or her...
16
The more that any given resource
is structured, organized, accessible,
and exploitable (ideally digitally),
the more va...
17
 communities: groups or networks
of users or clients who form a com-
munity of mobile (such as those
who utilize public...
18
The Prototype
of the Fabrique
des Mobilités
Set in motion at the beginning of
2015, the prototype for the Fabrique
is i...
19
And indeed, replication is the
greatest factor in determining the
success and robustness of a pro-
ject. Any given terr...
20
The metropolis of Lyon has been
working to put in place real alter-
natives to individual usage of the
automobile with:...
21
 integration within the coopera-
tive efforts undertaken by various
territories, public research labora-
tories, and pr...
22
Within the region, for example, the
city of Issy-les-Moulineaux has for
several years become involved in
digital innova...
23
and demonstration of the city of the
future. This technological platform
will be the base of the Smart City
simulation,...
24
Following the initial support of NUMA,
OuiShare and the Plateforme de la Fi-
lière Automobile, numerous partners
have n...
25
— Synthesis: the path of a project and the involvement of stakeholders —
26
— Principal Stages and Objectives —
27
28
How can we enable mobility enterprises to rest upon commons
to allow more rapid development, considering the societal
a...
29
What’s at stake in
managing commons
Communs are like living orga-
nisms: they are neither static nor
predetermined, but...
30
OpenStreetMap. This is a project
that has demonstrated a new mo-
del for collaboration between pu-
blic entities, stake...
31
For those who are less accusto-
med to this type of sharing, the
challenge is not only technical but
also cultural.
The...
32
In responding to this challenge,
the Fabrique’s role will be to guide
its members toward this tripartite
approach and t...
33
Identifying and
Classifying Commons
That Can Benefit
the Fabrique
The Fabrique participates in crea-
ting and enriching...
34
Each of these criteria links up with
the tools used to contribute to the
commons. This also permits us
to bring up, on ...
35
Generating returns
for the commons through
ecosystem actors
The mobility ecosystem has been
examined in terms of the co...
36
Transport data forms the common technical base for the
development of new services as well as for the improvement
of ex...
37
An association of
experts created
within a working
group
The Fabrique’s ambition is to bring
together, in the form of a...
38
Issuing opinions
and recommendations
on technical evolutions
Made up of key end users, distri-
butors and producers, th...
39
A one-stop data shop
for entrepreneurs
The data shop is the operational
unit of the Fabrique that brings in
entrepreneu...
40
Maintaining a source of raw data
Guided by the working group, the
data shop will use a tool allowing
for the management...
41
The Next Steps
Regarding these technical sub-
jects, the Fabrique is concentrating
on the following steps:
 validating ...
42
Two paths for
modernizing the idea
of commons
I
t is a little known fact that Article
714 of the French Civil Code reco...
43
Together with its legal defini-
tion, another sense of commons
emerged, based upon the idea that
commons are not define...
44
What contribution
can the Fabrique
des Mobilités make
in modernizing the
law?
The Fabrique des Mobilités puts
commons a...
45
For the players who wish to sup-
ply and receive more concrete
contributions, notably in terms
of software, content and...
46
Equally, the goal of the Fabrique
is to allow its users to construct
business models that can be inte-
grated over time...
47
“In the transport sector, we need to better
link key actors, and we need to better
collaborate to support startups and
...
48
Roles and
expectations for
different players in
the Fabrique
The players in the Fabrique
At the center of the Fabrique’...
49
development of projects that will
eventually have a place within the
ecosystem or even in new ecosys-
tems and new mark...
50
What the Fabrique offers
to its community
The expectations of each player in
the Fabrique des Mobilités’s eco-
system a...
51
For those in the industry, the Fa-
brique is an excellent opportunity
to evolve their internal culture
thanks to divers...
52
Beyond this horizontal understan-
ding, vertical communication wit-
hin the Fabrique allows for all to
see:
 the common...
53
Tools for functioning as a network
The Fabrique des Mobilités will be
very quickly putting many people
and organization...
54
Beyond the Fabrique
The Fabrique has been inspired by
systems and ideas throughout Eu-
rope and the world.
The startup ...
Book The Fabrique des Mobilités 2015
Book The Fabrique des Mobilités 2015
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Book The Fabrique des Mobilités 2015
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Book The Fabrique des Mobilités 2015

  1. 1. Acknowledgements This book has been compiled through the efforts of numerous authors and contributors whom we would like to thank: Gérard Chevalier, Ghislain Delabie, Benjamin Frayssinet, Jérôme Giusti, Jean-Luc Hannequin, Mael Inizan, Nicolas Ledouarec, Antonin Léonard, Bruno Marzloff, Philippe Méda, Gabriel Plassat, Paul Richardet, Simon Sarazin, Alain Somat, Laurence Schultz, Stéphane Schultz, Michael Thomas and Claudio Vandi. Similarly, the team at the ADEME (l’Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie) was a great help. We would also like to thank our community manager, Ludivine Bigot. The Fabrique des Mobilités is constructed through your reactions, feed- back, ideas, and projects. Please continue to inspire us and to surprise us.
  2. 2. Contents How do we innovate in the digital era? What now? Commons, the dynamic wealth of our ecosystem Transport data, a vital need to master Regulating commons within the Fabrique des Mobilités The Fabrique, accelerator of European ecosystems The Fabrique’s views on tomorrow’s mobilities The Fabrique acceleration tracks Action learning for creating a user experience curve at scale 6>23 24>27 28>35 36>41 42>47 48>55 56>63 64>77 78>83
  3. 3. 4 T he Fabrique des mobilités is a project begun by the ADE- ME that aims at intelligent and sustainable mobility. The development of digital techno- logies is bringing flexible and affor- dable solutions to the world of transportation and mobility, solutions that are improving the movement of people and merchan- dise, strengthening the organiza- tional and technological capacities of transportation systems, increa- sing energy efficiency, and redu- cing negative environmental ef- fects. The digital boom in mobility is an opportunity to develop, in France and throughout Europe, in- novations and knowledge in this growing sector. As part of the ecological transition plan put forward by the French go- vernment on February 4, 2015, the ADEME, together with numerous partners including startups, entre- preneurs, manufacturers, regions, incubators and accelerators, is organizing the Fabrique des mobi- lités. The Fabrique will serve as an accelerator of innovation that brings together players in various industrial ecosystems, allows them to access resources, support entre- preneurs, grows and links dynamic systems at local, national and in- ternational levels. This system of aiding innovation is designed to complement existing financial systems, not to compete against them. It is built to accele- rate the market debut of French and European initiatives, helping them to overcome competitors and to rapidly establish dominant posi- tions in new spheres of activity. This first prototype is centered on the mobility of people and the coach of startups. This document serves as a major step in the pro- ject’s debut, emerging through the active collaboration of all of our partners. This document is organized around the principle functions of the Fa- brique. Its primary objective is to help entrepreneurs and their pro- jects thanks to a structure based upon commons and shared assets, in order to develop balanced, rele- vant and efficient mobilities. Foreword
  4. 4. 5 M any industrial ecosys- tems are evolving, with transport and mobility being just one of them. New digital players are emerging and putting themselves in contact with users. A recent report from the Banque pu- blique d’investissement (BPI) notes that, “innovation is changing, trans- forming itself and becoming mul- ti-dimensional.” The Fabrique des Mobilités is tracking these changes, looking to become a new source of support for digital projects aimed at disruptive innovation. Digital technologies will not solve everything, far from it. But they will drastically transform the process of innovation. Equipped with digi- tal tools, some entrepreneurs, such as Frédéric Mazzella, the founder of BlaBlaCar, are now capable of changing the habits of millions of people in just a few short years. We can make alliances with entrepreneurs that will help them solve problems, associating with interested regions as well as competent and collaborative partners. In the transport and mobility sec- tor, such opportunities should be seized, considering that practical changes are at the heart of envi- ronmental goals and Factor 4 sus- tainability. Everyone stands to gain. The idea for the Fabrique des Mobilités grew out of the technology park of So- phia-Antipolis, a land of innova- tion outside of Nice, during the Mo- bilités Mutations conference. This book presents the prototype version of this new apparatus, cen- tered on entrepreneurs and their projects. There are many options that are still open for discussion but also some fundamental principles: shared platforms, networking, de- veloping and managing commons, support and help in taking action, the creation of a shared culture, empathy, and holopticism.
  5. 5. 6 Innovation2 : Innovating to Better Support Innovation T he financial crisis and a growing ecological consciousness changed our collective approach to mobility. The traditional usage of cars has been questioned, public invest- ments and infrastructures have been examined, and the econo- mic model of public transportation has shown its limits once outside of densely populated areas. How are we to move 7 billion people in the future? This is not simply a question of improving the means of transport but of allowing eve- ry single person to move about in a better fashion while also redu- cing emissions. The city 2.0 holds a great opportunity for radically changing the way in which we un- derstand mobility. While aiming at the long term through city plan- ning and urban transformations, we can also change everyday practices to optimize existing re- sources and infrastructures. So- lutions that help us to move less — distance education, telework, shipping, reorganizing schedules — are emerging to potentially re- duce the impact of our movements. Certain companies are now acting on this, modifying their organiza- tion and their activities to reduce movement while improving their core business. How do we innovate in the digital era? The Fabrique des Mobilités is radical, global, and frugal. This document presents the prototype for the Fabrique that has been developed over the first eight months of 2015 and the plans for industrializing this vision. Entrepreneurs, come to France - we’ve created the best possible conditions for innovation.
