• Program Objectives
• Defining Negotiation
• Two relatively distinct types of negotiation
• Negotiation Process
• Individual differences in negotiation effectiveness
• Third party negotiation
• Issues of poor negotiation
4. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES (1 OF 3)
Understand what negotiations are all about.
Choose a strategy to effectively negotiate.
5. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES (2 OF 3)
• Learn the range of negotiation approaches and their results based on your interactions.
• Plan for a negotiation session.
6. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES (3 OF 3)
Use communication techniques to avert potential conflicts.
Practice your general negotiation techniques.
8. DEFINING NEGOTIATION (1 OF 2)
• It Is a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources
• Negotiation is getting what you want from the other person -- no matter what.
• We all know how bargaining works. You ask for a lot, and wind up settling for something in
9. DEFINING NEGOTIATION (2 OF 2)
• Negotiation is an attempted trade-off between getting what you want and getting
along with people.
• Negotiation is a discussion between people, with the goal of reaching an agreement
on issues, and separating the parties when neither party has the power to get its
11. DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATIONS
• often referred to as 'The Fixed Pie'
• usually involves people who have never had a previous interactive relationship,
nor are they likely to do so again in the near future.
• The most identifying feature is that it operates under zero-sum conditions, that is
any gain I make is at your expense and vice versa.
So the essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share
of a fixed pie.
• example: Purchasing products or services, like when we buy a car or a house
• Ours and their interests are usually self serving
12. INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION
• The process generally involves some form or combination of making value for
value concessions, in conjunction with creative problem solving.
• Form a long term relationship to create mutual gain.
• often described as the win-win scenario
• Operates under the assumption that one or more settlements can create a
win-win solution .
• Both parties must be engaged for it to work.
14. NEGOTIATION PROCESS
5 steps of the negotiation process
1- preparation and planning
Make sure that your goal stays paramount in your discussions
Put your goals in writing and develop a range of outcomes to keep your attention
Assess what you think are the other party’s goals.
Once you have gathered your information , use it to develop a strategy.
15. NEGOTIATION PROCESS
2-Definition of ground rules:
During this phase , the parties will exchange their initial proposals or demands.
At this phase you are ready to begin defining with the other party the ground rules
and procedures of the negotiation itself
3-Clarification and justification:
At this phase both you and the other party will explain ,amplify , clarify and justify
your original demands.
16. NEGOTIATION PROCESS
4- Bargaining and problem solving:
This is where both parties will undoubtedly need to make concessions.
5-Closure and implementation
The final step in the negotiation process is formalizing the agreement that has been
worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and
17. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION
Three factors influence how effectively individuals negotiate : personality, mood &
emotions , and gender.
Personality traits in negotiation
Negotiators who are agreeable or extraverted aren’t very successful in distributive
bargaining as they are outgoing and friendly , they tend to share more information
than they should .
So the best distributive bargainer appears to be a disagreeable introvert , someone
more interested in his or her own outcomes than in pleasing the other party and
having a pleasant social exchange .
18. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION
Moods and emotions in negotiation
Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process, Negative emotions can
cause intense and even irrational behavior, and can cause conflicts to escalate and
negotiations to break down. On the other hand, positive emotions often facilitate
reaching an agreement and help to maximize joint gains.
Gender differences in negotiations
Men have been found to negotiate
better outcomes than women , although
the difference is relatively small.
19. THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS
There are 4 basic third party roles
Mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using
reasons and persuasion , suggesting alternatives .
Arbitrator Is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement.
The big plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement .
20. THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS
Conciliator Is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link
between the negotiator and the opponent .
Consultant is a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem
solving through communication and analysis, aided by a knowledge of conflict
21. MOST POOR NEGOTIATION IN LAND ISSUE WHICH
CAUSE TO CREATE CONFLICT
Poor Negotiation may cause to create conflicts. Worlds most three poor negotiations issue
1. Kashmir Issue (India & Pakistan)
2. The conflict in Syria ( Daish Jehadis group , Sunni Shia war)
3. Iran’s Nuclear option (White house, Israel & Iran)
www.pon.harvard.edu “ Iran’s nuclear option”
www.iamsyria.org “The conflict in Sriya “