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The efficacy and challenges of scada an smart grid integration

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The efficacy and challenges of scada an smart grid integration

  1. 1. THE EFFICACY AND CHALLENGES OF SCADA AND SMART GRID INTEGRATION BY FAIZAL ALI AND VISHNU.MK
  2. 2. ABSTRACT • The advent and evolution of the Smart Grid initiative to improve the electric utility power infrastructure has brought with it a number of opportunities for improving efficiencies, but along with those benefits come challenges in the effort to assure safety, security, and reliability for utilities and consumers alike • One of the considerations in designing the capabilities of the Smart Grid is the integration of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems to allow the utility to remotely monitor and control network devices as a means of achieving reliability and demand efficiencies for the utility as a whole
  3. 3. AIM • To initiate a 2 way communication between the load center's and the substation so they can monitor the electricity distribution at real time • To detect faults at their onset so that a resultant blackouts can be prevented • To regulate the energy consumption of utilities based on energy availability
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Utility infrastructures represent privileged targets for cyber terrorists or foreign state sponsored hackers. There are a number of challenges to achieve a base-level security across the utility spectrum. The challenges are due to limited budgets, privately owned control systems in utility infrastructures, and the complexity in decomposing the myriad sets of requirements from competing regulatory bodies each with their own frameworks. The process of developing a functional, secure infrastructure requires technology skills and understanding how and why all applied technologies interact with each other.
  5. 5. SCADA • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are basically Process Control Systems (PCS) that are used for monitoring, gathering, and analyzing real-time environmental data from a simple office building or a complex nuclear power plant. PCSs are designed to automate electronic systems based on a predetermined set of conditions, such as traffic control or power grid management. Some PCSs consist of one or more remote terminal units (RTUs) and/or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to any number of actuators and sensors, which relay data to a master data collective device for analysis
  6. 6. SMART GRID • The Smart Grid domain is comprised of and concerned with distributed intelligence including data decentralization, distributed generation and storage, and distribution system automation and optimization. Customer involvement and interaction is a consideration, as are micro-grids, and high-consumption electric devices including plug- in hybrid electric vehicles
  7. 7. • The Smart Grid is by definition about real-time data and active grid management via fast two-way digital communications through the application of technological solutions to the electricity delivery infrastructure. Connectivity exists between (and within) the electric utility, utility’s devices, consumer devices (In Home Devices, or IHDs), and third-party entities either as vendors, consumers, or regulatory bodies. Smart Grid includes an intelligent monitoring system that tracks the flow of electricity throughout the electrical network, and incorporates the use of superconductive transmission lines to manage power fluctuations, loss, and co-generation integration from solar and wind.
  8. 8. WHY GO FOR A SMART GRID • AS CONSUMPTION OF ENEGY OF A PARTICULAR REGION INCREASES THE ONLY POSSIBLE SOLAS CONSUMPTION OF ENEGY OF A PARTICULAR REGION INCREASES THE ONLY POSSIBLE SOLUTION BY THE EXISTING METHOD IS TO BUILD A NEW PLANT • THE EXISTING POWER GRIDS ARE CENTRALIZED SO THEY ARE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO ATTACKS OF BLACK HAT HACKERS AND TERRORISTS • POWER OUTAGES AND THE EXISTING POWER GRIDS ARE CENTRALIZED SO THEY ARE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO ATTACKS OF BLACK HAT HACKERS AND TERRORISTS • POWER OUTAGES AND BLACKOUTS CAN OCCUR • DESPITE THE ADVANCEMENTS IN NUCLEAR TECNOLOGY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY STILL A MAJOR PORTION OF OUR ENERGY DEMANDS ARE MET BY THERMAL POWERPLANTS WHICH INTURN CAUSE GLOBAL WARMING
  9. 9. SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY • Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI): This is one aspect of the smart grid that you can already find in many homes and businesses. The aim is to take the mystery and guesswork out of personal energy consumption. Instead of just waiting for the bill or staring dumbfounded at the spinning dials on the power meter outside, users can now use wattage readers to check how much juice their appliances and gadgets use. In the future, this concept may go even further. Imagine checking the thermostat and watching price figures tick by. How might that affect your decision to crank the heat on a chilly evening? Giving users more information about the power they use empowers them to fine-tune their own conservation to cut out unnecessary waste.