  6. 6. 7 Companies such as Uber and Bla- BlaCar offer a robust service that is inexpensive to produce. Other applications, such as Waze and Moovit, call for travelers to make voluntary contributions in order to collect and distribute travel data. Tomorrow, connected cars will be within the spheres of influence of the giant digital companies, for eve- rything from construction to daily use. The links that currently make up the transportation industry are straining against one another. These platforms are not only crea- ting new relationships with users but they are also enabling the mo- bility industry and its apps to create new knowledge databases regar- ding the practicalities and usage of transport that no single entity in history has been able to produce. But these innovations are not being brought to market by traditional industry players. The founders of Waze were not cartographers, just as the founders of BlaBlaCar were never involved in the automobile sector. These are technology com- panies that utilize digital tools to rapidly achieve a worldwide scale. In 2004, 3,500 people signed up for BlaBlaCar. Today that number is more than 10,000 per day, in more than 10 countries. Waze has grown from 1 million to 70 million users in 5 years. The success of these enterprises comes from models of innovation, financing, and growth that are radically different from those found in heavy industry or the service economy. They are based upon rapid access to mar- kets and they privilege business models that allow for growth at a lowered marginal cost. These mo- dels lean on the dynamism of new businesses, called startups, that are created just as quickly as they disappear. These startups evolve in a world that is very different from that of traditional industry, with their own infrastructures (mate- rial and immaterial), financing, and endpoints. New digital platforms are changing the traditional dominances and relations between travelers and mobility stakeholders.
  7. 7. 8 The mobility sector thus finds it- self in a new digital ecosystem that it does not know and that it cannot master. It has not yet taken into account these new models. It is now necessary to develop new operational processes adapted to all of its players. How to innovate, with what methods and processes? Where to innovate, and with what types of aid and encouragement? How to best identify and support these innovations? This industry is transforming itself. Historical relationships among various players are disap- pearing into a cloud of interactions, interdependencies and links. An industrial ecosystem with a strong (bio)diversity is emerging. It brings together traditional transport in- terests (public transportation and infrastructure, energy, informa- tion, local authorities), automotive interests looking to construct new technologies for a novel system of mobility, and interests emerging from the digital and collaborative economies. This ecosystem is in transition even if it is not yet fully aware of it. Our goal is to demonstrate how this ecosystem can better unders- tand itself, synchronize its efforts, accelerate innovation and develop new industries that create new va- lues and new jobs. The foundational principles of the Fabrique were produced following many meetings with various stakeholders, both within this eco- system and at its periphery. The challenge of innovating in the in- ternet age is having confidence in the creative capabilities of each individual part in order to move the entire ecosystem forward. This assumes that any one business must accept that it cannot master everything, and that it will be at the service of other players as well, whether they have already been identified or not. The Fabrique des Mobilités fos- ters a sense of confidence, neu- trality, and dynamism, opening its resources without knowing in advance what will come of it. By creating a space that is open to sur- prises while also being relatively exclusive, its objectives are:  developing a common culture of innovation  supporting the most promising projects;  bringing resources together to create freedom for entrepreneurs;  creating connections;  providing space to experiment. These entrepreneurs show that behavior can change quickly and on a large scale. This is a chance for an energy transition. "collectives" : un autre faux sens : on parle de "local authorities" ou a la rigueur "communities" (et oui faux amis en l'occurence !) "developing a communal culture of innovation" : "developing a COM- MON culture of innovation" l'ori- ginal parle bien d'une "culture commune" ("common") et non com- munautaire ("communal")... main- tenant ca se discute ;-)
  8. 8. 9 In 2015, Google is sending its au- tonomous automobiles out onto the roads of California. Elon Musk is growing a network for electric cars, energy storage, and the pro- duction of solar energy. Apple’s CarPlay and Android Auto are spreading to cars, and Uber is growing ever larger. The industry of transport and mobility must prepare itself for anything. We must manage phenomena that possess an exponential na- ture. These examples show just how fast these companies are moving. They decide quicker and they act quicker. Our ecosystem must evolve and adapt to this speed. The Fabrique is opening a new space within our partner or- ganizations, but it is also creating a space outside of them, allowing them to explore new possibilities. The Fabrique des Mobilités is de- signed to allow French and Euro- pean players to create new syner- gies and maximize the chances of success of new projects. The Fabrique des Mobilités is itself an innovation. And it cannot be done only halfway: selecting pro- jects, managing commons, acces- sing resources, project guidance, capitalization, European develop- ment and community life — all are necessary and indissociable. The fabrique gambles on the same large scale as the changes we see taking place - it is radical
  9. 9. 10 Our Position Incubation and Acceleration The Fabrique is not competing against any existing systems. It contributes added value to a num- ber of different structures, whether they be accelerators or incubators, whether they be public or private. In France, an incubator’s function is to take technology from an idea to a business model. An accelera- tor, on the other hand, is focused on pushing a theorized project toward its arrival on the market. Incuba- tion is thus a technical concern, whereas acceleration is concerned with the market. Achieving critical mass is certainly a question of arriving at profitabi- lity, but it is also a matter of finding a long-lasting solution. Even if one finds early adopters, making one’s way into the center of the market is far from guaranteed. But if you qui- ckly earn a slice at the center of the market, that early momentum can make growth almost automatic. The fundamental difference between incubation and accelera- tion can be summarized as follows: while incubation begins from the best possible technology to slowly push its way toward the market, acceleration is focused on gaining the most users in the fastest pos- sible way. Success comes from bringing together the heart of the market around a standard that is maintained through network ef- fects. Ten users give 102 = 100 in- teractions, while thirty users give 302 = 900 interactions. This point is particularly important when we think about transport and mobility. The fabrique complements different publicly supported solutions Innovation means looking to change the established order of the market in order to resolve persistent problems in that market.
  10. 10. 11 In this situation, being the most technologically advanced becomes secondary, and the development of products leans heavily on design, ease of use, and an ability to in- tegrate with and multiply within other ecosystems as a platform. But the critical mass effect must also be understood in terms of support systems. The U.S./U.K. system of venture capitalism sees companies backing an average of 120 projects over the course of at least three years in order to give the best possible chances to these projects. In the real world of ac- celeration, the important thing is not to be the best, but rather the best-selling, and ideally to domi- nate the market. In biotechnology, the automobile industry or the aeronautics in- dustry, technological excellence still dominates in large part, and these markets do not clearly show network effects. But for the new mobility sector, network effects are essential. For decades, we’ve seen technical demonstrations that were extremely impressive in terms of technology, but which have failed due to an inability to integrate themselves into complex social environments. As noted by one of the recent CEOs of Nokia, “Our competitors are not taking our market share with devices; they are taking our market share with an entire ecosystem.” Creating networks, communities, and platforms has become unavoi- dable when seeking to transform markets and to modify habits of movement (and non-movement) on a large scale. Oftentimes, it is necessary to com- bine acceleration and incubation, starting from problems that need solving and the latent needs of the market while also exploiting the latest technological innovations. At the same time, the pathways of innovation are also evolving as a consequence of lean startups and effectuation. Graphing acceleration and incubation in France In order to graph and position this course of reasoning, one axis will define the capacity of each organi- zation to generate a critical mass of functions and the second will define its ability to do this rapidly. “Critical mass” is defined by three principal metrics: the number of startups that are assisted, the nu- mber of sources that bring pro- jects forward and the number of connections that derive from these projects.  The number of startups, with an average of around 40 per year (and thus 120 over 3 years).  The number of sources that bring projects forward is related to the number of partners who actively participate, including investors, SATTs, schools, laboratories and businesses, and these determine the diversity of projects that come up for selection, and thus also the quality of the critical mass. The average is 12 sources.  The number of connections co- ming out of projects refers to the number of industrial or adminis- trative partners who aid in gene- rating proof of concept, in making connections with interested par- ties, and in technical and professio- nal mentoring, as well as indicating the ease with which those projects will create market standards and APIs or conform to existing mar- ket standards. It is also a guarantee that new projects won’t attempt to reinvent the wheel, allowing them to get the most efficient start in addressing the real needs of clients and markets. Here as well, the ave- rage is 12 connections.
  11. 11. 12 The “Rapidity” axis takes into ac- count three more metrics: the po- tential market, active support tools, and passive support tools.  The potential market is cha- racterized simply by the possible reach of each project. This poten- tial could be local, regional, natio- nal or international. The wider the ambition, the more necessary will be the specific means of achieving it (international contacts, local business developers, English lan- guage assistance, etc.)  Active support tools judge one’s capacity for mentoring, coaching, consulting and training.  Passive support tools are those that are available to a project upon its arrival in the accelerator: finan- cing, legal assistance, cloud and information services, a network of developers, etc. The Fabrique can be evaluated using these criteria. In terms of “critical mass”:  the number of projects supported per year (startups and groups): 40, eventually rising to 100.  project sources: more than 20 partners including three regional entities have already joined the Fabrique. These include industrial players with their own clients, bu- siness models and resources, par- ties who have taken part in crea- ting open-source platforms and think & do tanks, schools, laborato- ries, other incubators and accelera- tors, and regional authorities.  the number of connections: thanks to these partnerships and the networks that accompany them, we are able to assure nu- merous connections derived from each project. In terms of “rapidity”:  market potential: at launch, France, but immediately moving toward Europe.  active support tools: with all of our partners, we are developing means of mentoring and coaching while also providing access to training and resources. Support is specific, made-to-order, and relies on shared resources and commons.  finally, passive support tools available upon entrance to the accelerator: at first this consists of physical space for project par- ticipants. The Fabrique will also propose specific tools in terms of networking, capitalization, and mutual vigilance.
  12. 12. 13 The Fabrique is positioning itself as a complete system aimed at the French market and at the Eu- ropean market beginning in its se- cond year. This will include more than 40 projects each year and nu- merous useful connections for pro- jects both entering and exiting the Fabrique that will include any and all fields of mobility. To best align itself with existing systems and to bring them a clear added-value, the Fabrique simul- taneously acts on three comple- mentary pathways. The first is a strategic reinforce- ment of public systems as well as accelerators, notably those invol- ved in mobility. How? By breaking down the barriers between their various approaches and by sharing access to spaces for innovation and experimentation, standards, and best practices. The Fabrique integrates all of them through its network and shared resources. Next, The Fabrique takes on a sup- port role for large accelerators who have projects that deal with mobi- lity. How? By offering them specific outlets to test their ideas as well as early clients that come from the large group of partnerships establi- shed by the Fabrique.
