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Cell

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All living things are made up of cells.
Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.
All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

Publié dans : Santé
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Cell

  1. 1. Cell Little set of organ
  2. 2. Cellula (Latin) Small room Cell
  3. 3. Deffination • Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. • The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. In 1835, before the final cell theory was developed, Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. • The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life
  4. 4. Cell Theory • All living things are made up of cells. • Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. • All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
  5. 5. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  6. 6. Two Types ofTwo Types of CellsCells •ProkaryoticProkaryotic •EukaryoticEukaryotic
  7. 7. Pro-karyotic • Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are called prokaryotes • Prokaryotic cells differ significantly from eukaryotic cells. instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circular loop called a plasmid • Prokaryotic cells feature three major shapes: rod shaped, spherical, and spiral. Instead of going through elaborate replication processes like eukaryotes, bacterial cells divide by binary fission • bacteria are involved in many nutrient cycles such as the nitrogen cycle, which restores nitrate into
  8. 8. Eukaryotic • Karyotic cell can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus • Eukaryotic cells also contain many internal membrane- bound structures called organelles. These organelles such as the mitochondrion or chloroplast serve to perform metabolic functions and energy conversion. Another important member of the eukaryote family is the plant cell. They function essentially in the same manner as other eukaryotic cells, but there are three unique structures which set them apart. Plastids, cell walls, and vacuoles are present only in plant cells .
  9. 9. Difference between pro-karyotic & Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Small cells (<5 um) Larger cells (> 10 um) Always uni- cellular Often multi cellular no nucleus or any membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria. Always have nucleus & other membrane bound organless DNA is circular without proteins DNA is linear associated with proteins to form chromatin Ribosome are small (70S) Ribosome are large (80S) No cytoskeleton Always has a cytoskeleton Cell division is by binary fission Cell division is by mitosis/meiosis Reproduction is always asexual Reproduction is sexual/asexual Huge variety of metabolic pathway Common metabolic pathways
  10. 10. Type : Eu-caryotic cell Prokaryotic cell
  11. 11. Cell StructureCell Structure & Function& Function http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html
  12. 12. Cell Plasma membrane Protoplasm Surrounding the cell
  13. 13. Plasma-membrane • Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell • Double layer • Protect inner organ
  14. 14. Protoplasm • Reproduction • Chemical • Excretions • Irritability • Movement • Growth
  15. 15. protoplasm Nucleus Cytoplasm Protoplasm structure
  16. 16. Nucleus Brain of the cell • Directs cell activities • Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane • Contains genetic material - DNA
  17. 17. Nuclear Membrane/Envelope • Surrounds nucleus • Made of two layers • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  18. 18. Chromosomes • In nucleus • Made of DNA • Contain instructions for traits & characteristics http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  19. 19. Nucleolus • Inside nucleus • Contains RNA to build proteins http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  20. 20. Cytoplasm • Gel-like mixture • Surrounded by cell membrane • Contains hereditary material • The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol, organelles and inclusions.
  21. 21. Cytoplasm Vacuoles Centreol Ribo- some Lyso- some Golgi- body Endo plasomic- reticulum Mito- conidia Cytoplasm
  22. 22. Mitochondria (power house) • Produces energy ATP through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates • Controls level of water and other materials in cell • Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  23. 23. Endoplasmic Reticulum (Suicide bag) • Moves materials around in cell • Smooth type: lacks ribosomes • Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface .http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  24. 24. Golgi Bodies • Protein 'packaging plant' • Move materials within the cell • Move materials out of the cell • Hormone secreartion. http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  25. 25. Ribosome's Energy of all • Each cell contains thousands • Make proteins • Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell • Internal messenger • Fat, protein metabolism • Two type…… • 70s & 80s ribosome's http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  26. 26. Lysosome Bag of enzyme • Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates • Enzyme transfer • Create ATP • Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes http://library.thinkques
  27. 27. Vacuoles • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal • Contains water solution • Help plants maintain shape http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  28. 28. Centrosome • Strengthen cell & maintains the shape • Moves organelles within the cell • Separate  chromosome pairs during mitosis
  29. 29. Overall function of cell • Properties of Life What defines something as living? • Molecule Transport The cell must be able to obtain nutrients and other molecules to survive.   • Reproduction Simply being able to sustain itself is not enough. Cells must be able to produce new generations to ensure the survival of their specie. • Cellular Metabolism It takes energy to make things happen, even at the cellular level.
  30. 30. So Build-up your cell Healthy & Live long

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