  10. 10. VISUALIZATION TECHNOLOGY • This is the smart grid is the juggler of the future: an automated computer system capable of instantly responding to the ebb and flow of energy production and demand across the grid. The DOE cites one project in particular: Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth (VERDE) system, built on the Google Earth platform. In addition to VERDE, the DOE plans to use Phasor measurement units (PMU) to keep precise tabs on electrical usage throughout the smart grid and take the guesswork out of supplying adequate power. • If all goes according to plan, these two approaches will lead to a situation where both the user and the automated distributer of the electricity have far more information -- and therefore power -- over the flow of electricity. This, in turn, allows for more responsible expenditures all around -- from power generation plants to the home entertainment center at the end of the line.
  11. 11. SMART METER • A smart meter is a new kind of gas and electricity meter that can digitally send meter readings to your energy supplier. This can ensure more accurate energy bills. Smart meters also come with monitors, so you can better understand the nuances of meter readings
  12. 12. SELF HEALING GRID • Traditionally, utilities rely on phone calls from consumers to notify them of power disruptions. Then, ground crews are dispatched to investigate the outage and determine what measures must be conducted to correct it. Often, considerable time is spent traveling in an attempt to locate the source of the problem before any corrective measures can be undertaken. • Conversely, feeder line control sensors on smart grids are able to notify utilities immediately when a disruption occurs. More importantly, precise data on where the disruption is physically located directs crews immediately to the problem area. In many cases, power can be rerouted around a physical problem so that it is immediately restored. Again, this requires a SCADA system that is able to understand the data it is receiving quickly enough to make the necessary adjustments without human intervention. When the sensing equipment and accompanying SCADA system are robust enough, rerouting can often take place instantaneously without consumers ever knowing a problem occurred. Workers then have the necessary time to correct a problem without the pressure of restoring power to angry consumers.
  13. 13. BENEFITS OF SMART METER • More accurate bills Smart meters mean the end of estimated bills, the end of having to remember to provide meter readings and/or have a stranger come into your home to read your meter • Better understanding of your usage With the in-home display, you can see immediately and directly how your habits and lifestyle impact your energy usage and ultimately your energy bill. By making your energy usage more easily understood, you can make smarter decisions to save energy and money, including feeling more comfortable switching energy supplier. • Faster and easier energy switching Because your usage data is so easily accessible, the aim is to make energy switching as quick as just a half hour.
  14. 14. ROLE OF SCADA IN SMART GRID • The term smart grid elicits a mental image of a fully automated power distribution system, capable of monitoring usage and voltage levels, constantly making adjustments to keep everything running at optimal levels. This vision does encapsulate what a true smart grid is able to deliver, but load tap changers, capacitor banks and reclosers are not smart enough on their own to make At the core of smart grid decision making is SCADA, supervisory control and data acquisition. Line sensors and other connected equipment on a smart grid provide a stream of data back to a central control room where the information is analyzed and decisions are automatically made and executed, regulating voltage levels, optimizing efficiency, routing and generation. The SCADA system in the control room is able to make these automated decisions in real-time by running algorithms based on the data it receives and orchestrate adjustments to optimize voltages and self-heal any disruption issues. Adjustments; they have to be told when and how to respond.
  15. 15. HOW SAFE IS A SMART GRID • In order to protect electric infrastructure, several layers of security are needed to minimize disruptions to system operations. Layered security (or “defense in depth”) involves strategically combining multiple security technologies at each layer of a computing system in order to reduce the risk of unauthorized access due to the failure of any single security technology. It exponentially increases the cost and difficulty of compromising a system by creating a much stronger defense than the use of any individual component alone, thus reducing the likelihood of an attack.
  16. 16. THANK YOU
  17. 17. QUESTIONS PLEASE….

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