  13. 13. 14 Finally, we also provide a neutral and credible platform for industrial players who wish to experiment in the world of startups and set in motion a digital transformation in terms of mobility as it relates to their projects and their teams. How? By opening up the projects that exist and finding together the clear means of interaction that they can have between outside startups, their teams, and their clients. By creating an open/closed garden, the Fabrique increases the opportunities for action and ex- change. These three avenues complement each other by creating synergies while each also operates on its own. At its heart, the Fabrique will assist projects with the following characteristics:  promoting Factor 4 sustainabi- lity, reducing emissions and the cost of public transport;  a proof of concept, a team made up of entrepreneurs, and, if pos- sible, a client;  the potential to transform mar- kets on a large scale, that is to say a project with strong possibilities for scalability even if the initial mar- ket is local;  an ability to bring increased be- nefits to the commons during and after its time in the Fabrique. The fabrique is ambitious and global.
  14. 14. 15 THE FUNDAMENTALS The Fabrique centers its efforts on the entrepreneur, providing resources designed to allow him or her to save time and concen- trate on the project at hand. The activities of these entrepreneurs who are aided by the Fabrique will then create externalities that will be integrated into our ecosystem: networks of players and projects, commons, and knowledge. These resources are brought in by partners. This voluntary act is es- sential, as it helps both the projects that are in motion and all of the partners by forging links between innovations and colleagues. The Fabrique active management and networking will contribute to the digital transformation of our partners that in turn will lend to the further digitization of their re- sources. By putting in place pro- gramming interfaces or APIs, each player transforms and is transfor- med through the management of one’s own digital resources, which The fabrique aims to create a new culture of innovation within an ecosystem that is changing thanks to these projects. In this way, the fabrique guides the digital transformation of all its partners, revealing and facilitating the exchange of resources within the ecosystem. become better organized, more ac- cessible, and thus more efficient, for both outsiders and insiders. Doing so opens the way toward new clients, new business models, and new relationships with exis- ting clients. The Fabrique des Mobilités com- bines multiple streams of acti- vity that take place among mul- tiple players (this will be detailed in the following chapter). Each stream generates external reac- tions: networking, contacts, new resources, deliverables, problems, failures, successes. Each external contact will accrue to the Fabrique and be accessible to the whole eco- system. The Fabrique des Mobilités is building itself into a catalyst of activity and exchange aimed at increasing returns and accruing these external contacts. Such ex- changes among various players can be seen in the following ways:  Resources provided to entrepre- neurs and projects by our partners. These resources should be iden- tified, organized, and digitized so that they are easily accessible to project leaders.
  15. 15. 16 The more that any given resource is structured, organized, accessible, and exploitable (ideally digitally), the more value it will have and the more it will be used. Making a re- source accessible is essential for projects and entrepreneurs, but it is just as, if not more, valuable for the partner, who will be able to make it available to other business units, to suppliers, to clients, to networks. Access to any resource is granted by the partner to the project. The more that partners contribute, the more diversity there is in terms of resources, the more the projects can utilize and the more partners will be able to improve the struc- ture of those resources for them- selves and the ecosystem.  Each entrepreneur and each pro- ject in the Fabrique has access to these resources, uses them, and adds value to them. In turn, each project has its own deliverables that add to the commons.  Each stakeholder, whether a partner or an entrepreneur, has access to the commons. Some are even available outside of the Fabrique. The more that such re- sources are diffused, the more use- ful they become, adding to their value.  The Fabrique manages the com- mons. They constitute the vibrant wealth in an ecosystem of players. These commons are presented in their own chapter. Several types of valuable resources have already been identified:  physical: medium of exchange, physical mock-ups, demonstra- tions, orchestrated products, in- frastructure (roads, parking lots, airports…), vehicle fleets, bus lines. The more that the physical re- source is digitized, the more acces- sible it will be.  digital: data (historics, real-time, customer files…), software, digital mock-ups (of a product, a neighbo- rhood, a city). The more accessible a digital resource is thanks to its API, the more useful it will be (with the ability to access data directly through software).  knowledge and competences: expertise, training, networking, accessing internal incubators. The Fabrique is developing learning practices to assist entrepreneurs, stretch their abilities, and create a sense of belief. Later, digitizing these measures will become ne- cessary (wiki, MOOC, system of experts). Commons augment the collective intelligence of the ecosystem and bind it together.
  16. 16. 17  communities: groups or networks of users or clients who form a com- munity of mobile (such as those who utilize public transportation, those who go to work by bicycle, commuters…) or immobile workers. The more digitized the resource (contact information, groups gene- rated through social networks), the more accessible it will be. Each resource is characterized by:  its degree of digitization, favoring those that are most digitized  its accessibility, favoring those that are most accessible  its openness toward projects (either determined by partners or to all)  its ability to bring measurable and quantifiable resources to the ecosystem The fabrique is frugal. The Fabrique has made the deci- sion to not deliver financial support to entrepreneurs but to likewise be free of charge for them. This allows the Fabrique to lower the barriers of entry and exit and thus assist a large number of innovative pro- jects. This translates into a high level of activity and exchange, pro- ducing commons and knowledge, and increasing the drawing power of the Fabrique for entrepreneurs and their future partners. Finally, this setup will be entirely replicable in other locations and other countries. It is thus a “crea- tive common,” using this type of tool as much as possible.
  17. 17. 18 The Prototype of the Fabrique des Mobilités Set in motion at the beginning of 2015, the prototype for the Fabrique is introducing itself in terms of partners and their resources, com- mons, legal frameworks, project as- sistance and the basis from which to call for future projects. Partners will be enabled to:  explore: launching Calls for Pro- posals in partnership with the Fa- brique;  discover: participating in the se- lection of projects;  find serendipity: incubating or excubating projects either within or outside of their business;  network: bringing in their own partners on a transitive basis;  #FabMob: offering visibility throughout France and Europe;  0 to 1: participating in designing source code for the Fabrique. The key role of regions and territories A mobility project begun by a startup or an industrial group involves, to a greater or lesser extent, a territory, even without a direct relationship with the authorities or groups in charge of transport. This involve- ment includes:  the relationship with users, clients or customers. This relationship can revolve around modes of transpor- tation organized and run by various players, without necessarily having project leaders come into direct contact with them. Privileged access to such communities is essential. Territorial players are able to identify these communities, organize them, prepare them for innovative changes, and provide space for iteration;  the utilization of physical and digi- tal resources belonging to the terri- tory (bus stops, routes, buses, data…) and the supplementing of current mobility systems. This calls for es- tablishing a relationship with public and private players that are already on the scene;  possible access to certain public and/or private data, which also sup- poses establishing a relationship with current players. Yet the more the relationship establi- shed with territorial players (commu- nities, departmental authorities, re- gions, organizations, managers, taxis, associations) and allowing a project to access users is “made to order” and adapted to local conditions, the moredifficultitwillbetoreplicatethe deliverables.
  18. 18. 19 And indeed, replication is the greatest factor in determining the success and robustness of a pro- ject. Any given territory thus has a great interest in thinking about replication from the beginning and supporting innovation in a way that allows for it to be deployed on a global market. Therefore the territories that partner with the Fabrique allow ac- cess to organized resources (func- tioning as an intermediary with citizens and user communities in terms of transport, transportation networks, vehicles, infrastructure, data…) without waiting for project leaders to come up with delive- rables specifically adapted to their needs. The territories can certainly point out problems that need to be solved and align themselves with projects that are aimed at their needs, but this alignment is formed through a cooperative process with project leaders. Partner territories will eventually become the platforms for organizing resources and ac- celerating design together with their citizens. Integration with the Fabrique will also allow for various groups to reexamine their organi- zational processes in terms of in- novative projects. Partner territories already expe- rience a privileged link with the multitudes. Their role as interme- diaries will allow them to bring about critical mass and rapid ac- cess to markets. This critical mass will be supported by the number of privileged and diversified contacts that they have with a broad num- ber of communities and their re- presentatives across all types of mobilities:  industrial zones and centers concerned with commuter mobi- lities, including those managing company mobility plans and bu- siness-to-business mobility plans;  tourism zones and theme parks concerned with the mobility of tourists;  commercial zones concerned with logistics and product move- ment;  those who use public and collec- tive transport;  daily cyclists;  remote workers, teleworkers, third space organizers, telecenters. Rapid access will be helped through direct access to structured resources (human, physical and di- gital) through partner territories in order to:  guarantee a reliable and struc- tured access to citizens by playing its role as intermediary with the principal generators of mobility and communities (students, wor- kers…), helping them to shift mobi- lity practices (through representa- tives, advisors, and mobility plans) and accelerating access to testing communities;  give access to physical resources under their control (infrastructure, platforms and multimodal hubs, heavy and light vehicles…);  give access to public data and open source APIs and facilitate ac- cess to private data for project lea- ders through networking. On the subject of data, a territory can consider its position and evo- lution according to five possible standards:  a default stance of allowing ac- cess to all public data;  changing the provisions that go- vern public markets and subsidies;  integrating openness as part of evaluating officials;  publishing the lists of datasets;  opening to voluntary contribu- tions. In these territories, the Fabrique will offer a frame in which to si- multaneously experiment with in- novations (whether technological, social or a business model) and the evolution of rules and regula- tions. The Fabrique will thus play its role as an open/closed garden, large enough to aid in innovation and guaranteeing the ability to take early steps with confidence. The new contract for innovating partnerships will also facilitate the establishment of innovative pro- jects while respecting the rules of public markets. Partner territories are characte- rized by a strong desire to aid in innovation, to contribute to impro- ving the road traveled by an en- trepreneur, to invest in the digital world, and to involve citizens in the course of progress.
  19. 19. 20 The metropolis of Lyon has been working to put in place real alter- natives to individual usage of the automobile with:  the second largest network of pu- blic transportation in France (after Paris), with 400,000 subscribers, 1.5 million trips per day, 80 km of me- tro and tram lines, 1250 km of bus lines, and 22 park-and-ride lots;  the largest bike-sharing service in France, with 60,000 subscribers and 8.3 million trips per year.  2 carsharing services and an ac- tive site for ridesharing;  615 km of bike lanes. Additionally, Lyon has put in place a plan for developing a smart city, as can be seen in the Optimod’Lyon and OptiCities projects. It gives ac- cess to almost 30 sets of informa- tion and real-time mobility data, which is without a doubt one of the most complete data platforms in France and indeed all of Europe. 40 groups using these data have produced numerous services, in particular the Optymod’Lyon app created by CityWay, which is the current number one GPS urban multimodal app: OnlyMoov. This site, due to its thoroughness and link with carsharing, heralds a new standard in terms of pro- viding rich information for urban mobility. Finally, Lyon, together in partnership with businesses and R&D laboratories, is developing new solutions like the OptiCities project:  dynamic carsharing;  mobile interface apps with built- in vehicle systems;  1-hour prediction and proactive traffic regulation;  large-scale collection of urban data. As an example at a broader geo- graphic level, the Alpes-Maritimes department (06) is particularly in- teresting for several reasons:  cross-border issues with Italy and Monaco together with joint Franco-Italian projects;  the region’s heterogeneous na- ture: 2/3 of the territory is moun- tainous, while 80% of the popu- lation is concentrated in urban coastal areas with a large tourist presence;  heavy traffic flows on the A8 (1.3 million heavy trucks in 2012 ver- sus fewer than 800,000 for the Fré- jus Road Tunnel or Mont Blanc), around the CASA (Antibes-Sophia Antipolis). Multiple departmental services for mobility have been developed, such as the popular interurban transpor- tation network Lignes d’Azur (11.3 million trips annually), a carsharing site, a multimodal information sys- tem (ceparou06.fr), a real-time in- formation service for departmental traffic (inforoutes06.fr), and a multi- modal departmental model for trips and travel. There are a number of geographic particularities in this region that can serve as innovation possibili- ties for the Fabrique:
  20. 20. 21  integration within the coopera- tive efforts undertaken by various territories, public research labora- tories, and private actors looking at an intelligent transport system (ITS), particularly aimed at the highway system between Nice and Sophia which is a receptive environment for large-scale expe- rimentation and for becoming a European “living lab”;  the plans to create a department that is completely digitized by 2017, with an open-data approach to mobility; The focus on the Communauté d’agglomération de Sophia-Anti- polis (CASA): a system of real-time travel information and contactless ticketing deployed across the en- tire Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region. Innovative services are also being studied, such as a 10-km, high-fre- quency bus service toward So- phia-Antipolis, a bike station with 100 parking places and repair shop attached to the train station at Antibes, and a cable car system through the technopole at Sophia. The CASA is also part of the Eu- ropean project Citymobil2, which will see the experimental debut of autonomous vehicles at Sophia in 2016. With the support of the Sophia Club Enterprise Partenaire and with more than 20,000 workers at Sophia, opportunities abound for the Fabrique des Mobilités. These workers are open to experimenta- tion and are technophiles, while Sophia needs innovative and high-performing communication tools for all types of mobility, has a strong potential for multimodal development as well as the physi- cal locations and vehicles needed for experimentation (its own roads, interchange stations, bus lines, autonomous shuttle buses…), and is able to mobilize startups, enter- prises and laboratories interested in digital and mobility innovation. Mobility within the Ile-de-France region, which includes Paris, is par- ticularly important for its 12 million inhabitants.  this translates into 41 million trips daily, including 87% in the center of the region yet 70% that are outside of Paris proper;  there are 900 km of bike lanes, with a goal of having 4,400 km by 2020;  30% of bike travel is work-related. Ile-de-France is already very invol- ved in questions of eco-mobility, bicycle infrastructure, and suppor- ting innovation and pilot programs aimed at new forms of mobility, most notably with several programs devoted to mobility data. The re- gion has strong ties with European networks, the possibility of creating future goals for innovative pro- jects together with needs brought forward by the Fabrique, and consi- derations regarding financial se- tups and how data can and should be shared.
  21. 21. 22 Within the region, for example, the city of Issy-les-Moulineaux has for several years become involved in digital innovation and the quest for a “smart city.” Part of the newest wave in the digital revolution, the smart city (which has oftentimes been poorly translated into French as the ville intelligente) is the in- tersection of three major disrup- tive forces of the early twenty-first century: the urban revolution, the digital revolution that opens new viewpoints in all domains, and climate changes that are pushing cities toward significant modifica- tions. The smart city is thus a city that cares about its environment, is capable of avoiding congestion on its transport infrastructure, is attentive in its consumption of re- sources such as water and energy, and has the means of facilitating citizens’ access to all of these ser- vices. It is another vision for the city, one that is clever, flowing, and encourages participation and collaboration for the citizens of to- morrow. This is the path that Issy-les-Mou- lineaux has undertaken for the past years, having adopted since the 1990s a development strate- gy based upon supporting digital innovation while augmenting the city’s attractiveness, which has seen it increase its population by more than 35% as the number of jobs available became greater than its population and financial capabi- lities. With the “IssyGrid” projects, a large proving ground for deploying an urban smart grid and smart mobility, Issy-les-Moulineaux is undertaking a new stage of its de- velopment. Its goal is to support urban evolution and innovation in all parts of local life, including mobility. The city has at its dispo- sal numerous resources which are innovative tools for entrepreneurs. The city of Paris together with the commune of Antony have also just joined us. At the European le- vel, the Polis network, which joins together more than 30 cities and regions throughout Europe, is now one of the Fabrique’s partners. Our Network of Partners By the end of June 2015, foun- ding industrial partnerships have been established with the Miche- lin Challenge Bibendum and the ecosystem associated with the Open Lab, Total, Engie, Transdev, Dassault System, Orange, MAIF, Visteon, Systra, Moviken, Koolicar, and BlaBlaCar. We have also been joined by Via ID, Engie, Tractebel, Caisse des dépôts, Colas, CNPA, Air Liquide, VINCI, AKKA, Mo- viken, and VULog. These players will bring organized resources to project leaders. Identifying, struc- turing and digitizing resources will be continual processes. We also have partnered with economic interests that have constructed open platforms that are particularly interesting due to their developing mutual assets and communal cultures:  Aquinetic has begun a new pro- ject, Open Source Vehicle Aqui- taine, that uses OSV (industrial use open source vehicles) as a base. This project aims to develop ur- ban mobility services using OSV together with applications for tou- rism, agriculture, and last kilome- ter logistics. This will be particular- ly useful for all vehicular projects;  Canal TP is piloting the Navi- tia program. This is a global open source solution including multi- modal itinerary calculations, iso- chrone calculations, nearby stops and next departures, and real time travel information (delays, etc.), with data acquired through OpenStreetMap;  Freshmile has developed ser- vices for mobility and the manage- ment of fleets and electric vehicles. The data generated through these services will be provided as open data through freshmile.org;  l’Institut méditerranéen du risque et du développement du- rable (IMREDD) is designed around an open technology platform with strong ties to the R&D activities of their partners. It is equally im- portant as a place for small- and medium-sized businesses (PME), industries (PMI), very small enter- prises (TPE) and startups to vali- date ideas, concepts and products. Its technological platform will have the means to realize, at an indus- trial level, different key concepts and technologies for particular strategic activities, serving as a true proving ground, training space
  22. 22. 23 and demonstration of the city of the future. This technological platform will be the base of the Smart City simulation, the only one of its kind in France, supported and enriched by research, experimentation, and results seen in the eco-valley of the Nice-Côte d’Azur metropolis. Similarly, think & do tanks are es- sential for their networks in the fields of transport and mobility. These include competition centers like ID4Car, Movéo and Vehicule du Futur, Topos Aquitaine, Transalley, ATEC ITS, Nod-A, the Plateforme de la filière automobile (PFA), and Michelin Challenge Bibendum. These networks are also critical for collaborative ecosystems such as the international system arranged by Oui-Share and the digital and social transformations embodied through the Fondation internet nouvelle generation (Fing). Multiple engineering schools with international expertise in nume- rous domains of transport, energy, and digital technology are repre- sented, such as the Institut fran- çais du pétrole (IFP), the School et Telecom ParisTech, and more recently ESTACA and its labora- tory dedicated to mobility. The in- volvement of students, teachers and researchers in the Fabrique is essential for the development of a communal culture of innovation. At the laboratory level, IFP-éner- gies nouvelles (IFPEN) was the first lab to join the Fabrique, bringing its skills and resources in testing, calculations and recognized ex- pertise in vehicular energy. The Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l’aménagement et des réseaux (IFSTTAR), who is also a partner, will deploy its expertise in urban engineering, the mobility of people and goods, the means, systems and security of transport, and in- frastructures and their use and impact, all considered from tech- nical, economic, social, health, en- ergy, environmental, and human viewpoints. Additionally, incubators and acce- lerators are bringing in their skills and connections. Telecom Pa- risTech, PACA Est and NUMA are already supporting projects that fall into our domain. The Fabrique will support some of these in order to augment their chances of suc- cess. Calls for common projects will be able to be extended. In the following chapters, you will find out how the Fabrique is constructing itself in terms of fun- damental subjects such as:  what now?  communes, the dynamic wealth of our ecosystem;  transport data, a vital need to master;  regulating commons within the Fabrique des Mobilités;  the Fabrique, accelerator of Euro- pean ecosystems;  The Fabrique’s views on tomor- row’s mobilities;  project support;  pedagogical tools for creating a user experience curve at scale.
  23. 23. 24 Following the initial support of NUMA, OuiShare and the Plateforme de la Fi- lière Automobile, numerous partners have now joined us. Bring your talents and join the Fabrique des Mobilités in order to:  explore / send out calls for projects together with the Fabrique  love the unexpected / participate in project selection  find serendipity / incubate or excubate projects within or outside of a business  network / connect yourself and your partners to others in France and Europe  #FabMob / gain visibility and com- munication capabilities in France and Europe  go from 0 to 1 / participate in desi- gning source code for the Fabrique des Mobilités Contact : gabriel.plassat@ademe.fr Submit a common: communs.lafabriquedesmobilites.fr Submit an innovative project for support: projets.lafabriquedesmobilites.fr What now?
  24. 24. 25 — Synthesis: the path of a project and the involvement of stakeholders —
  25. 25. 26 — Principal Stages and Objectives —
  26. 26. 27
  27. 27. 28 How can we enable mobility enterprises to rest upon commons to allow more rapid development, considering the societal and economic stakes? In exchange for working with the Fabrique, these enterprises can enter into the Fabrique’s community and contribute to the production of new commons. Commons, the dynamic wealth of our ecosystem From the beginning, all supported projects will be examined based upon their ability to deliver, enrich and utilize commons. E lon Musk, the CEO of Tes- la, explained recently that he is convinced that Tesla, other electric car companies, and the entire world would benefit from a shared technological platform adapted to rapid evolution. The recent report entitled Ambi- tion Numérique underlines the importance of commons. The Fabrique will support stakehol- ders who wish to participate in this approach, as this is the same conviction that motivates us. The Fabrique believes that in the digital age, it is necessary to connect mo- bility players in order to construct shared resources, whether these be technological platforms, open data sets, free software, expertise, feedback, protocols, experimental proving grounds, etc.
  28. 28. 29 What’s at stake in managing commons Communs are like living orga- nisms: they are neither static nor predetermined, but rather they evolve progressively with their en- vironment and their context. It is up to interested parties to contri- bute to the commons and invent the rules and norms that protect them. Few commons can function in iso- lation. They are almost all hybrids that depend, in greater or lesser fashion, upon the state and/or the market. Commons must be conceived in such a way that their use or consumption by one person does not take anything away from ano- ther person. If the goal is to allow the greatest number to benefit from a common, for example while determining a standard or promo- ting its diffusion, it is difficult to see how one could limit the use of that common. A common is a resource that is put at the disposal of a community; that community enriches it and installs rules for managing and protecting it. Some examples  TCP (Transmission Control Proto- col) and IP (Internet Protocol)  the free OpenStreetMap, used by many mobility players: Geovelo, which determines bicycle itinera- ries; Snips, an artificial intelligence startup; Automatic, a connected on-board diagnostic (OBD) system;  Wikipedia;  Ubuntu, one of the free software systems for the Linux kernel;  Arduino, an open-source mi- cro-controller system;  Open Source Vehicle, the premier open source vehicle platform;  Navitia, an open source global solution that includes multimodal itinerary calculation, isochrone calculation, nearby stops and next departures, and real-time travel in- formation. What are the stakes? With the collaborative potential of digital technology, innovative mo- bility enterprises see commons as an instrument that can allow them to focus on developing their added-value services without nee- ding to construct a new ecosystem all on their own. This is a model that has been tested through numerous impor- tant open-source projects, particu- larly in the realm of software where projects have succeeded thanks to a willingness to give up exclusive exploitation rights.
  29. 29. 30 OpenStreetMap. This is a project that has demonstrated a new mo- del for collaboration between pu- blic entities, stakeholders and civil society;  The alliance Genivi has brought together major players in mobility (Renault, Nissan, Honda, etc.) to construct together an open-source infotainment system for automo- biles. The goal is to share in deve- lopment costs by collaborating on a software platform that will be a common and reusable. The benefits of working together are many:  a reduction in development costs;  a reduction in the time needed for development and thus a reduc- tion in the time to market;  an acceleration in innovation thanks to the possibility of feeding off of each other’s solutions;  a common base from which to found a culture of collaboration;  solutions on which one’s bu- siness can be maintained and go- verned, without finding oneself in a bind if, say, a particular piece of technology is cut off by a supplier. Some recent examples show how this culture, which up to now has been generally restricted to sof- tware, can apply to the world of mobility:  Tesla is trying to persuade its competitors to adopt the same technologies in order to share the burden of creating and maintai- ning electric charging stations. Tesla has also decided to open up the plans for its electric motors and batteries. Allowing competitors to use its technology as a base, and to improve that technology them- selves in ways that will come back to benefit Tesla, is the best way to create the virtuous circle that Tesla needs;  Ford has also recently announced that it will open its portfolio of elec- tric vehicle patents;  Similarly, in another emerging field, Toyota is preparing for hy- drogen vehicles by allowing access to thousands of patents involving fuel cells;  An open-source vehicle (OSV) platform for a modular quadricycle has been replicated in France with Ampool by the Aquinetic cluster, one of the Fabrique’s partners. Thanks to the availability of the open-source plans and licensing, the project aims to industrialize the vehicle at a regional level, with a timeframe and budget that are both setting records. The vehicle will officially launch during the ITS World Congress;  Navitia, an open-source itinerary calculator developed by Canal TP and belonging to Keolis, is used by over 50% of the multimodal infor- mation systems in France;  Etalab has played a significant role in creating the trust needed to create an open, national system of addresses, supported by tradi- tional players (La Poste, the Ins- titut géographique national (IGN) and the Direction générale des fi- nances publiques (DGFIP)) as well as data produced by users through
  30. 30. 31 For those who are less accusto- med to this type of sharing, the challenge is not only technical but also cultural. The challenge, then, is this: how do we transform commercial prac- tices and traditional development in order to allow people to func- tion with open models based upon communal resources developed as part of a collaboration? “In the coming era, the long-standing partnership between government and the private sector to organize the economic life of society will give way to a tripartite partnership with commons management playing an ever-greater role, complemented by government and market forces.” Jérémy Rifkin - The zero marginal cost society
  31. 31. 32 In responding to this challenge, the Fabrique’s role will be to guide its members toward this tripartite approach and to ensure fruitful and complementary relationships between commons, commercial activities, and the public sector. It will pull from numerous exa- mples that have emerged from the software world as well as new solutions, both organizational and legal, that are emerging and that will permit economic interests to organize together the financing of resources produced as commons. — The tripartite partnership —
  32. 32. 33 Identifying and Classifying Commons That Can Benefit the Fabrique The Fabrique participates in crea- ting and enriching mobility com- mons at all levels, which includes identifying, analyzing and evalua- ting existing commons. These include:  all norms and standards that are being developed or that are desired;  databases that are either open or to be opened;  training modules;  structured feedback constituting a corpus of knowledge;  surveying usage needs, both known and to be discovered, through user groups;  free/open-sourcesoftware(FLOSS);  open-source hardware (OSHW), etc. Identifying these commons co- mes about through a contributo- ry platform, developed along the lines of Wikipedia’s contribution system, permitting a large-scale assessment of commons and analyses enriched by their sheer number. The process can be seen on the alpha version of the site: communs.fabriquedesmobilites.fr The analysis of commons through the commons platform allows us:  to identify the most pertinent re- sources that can respond to a par- ticular need;  to benefit from feedback on constructing commons and hel- ping certain commons to become more visible. Any given resource should become a necessary com- mon that is used by the largest pos- sible number of players;  to facilitate in kind contributions and financing for the commons from enterprises and the Fabrique’s ecosystem. Our analysis is structured through a multidimensional approach to examining commons that takes into account different criteria for different issues:  its ability to encourage input - how does the project allow for eve- ryone to contribute?  legal questions - what legal op- tions are available to protect the communal nature of a project? (dis- cussed in the following chapter);  economic questions - how are commercial activities using the common? What relationship do they have with the common?  centralization - how can commons developed around the same issues across the world be centralized?  governance - what rules will allow everyone to access the common?  financing - what means of finan- cing and redistribution are avai- lable?  the ability to share - is the com- mon designed and documented in a way that aids in its replication and diffusion?
  33. 33. 34 Each of these criteria links up with the tools used to contribute to the commons. This also permits us to bring up, on the platform, best practices for producing commons, which improves the educational software for such projects. The tools that have already been iden- tified are numerous:  discussion areas and collective synchronous and asynchronous writing spaces;  voting, mediation, and deci- sion-making tools;  legal structures adapted to com- mons;  participative budgeting tools and means of receiving and distribu- ting financing;  collective task managers;  trusted third parties who gua- rantee healthy economic rela- tionships with the common. These tools and associated prac- tices are in the course of spreading out and speeding up. This allows us to confirm that the collective management of commons, which was already facilitated through di- gital technology, will become even easier in the coming months and years. The Fabrique’s role will be to transmit these new solutions. Commons that are approved by the Fabrique on its platform are offe- red to project leaders so that they can be easily and confidently used. The Fabrique can, when necessa- ry, aid in creating new commons. In exchange, supported enterprises are encouraged to promote and im- prove upon the commons that they use. These become deliverables of the support structure and they are capitalized within the Fabrique while also enriching the collective knowledge base. From the start, this production is planned together with project leaders to choose the “best” commons to be improved for them and for the Fabrique. The Fabrique designs and offers to the players in its ecosystem a pe- dagogical apparatus and continued support of the commons culture. This apparatus includes, among others, the following elements:  pedagogical awareness and un- derstanding;  oversight and communication regarding one or more successful models;  legal and digital tools, working methods and encouragement in constructing commons. Finally, the Fabrique will construct itself as a common in order to fa- cilitate its use, evolution and repli- cation throughout Europe. This will also allow for the sharing of tools and methods with other, future Fa- briques that will concentrate on other fields.
  34. 34. 35 Generating returns for the commons through ecosystem actors The mobility ecosystem has been examined in terms of the com- mons:  this idea is relatively unknown, except to those coming from digi- tal technology;  all understand the interest and underline the legitimate need for a public plan in order to set this ap- proach in motion;  there is territorial support, with territories actively encouraging development;  European industrial players in- volved in transport are opening towards this subject through the Fablabs and even open innova- tion. The Fabrique allows them to progressively advance along this path. The example cited above re- garding the open national system of addresses is one that demons- trates a successful use of this idea by public actors;  public actors such as INRIA and IFPEN have been looking at and identifying many such opportuni- ties. The Fabrique, being constituted of both public and private entities, is the structure that animates and facilitates the work of communi- ties that are working to construct, improve and conserve commons that are essential to this ecosys- tem. Concretely, the Fabrique plays a third-party role that deploys commons, promotes capitaliza- tion of existing commons (such as OpenStreetMap) and allows for their use by all. Norms and Standards Regarding Commons The roots are shared: a group of people take a theme or a resource, and then collaborate through suc- cessive iterations to create a mate- rial or immaterial good that can be used by others who did not partici- pate in the creation of that good. Now, norms and standards can, once they have been created and codified, tend to stagnate and leave the domain and culture of com- mons if there are no rapid proce- dures of modification, evolution, and even depreciation or abandon- ment. Commons are always lea- ning on a vigilant community that is looking out for their evolution and usage. This can lead to norms and stan- dards that are not used or that are not respected. By contrast, the W3C, one function of which is to create, specify and maintain the standards for the common that we know as the Internet, uses a sys- tem of governance and processes that is open, participative, agile and flexible, thus assuring that the norms and standards remain cur- rent and even precede the needs of the majority of users. The W3C also works to develop digital tools that allow all informed users to verify compatibility with the standards that it has created, as well as to suggest real-time improvements. The Fabrique augments the eco- system’s contributions to norms and standards, both through the commons (to ensure that they be- come norms/standards) and by connecting entrepreneurs with standards authorities.
  35. 35. 36 Transport data forms the common technical base for the development of new services as well as for the improvement of existing services, for all levels of the mobility sector: travelers, operators, construction, transportation authorities, infrastructure managers, manufacturers and even other sectors through the production of externalities. Transport Data, a vital need to master T ransport data forms the common technical base for the development of new services as well as for the impro- vement of existing services, for all levels of the mobility sector: trave- lers, operators, construction, trans- portation authorities, infrastruc- ture managers, manufacturers and even other sectors through the pro- duction of externalities. That notwithstanding, the portfolio of data that actually exists, its in- trinsic quality and its availability, is inadequate for supporting the sector’s development toward a new paradigm of mobility. Today, this data serves at best as a proof of concept for new service proposals, but the shift to an in- dustrial arena is halted by a lack of reliability. Similarly, scaling based on these data is halted by incons- istency, with different territories making different data available. We are still at the beginning of the movement to free transport data. Without a doubt, this will happen. But it will take a long time to have quality data, and it will happen at different speeds according to how various territories decide to react. Enterprises that wish to construct and develop commercial activities based on this data must unders- tand these factors of time, dispari- ties, quality, and availability. Within this context, the Fabrique des Mobilités intends to aid two measures:  an association of experts created within a working group;  a one-stop data shop to be uti- lized by entrepreneurs.
  36. 36. 37 An association of experts created within a working group The Fabrique’s ambition is to bring together, in the form of a wor- king group, technical representa- tives from parties involved in the data chain, from production to consumption. The objective of the working group is to put forth recommendations and undertake technical tasks ai- med at accelerating the availabi- lity of trustworthy data that will be able to be utilized in an industrial context and accompany the deve- lopment of the sector’s new digital pathways. A pragmatic organization In order to clarify the effectiveness of exchanges within the group, different roles have been defined that correspond to different place- ments within the data chain:  end users submit proposals for the reuse of data;  producers, tools, personnel and subcontractors realize and have control over the harvesting of data. They can have a direct impact on the harvesting process and they decide on the licensing associated with the data;  technicians have the experience and concrete ability to reflect and act on norms, standards, technolo- gies and general digital issues;  distributors control, directly or in- directly, access to the data through software APIs. They are able to de- termine technical modifications to the APIs;  intermediaries are able to lead mediation projects, notably in or- der to allow access to third-party data producers;  observers are able to bring forward ideas coming from dis- cussions taking place within other groups. Ideally, the producers, intermedia- ries, distributors, and technicians will do everything they can to find solutions to the usages suggested by end users and incubated projects. The group does not limit its scope to the data available through its members, but will also look toward other data producers. Whenever necessary, partnerships will be proposed among these actors.
  37. 37. 38 Issuing opinions and recommendations on technical evolutions Made up of key end users, distri- butors and producers, the working group discusses formats and ex- change protocols that are adapted to the nature of the data and its precise usage. These discussions can lead to:  identifying new attributes that can allow new operations, or that can avoid end users from rewriting code for existing databases that producers already have;  bringing forward new data streams and tendencies;  enabling the synchronization of data software, notably in a real- time context, in order to minimize the use of resources (such as ser- vers and networks);  enabling data to be aggregated by defining common identification keys across different data sources;  proposing reference models and modifications of norms or stan- dards;  defining evaluation criteria re- garding the quality of data (tho- roughness, coherence…). Piloting data software and APIs The type of data that can be useful to mobility services is without li- mit, as is the ability to utilize them through APIs. The working group will offer an initial base from which to work, and then proceed through iteration based on the usage sug- gestions proposed by end users as well as those coming from en- trepreneurs through the one-stop data shop. This base is defined through the following categories:  cartographies;  shared or public transport;  self-service vehicles;  parking, both in garages and on the street;  traffic;  energy (recharging and service stations);  vehicle fuel consumption.
  38. 38. 39 A one-stop data shop for entrepreneurs The data shop is the operational unit of the Fabrique that brings in entrepreneurs in order to study all the datasets in their various sectors that they could desire and their various suggestions for using this data. Interfacing with Entrepreneurs The data shop’s mission is to pro- vide rapid, trusted, and up-to-date responses to entrepreneurs. The nature of a request will relate to either the supply of complete raw data relative to a particular sector or a supply of data that is processed and intended for a specific model relating to the usage proposed by an entrepreneur. Upon receiving a data request, the data shop will deal with it accor- ding to three possible scenarios: 1) If the data is directly available through a producer or company, and it passes quality-control tes- ting as defined by the Fabrique for that type of data, we send it direct- ly to the interested APIs. 2) If databases exist, but the level of quality is judged to be insufficient, we will propose support and tech- nical assistance to improve the data. 3) If there are no existing databases, we will call upon data producers to generate the data. If it is possible to obtain the data, we will set up the databases in a way that fits the needs of the project. In the second and third cases, the databases created or co-created by the Fabrique will be either openly available, for example through the Étalab platform, or only available to those within the Fabrique. Internal regulations The data shop may initially be run by a project head and two compu- ter engineers. The project head will examine the entrepreneur’s request andthentransmitthespecifications to the engineers. The engineers will then work to bring about the result for the entrepreneur. In addition to tasks brought forward by entrepreneurs, the team will also work on enriching databases, on developing valida- tion, extraction and aggregation tools, and on the Fabrique’s API. This will be driven by usage needs brought forward by entrepreneurs as well as requests from the wor- king group. The size of the team will evolve ac- cording to the number of requests coming from entrepreneurs.
  39. 39. 40 Maintaining a source of raw data Guided by the working group, the data shop will use a tool allowing for the management and diffusion of existing data by producers and companies. It will also contain the data produced or diffused by the Fabrique through its API. This will enable one to match each data source or data type with a list of recommended tools for handling that data. Maintaining a set of tools for validating and handling data Together with managing data, the data shop will test, select and list available tools for each type of ma- naged data. This includes, for exa- mple, tools for handling geospatial coordination systems, processing geometric and geographic forms, for visualizations, for data extrac- tion, for validating General transit feed specification (GTFS) files, and so forth. Developing an API and tools for uses that are not covered by other platforms It may be interesting to directly diffuse certain raw data, created or processed by the Fabrique, such as by the working group or the data shop, through an API. To this end, the data shop will de- velop and maintain technical solu- tions, notably:  technical documentation for using the API;  terms of use for the data;  the list of services available through the API;  and for each service: the functio- nal realm of the service, technical documentation for resulting data models, technical documentation for request filters, and the list of third-party tools that allow for ma- nipulating the data in the resulting models.
  40. 40. 41 The Next Steps Regarding these technical sub- jects, the Fabrique is concentrating on the following steps:  validating the reception process, formalizing requests and support, and data delivery through testing the early usage cases that come from its members;  concretely putting in place pri- vileged partnerships with produ- cers and distributors of data in order to efficiently connect them with the processes defined by the working group. The Fabrique is also studying how to develop modules that respond to the common needs already identi- fied with multiple projects. These open source developments will allow the Fabrique to make itself known to startups from the very beginning of a project, to legitimize the commons through internal de- velopments and to reinforce open platforms such as Open Street Map.
  41. 41. 42 Two paths for modernizing the idea of commons I t is a little known fact that Article 714 of the French Civil Code reco- gnizes through positive law the existence of commons. As defined by the law, commons distinguish themselves from other goods by their essence: they are things that no person possesses, but that the whole world uses. In other words, they are not governed by property law but by the use which people make of them. And, to ensure that we do not mistreat them, the law immediately goes on to say that re- gulations will govern the manner in which they are enjoyed. This control can be explained by the fact that, for a legislator in 1803, the commons were principally natural phenomena, such as air, seawater, or running wa- ter. Nevertheless, this definition can be adapted very well to more recent resources handled by today’s legis- lator, such as with public data stem- ming from Law 78-753 of 17 July 1978 (CADA). This perfectly matches the legal regime of shared resources, as public information does not belong to the public entity but must rather be open to the greatest number through a legal redistribution system. Regulating commons to facilitate innovation The Fabrique des Mobilités must promote modern management techniques for commons and propose legal modifications that, within the process of innovation that it encourages, can guide the exchanges between players and their operational capacity to contribute to these commons. “There are things that do not belong to any individual and whose use is shared among all.” (Law of 29 april 1803)
  42. 42. 43 Together with its legal defini- tion, another sense of commons emerged, based upon the idea that commons are not defined only by their essence, but also by their function: all things whose access and use is free and open would be commons. This also applies at the moment that the owner of a good decides to, either in whole or in part, temporarily or permanently, concede the rights over property to others according to a predeter- mined and non-discriminatory system. The property itself beco- mes an alternative source for com- mons. This modern idea of com- mons gives rise to “open source.” Software, data or other content is distributed under open licenses thanks to the desire on the part of the authors to enable its shared use while yet retaining it as their property. An open source license is thus always subject to certain predetermined conditions and restrictions. Infringing on an open source license violates the intel- lectual property rights of its au- thors. Contrary to a popularly held opinion, open source licenses are not a negation of property, but are rather an altruistic management of property. With a growing structure and strength in commons, we also tend to speak more and more of colla- borative commons. Commons be- come something not only natural, but also very human. In a society that favors giving, involvement, sharing, feedback, and collabora- tion, human activity moves away from the influence of individual appropriation to create things that can be exchanged and valorized at the heart of a community. New rules for managing production and use are being invented every day, based upon these communities’ wishes. Even more recently, it seems that commons have acquired a new sense, particularly in the domain of transport. The report regarding transport data, issued in March of 2015 by the Ministry of Transport, Sea and Fishing and known as the Rapport Jutand, created a new category of data: in addition to pu- blic data, there would be public in- terest data. This data can certainly be seen as new commons, as its goal is to be distributed and shared as widely as possible, according to conditions that will be defined by the law. We see here commons that are not defined by a common use or an abandonment of property, but rather by their goal, namely that they are meant to be used in pur- suit of the public interest. This is a new source of commons that could become virtually inexhaustible if the legislature follows the recom- mendations found in the Jutand report. Today’s notion of commons the- refore has multiple juridical mea- nings, as they can be something that does not belong to any indivi- dual, rendering its use common to all; a resource whose ownership is given over to the community; the results of altruistic actions taken by a community of people; and fi- nally, data that is shared in pursuit of the common good.
  43. 43. 44 What contribution can the Fabrique des Mobilités make in modernizing the law? The Fabrique des Mobilités puts commons at the center of its value proposition. Its first goal is to iden- tify commons in order to solidify their status. We have already des- cribed several of these in the chap- ter “Commons, the dynamic wealth of our ecosystem” (p.28). The Fabrique is a place of expe- rimentation and forethought in terms of the mediation, regulation and governance that are necessa- ry for constituting and managing commons arising from the innova- tion that it is designed to support. Mediation First, the process of constituting commons must benefit from me- diation. The Fabrique offers a pri- vileged space of exchange and col- laboration for different parties in the mobility sector, including potential producers and users of commons. In doing so, it is already addressing one of the general recommendations of the Jutand report, which encou- rages the creation of work spaces for transport operators, businesses, startups and users in order to deve- lop innovative services using public and private data. We see here once again the idea of a space that is si- multaneously open and closed. Regulation of Resources Second, the players interested in common resources need to have “rules of the game” relating to the conditions and modalities of their participation in the creation, usage and exploitation of these resources. The Fabrique will be a proving ground for these “rules of the game,” a corpus of laws and obligations that are predictable and scalable accor- ding to the level of engagement de- sired by the players and the nature of the commons in question. Adhering to a policy of shared values could al- low for an opening level of involve- ment. At that stage, it is essentially a matter of creating a club, possessing of advantages and privileges. In- tended to create an ecosystem based upon common principles, this policy could allow for various parties and partners to agree to early obligations in exchange for early rights. Sharing information, knowledge and exper- tise, supplying and earning visibility, sharing opportunities and advan- tages, establishing standards and formats, dispensing and receiving advice and feedback, all amount to commons that are easily mobilized among members of the Fabrique, wi- thout needing recourse to a complex contractual system. This allows the Fabrique to construct an early set of collabora- tive commons, made up of a collec- tive and unique knowledge base, and placed at the disposal of star- tups, large businesses, and their partners.
  44. 44. 45 For the players who wish to sup- ply and receive more concrete contributions, notably in terms of software, content and data, the Fabrique must also provide an ap- propriate contractual framework, privileging open models and fol- lowing the form of open licenses such as Creative Commons, ODbL, GNU, and Licence Ouverte Eta- lab. This second level of contrac- tualization allows the Fabrique to construct not only collaborative commons but also technical com- mons, whether material or imma- terial, such as machines, tools, pro- totypes, standards, software, data, databases, and other open source technologies that can be freely shared among the different players in the Fabrique. In certain cases, this may mean putting in place, among particu- lar players in the Fabrique who are looking for an exclusive re- lationship, ad hoc partnership contracts between two or more par- ties. These would be, in any case, more legally elaborate than open licenses, responding to the issues, needs, and drawbacks of each case. Among private parties, issues of bil- ling for content, data and services, with a view to access and sharing, can become important. Certain spe- cific levels of performance and qua- lity can also be desired. Agreements regarding responsibility and exone- ration of responsibility could also be negotiated. The Fabrique could thus propose both standard contracts and speciality provisions. The concept of reciprocal licenses is emerging. It is based on the idea that people who draw among the commons can give back to the community in a number of different ways (money, gifts, contributor salaries, etc.) The Fabrique must also push for “innovation partnerships”, re- cently instituted through the de- cree of 26 September 2014. These partnerships aim to allow public actors and private operators to support markets, both at the level of research and development as well as in the purchasing of inno- vative products, services, or work that come from this R&D. Players in the Fabrique need to be able to experiment with these new forms of public markets.
  45. 45. 46 Equally, the goal of the Fabrique is to allow its users to construct business models that can be inte- grated over time, even after their participation in the Fabrique. It also favors the sharing of common resources and the valorization of commons within reasoned econo- mic development. Open licenses are sometimes seen as an obstacle to the commercial use of commons. The Fabrique must reflect on how to install this type of reciprocity with regards to large businesses as well as startups and collectivities that would like to legitimately uti- lize specific resources developed as commons within the Fabrique. Governance Finally, these issues of regulation and the modification of correspon- ding laws could lead to a more am- bitious step, that of putting in place a “governing body for resources,” which would be able to serve as a commons manager along the lines of that intended by the Ju- tand report. This would allow for the construction of a general space for open transport data, relying on a base of reusable public data enriched by authorized transport operators. It could also benefit from the input of private data (available initially on a volunteer basis), with modalities regarding openness and reuse adapted to the nature of the data and its uses. This platform could equally bring together other areas of commons, such as software and other tech- nologies, as well as all types of in- formation, knowledge and contri- butions from across the mobility field. It is thus not just a question of regulating these resources, but also of generating them and ma- naging them. Following examples that already exist in other sectors such as domain names, where the resource constitutes a common that is managed through the goals of the general interest, the Fabrique will become, like the Association française pour le nommage Inter- net en coopération (AFNIC), an au- thority that designates resources, regulates their use and manages conflicts among users. The fabrique will be a place of experimentation featuring tools and modes of intervention by trusted third-parties, to which all mobility players can entrust their datasets in order to regulate accessibility and terms of use.
  46. 46. 47 “In the transport sector, we need to better link key actors, and we need to better collaborate to support startups and SMEs. Therefore, the idea and concept of La Fabrique des Mobilités fit well into our ongoing attempts at European level to strengthen entrepreneurship and improve the investment framework.” What legal status best suits the Fabrique des Mobilités? The Fabrique des Mobilités could be formed as an association. This form corresponds to impartial goals and democratic governance. The flexibility of organization and governance could allow for nume- rous players to become involved. It also allows for the exclusion of concerns regarding shareholders, patrimony, and profits. An association also provides the advantage of allowing for the trans- formation to a cooperative. A So- cieté coopérative d’intérêt collectif (SCIC) could in time be a useful go- vernance tool for the Fabrique. The goal of an SCIC is the production or supply of goods and services of collective interest and that have a social purpose. Management of an SCIC is still undertaken through democratic principles and its ope- rational mode does not privilege profits. In contrast to traditional cooperative companies, the capital and governance of an SCIC can also return not only to its employees, but also to the beneficiaries of its activities (clients, users, and provi- ders), as well as to local communi- ties, volunteers and other partners, notably financial partners. We could also imagine creating, together with this governing struc- ture, a specially adapted financing structure appropriate to activities focused on the common good, such as is seen with financial en- dowments. Endowments aim at receiving, managing and capitali- zing all kinds of resources, in order to either realize a goal or mission of common interest or redistribute them to help non-profit persons or groups working on projects in the common interest. These endow- ments would also have the goal of raising funds from different partners in order to finance the Fa- brique’s support of the commons. The fiscal advantages granted to gifts and corporate sponsorships destined for grants can be, moreo- ver, quite attractive for donors. Early exchanges with the European Commission (DG-MOVE) have been particularly encouraging:
  47. 47. 48 Roles and expectations for different players in the Fabrique The players in the Fabrique At the center of the Fabrique’s concerns are the entrepreneurs around whom partnerships, re- sources, and a great diversity of riches are organized. The support for accelerated projects is provi- ded by the network of experts and mentors developed by the Fabrique. At the heart of this always growing network are the experts coming from various partnerships with the Fabrique, the leaders in the mo- bility sector or other sectors that have experienced radical digital transformation, professionals who are renowned in their fields, known entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs who have already worked within the Fabrique des Mobilités. Industry partnerships bring with them a worldwide scope linked to mobility markets and are able to mobilize resources (experts, assets and infrastructures, research, intel- lectual property, data, the ecosys- tem itself) in order to accelerate the The Fabrique, accelerator of European ecosystems As an accelerator of ecosystems based on contributions coming from a network of engaged players, the Fabrique des Mobilités has a European-wide mission based on partnerships and localized procedures. The Fabrique will lead a growing number of players, all having different profiles, cultures and objectives. This diversity can give birth to the unexpected, so long as interactions and organizational structures are not overly burdensome, but rather serve as a catalyst for all players to act.
  48. 48. 49 development of projects that will eventually have a place within the ecosystem or even in new ecosys- tems and new markets. By joining with the Fabrique des Mobilités, industrial players not only implant themselves within a dynamic ecosystem, but they also help to bring about transformations within their own organizations. In the same way, partner regions and territories are aware of their assets and the potential for opening public spaces and data to private actors in order to develop new so- lutions. They join the Fabrique des Mobilités in order to facilitate their area’s usefulness in terms of expe- rimenting with and testing the via- bility of ideas that can be diffused across much wider areas in the fu- ture. The stakes for them are clear: faster testing, faster understanding of what works and what doesn’t, faster (and cheaper) scaling. Startup accelerators and incubators are natural partners for the Fabrique des Mobilités. These organizations select and support a wide range of projects across multiple sectors of activity. They offer general sup- port to their startups and they are looking for networks and support systems that can supplement their own efforts. By joining with the Fabrique, several incubators are choosing to offer to their mobility startups a unique system for tes- ting and scaling their solutions in France and in Europe. They bring to the Fabrique an additional ca- pacity for identifying projects and supporting them, while the startups emerging from these organizations benefit from the additional deve- lopmental support which ensures a quality collaboration. Researchers can also use the Fa- brique as an academic research ground for studying mechanisms for innovation, the development of new ecosystems, and emerging mobilities. They bring to the Fa- brique a level of expertise and mul- ti-faceted project evaluation, while also helping to develop methodolo- gical tools and technical platforms. — The Fabrique des Mobilités, fertile ground for providing services to projects with great transformative potential —
  49. 49. 50 What the Fabrique offers to its community The expectations of each player in the Fabrique des Mobilités’s eco- system are as diverse as the pro- files of the organizations, people, and cultures involved. As a result, cooperation relies on several pil- lars that support the Fabrique and encourage unity while promoting fundamental and shared ambitions. The first contribution of the Fa- brique is its entire reason for being: identifying and supporting pro- jects with the potential to trans- form mobility. All of the parties involved have an interest in mee- ting, exchanging with, and wor- king with their peers as well as the players who will have a central role in tomorrow’s ecosystem. The Fa- brique des Mobilités offers the pos- sibility of connecting projects and amplifying their resonance. This ability to complement existing efforts comes from a difference in purpose, as the Fabrique is an open system whose goal is to ac- celerate development and connect projects, only then capitalizing on gained experience and knowledge through commons available to all of its partners. The Fabrique des Mobilités is de- veloping a collaborative culture among very different types of players, who generally would have few opportunities to work together. This makes it a rare place where new forms of cooperation can take place within an open/closed environment offering the gua- rantees necessary for building trust. The frame and tools offered by the Fabrique aid in creating se- cure relationships that can be qui- ckly put in place among startups, industry players, territories, and researchers. The transformation of mobilities oftentimes involves disruptions of means of organization, public needs, legislative, regulatory and financial frameworks, industrial policy, issues related to private life and the security of data, and established economic models. An ecosystem of reliable innovation must allow one to approach these issues beforehand, to experiment with solutions, and to participate in the large-scale public debate. The Fabrique des Mobilités looks to directly contribute to this type of activity, in order to benefit both its supported projects and its partners. For startups, the Fabrique cuts down on the time needed to ac- cess important resources while also furnishing a better sense of the functioning of industry and local communities with whom the startups will have to work. For ter- ritories, the Fabrique provides the opportunity to reflect deeply on the solutions that will allow for the fa- vorable evolution of mobility prac- tices, whether this relates to digi- tal functions, new technologies or methodologies, or tools put at the disposal of users.
  50. 50. 51 For those in the industry, the Fa- brique is an excellent opportunity to evolve their internal culture thanks to diverse influences emer- ging through a voluntary and shared process. The experts who collaborate with the Fabrique have the opportunity to meet one ano- ther and work with approaches, players and models that will of- tentimes be new or uncommon for their organizations. A decentralized operation The Fabrique is adopting operatio- nal modes that are as decentralized as possible in order to best fit entre- preneurs’ needs for agility, reacti- vity and adaptation. Decentralized operations, as opposed to a pyra- mid-shaped organizational struc- ture, privilege the independent contributions of each partner, who then assumes responsibility for and executes these contributions. Inasmuch as the Fabrique aims to have its partners work together despite their coming from very different cultures and organizatio- nal structures, a decentralized or- ganization allows for the Fabrique to respect the operating proce- dures of all without weighing down its own governance. Essentially, the Fabrique des Mobilités must preserve its ability to adapt to en- trepreneurs’ needs, to the markets in which it is interested, and to its partners. The first principle is thus to put in place a horizontal understanding among the different players and a policy of transparent action, al- lowing each person to understand everyone else’s role, current pro- ject states, and business activities. Certain tools are needed for this, which are detailed below. The abundance of cultures, practices and approaches within the fabrique des mobilités is a challenge in terms of cooperative organization, but it is one of its principal advantages in terms of drawing power and finding serendipity.
  51. 51. 52 Beyond this horizontal understan- ding, vertical communication wit- hin the Fabrique allows for all to see:  the common objectives that bind us and how they evolve;  the progress of each individual as well as the group. Taken together, this horizontal understanding and vertical com- munication should result in a ho- loptic organization, much like that experienced by soccer players who move around the ball, held together by the object, with the objective of putting it into the adversaries’ net. Like on a soccer team, there is a management team and a captain guiding the overall organization, but no grand commander of indivi- dual actions. For the Fabrique des Mobilités to have success with a decen- tralized organization, it must be aware of the unique identities of each partner and individual who is participating. This identity in- cludes the culture and organiza- tional structure of individuals and organizations, but also the objec- tives that they are pursuing, even beyond those that are taking place within the Fabrique des Mobilités. The fabrique applies to itself the same entrepreneurial methods that it promotes, such as effectuation and the lean startup. In time, these identities and varied capacities should be organized and utilized, always on a voluntary ba- sis. Each party that participates will have to discover the means by which it can contribute and work together with the contributions of other partners. The Fabrique des Mobilités takes on the mana- ger role, with a team dedicated to ensuring that all participants can function together and that indivi- duality is expressed in the pursuit of common goals. Many key characteristics will be brought together, including sa- voir-faire, the ability to work to- gether, individuation, effort and expertise in given domains, trans- parency, the ability to see global trends together with understanding global natures and equipotentiality, and the ability of all to commit to and utilize the Fabrique’s resources.
  52. 52. 53 Tools for functioning as a network The Fabrique des Mobilités will be very quickly putting many people and organizations to work together. In fact, this is already happening. In time, dozens of projects each year will be supported, accompa- nied by just as many startups and entrepreneurs. Roughly fifteen partners are already in place at the Fabrique des Mobilités, with the possibility of this doubling over time, with each contributing the time and energy of various people. The team at the Fabrique is itself another dozen people, together with other experts, sponsors and outside advisors. Finally, various meetings and workshops have all brought together between 40 and 80 people. In order to keep these pieces working together, without falling back on a stiff pyramidal structure, some tools will be ne- cessary, never forgetting that these are only possible means through which to construct a more efficient collaboration. In order to put these collabora- tive tools in place, we must keep in mind the culture and habits of the participants, technological restraints in given organizations, and most importantly, that which they’re really trying to do. It is this last point which poses a problem, as that ultimate goal is oftentimes poorly understood. That is why the Fabrique des Mobi- lités is proposing and experimen- ting with various tools, depending on usage needs and the working groups. For sharing documents and working in a collaborative way, Google Drive is available. Certain working groups also use mailing lists to lead discussions and/or send out information, as email is still considered the simplest plat- form to use. Finally the commons working group has been testing the use of the platform dedicated to managing commons. Up to this point, only relatively simple tools have been put in place in order to iterate their use and determine whether they function or not, be- fore planning wide-scale rollouts. The additional tools that we plan on testing are:  a management tool for shared alerts, to collect and circulate pro- jects;  a tool for understanding and vi- sualizing ecosystems, such as ecairn (ecairn.com),  a communications tool, such as Slack (slack.com). At issue is each individual’s adoption and use of such a tool. Beyond progressive testing, the second principle at work in the Fabrique is the ability to utilize different tools for different tasks and different groups, which does however require an adapted coor- dination. In the end, tools based on open and accessible platforms will be favored in order to develop a Fa- brique des Mobilités that is easily replicable.
  53. 53. 54 Beyond the Fabrique The Fabrique has been inspired by systems and ideas throughout Eu- rope and the world. The startup accelerators based in Silicon Valley, of which Y Com- binator is the best model, have been spreading that model into Europe and France (notably with The Family and NUMA), basing it on strong networks and commu- nities as well as significant num- bers of supported startups. These accelerators promote their ability to provide mentors and a quality network to the startups that they support, while taking various ap- proaches to make this happen. In Europe, thematic accelerators are developing along a classical capitalist model. Startupbootcamp Berlin, concentrating on “intel- ligent transport and energy,” is a good example of the type of ac- celerator with which we envision partnering. Their economic model rests on financing coming from industry and acquiring equity in their supported startups, making it complementary to the model upon which the Fabrique is based. The EIT ICT is also developing a way to aid startups that wish to grow at a European level. Coope- rative agreements with this type of partner will allow the Fabrique des Mobilités to identify projects with a high potential for European expansion, while also providing its partners with an additional sup- port system for their startups that takes form both in the Fabrique’s network of experts and partners as well as in access to territories in which to develop the startups’ activities. The way the Fabrique works is also inspired by experiences with pro- grams dedicated to multi-partner financing of innovation, such as the H2020 in Europe. Discussions with relevant sections at the European Commission made clear the need for systems centered on startups, as entrepreneurial and intrapre- neurial projects have a higher po- tential for transformation and dis- ruption. These systems should also contribute to the emergence of dy- namic and open ecosystems of in- novation, bringing them together, as much as possible, with existing players. The Fabrique is a response to this need, built on a model that com- plements the classical capitalist models, since it is centered on performance and rupture through socio-economic or environmental impacts.

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